Click here to view the individual articles in this issue at http://www.ncte.org/cccc/ccc/issues/v56-4
Miller, Susan. “Review Essay: The Evidence of Our Sensibilities.” CCC 56.4 (2005): 688-700.
No abstract available.
- Berkenkotter, Carol, Thomas N. Huckin, and John Ackerman. â€œConventions, Conversations, and the Writer: Case Study of a Student in a Rhetoric Ph.D. Program.” Research in the Teaching of English 22.1 (1988): 9-41.
- Gilyard, Keith. Voices of the Self: A Study of Language Competence. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1991.
- Gonzalez, Norma. I Am My Language: Discourses of Women and Children in the Borderlands. Tucson: U of Arizona P, 2001.
- Robinson, Jay L. â€œLiteracy and Lived Lives: Reflections on the Responsibilities of Teachers.” Literacy and Democracy: Teacher Research and Composition Studies in Pursuit of Habitable Spaces: Further Conversations from the Students of Jay Robinson. Ed. Cathy Fleischer and David Schaafsma. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1998. 1-27.
- Rosaldo, Renato. â€œCultural Citizenship, Inequality, and Multiculturalism.” Latino Cultural Citizenship: Claiming Identity, Space, and Rights. Ed. William V. Fl ores and Ri na Benmayor. Boston: Beacon, 1997.
- Scott, Joan. â€œThe Evidence of Experience.” Critical Inquiry 17 (1991): 773-97. Rpt. in Questions of Evidence. Ed. James Chandler, Arnold I. Davidson, and Harry D. Harootunian. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1994. 363-400. Abridged as â€œExperience” in Feminists Theorize the Political. Ed. Joan Scott and Judith Butler. New York: Routledge, 1992. 22-40.
- Weedon, Chris. Feminist Practice and Poststructuralist Theory. Oxford: Blackwell, 1987.
Fulkerson, Richard. “Composition at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century.” CCC 56.4 (2005): 654-87.
I argue that examining two collections of essays designed for the preparation of new writing teachers and published twenty years apart provides some important clues to what has occurred to composition studies in the interval. Building on the framework I established in two previous CCC articles, I argue that composition studies has become a less unified and more contentious discipline early in the twenty-first century than it had appeared to be around 1990. The present article specifically addresses the rise of what I call critical/cultural studies, the quiet expansion of expressive approaches to teaching writing, and the split of rhetorical approaches into three: argumentation, genre analysis, and preparation for “the” academic discourse community.
Discipline Mapping Students Composition Writing Process Pedagogy Teaching Approaches Courses Genre CulturalStudies Argument Teachers Axiology Field Knowledge Expressivism Discourse
- Alcorn, Marshall W., Jr. Changing the Subject: Discourse and the Constructions of Desire. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2002.
- Anderson, Charles M., and Marian M. MacCurdy, eds. Writing and Healing: Toward an Informed Practice. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 2000.
- Annas, Pam. “Style as Politics: A Feminist Approach to the Teaching of Writing.” College English 47 (1985): 360-71.
- Axelrod, Rise B., and Charles R. Cooper. The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing. 4th ed. New York: St. Martin’s, 1994.
- Bakhtin, M. M. “The Problem of Speech Genres.” Speech Genres and Other Late Essays. Ed. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Trans. Vern W. McGee. Austin: U of Texas P, 1986. 60-102.
- Barnett, Timothy. Teaching Argument in the Composition Course: Background Readings. Boston: Bedford, 2002.
- Bartholomae, Donald. “Inventing the University.” When a Writer Can’t Write: Studies in Writer’s Block and Other Composing Process Problems. Ed. Mike Rose. New York: Guilford, 1985.
- Bartholomae, Donald, and Anthony Petrosky. Facts, Artifacts, and Counterfacts: Theory and Method for a Reading and Writing Course. Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton, 1986.
- Bawarshi, Anis. Genre and the Invention of the Writer: Reconsidering the Place of Invention in Composition. Logan: Utah State UP, 2003.
- Berkenkotter, Carol, and Thomas N. Huckin, eds. Genre Knowledge in Disciplinary Communication: Cognition/ Culture/Power. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1995.
- Berlin, James. “Composition and Cultural Studies.” Composition and Resistance. Ed. C. Mark Hurlbert and Michael Blitz. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton, 1991. 47-55.
- —. “Contemporary Composition: The Major Pedagogical Theories.” College English 44 (Dec. 1982): 765-77.
- Berlin, James, and Michael Vivion, eds. Cultural Studies in the English Classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton, 1992.
- Berman, Jeffrey. Risky Writing: SelfDisclosure and Self-Transformation in the Classroom. Amherst: U of Massachusetts P, 2002.
- Bishop, Wendy, and Hans Ostrom, eds. Genre and Writing: Issues, Arguments, Alternatives. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1997.
- Bizzell, Patricia, and Bruce Herzberg. Negotiating Difference: Cultural Case Studies for Composition. Boston: Bedford, 1996.
- Brand, Alice Glarden, and Richard L. Graves, eds. Presence of Mind: Writing and the Domain beyond the Cognitive. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton, 1994.
- Broad, Bob. What We Really Value: Beyond Rubrics in Teaching and Assessing Writing. Logan: Utah State UP, 2003.
- Bullock, Richard, and John Trimbur, eds. The Politics of Writing Instruction: Postsecondary. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton, 1991.
- Burnham, Christopher. “Expressive Pedagogy: Practice/Theory. Theory/ Practice.” Tate, Rupiper, and Schick 19- 35.
- Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs, and Kathleen Hall Jamieson. “Form and Genre in Rhetorical Criticism: An Introduction.” Form and Genre: Shaping Rhetorical Action. Ed. Karlyn Kohrs Campbell and Kathleen Hall Jamieson. Falls Church, VA: Speech Communication Assn., 1977. 9-32.
- Clark, Irene. The Genre of Argument. Fort Worth: Harcourt, 1998.
- Colombo, Gary, Robert Cullen, and Bonnie Lisle, eds. Rereading America: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing. 2nd ed. New York: Bedford, 1992.
- Connors, Robert. “The Rise and Fall of the Modes of Discourse.” CCC 32 (Dec. 1981): 444-63.
- Crusius, Timothy W., and Carolyn Channell. The Aims of Argument. 4th ed. Boston: McGraw, 2003.
- Donovan, Timothy R., and Ben W. McClelland, eds. Eight Approaches to Teaching Composition. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1980.
- Durst, Russel K. <i.Collision Course:=” Conflict=”, Negotiation=”, and=” Learning=” in=” College=” Composition.=” Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1999.
- Emig, Janet. The Composing Processes of Twelfth Graders. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1971.
- Emmel, Barbara, Paula C. Resch, and Deborah S. Tenney, eds. Argument Revisited, Argument Redefined: Negotiating Meaning in the Composition Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1996.
- Fahnestock, Jeanne, and Marie Secor. A Rhetoric of Argument. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw, 1990.
- —. “Teaching Argument: A Theory of Types.” CCC 34 (Feb. 1983): 20-30.
- Faigley, Lester. “Competing Theories of Process: A Critique and a Proposal.” College English 48 (Oct. 1986): 527-42.
- Faigley, Lester, and Jack Selzer. Good Reasons. 2nd ed. New York: Addison, 2003.
- Fitts, Karen, and Alan W. France, eds. Left Margins: Cultural Studies and Composition Pedagogy. Albany: SUNY P, 1995.
- Flower, Linda, and John R. Hayes. “A Cognitive Process Theory of Writing.” CCC 32 (Dec. 1981): 365-87.
- Foehr, Regina Paxton, and Susan A. Schiller, eds. The Spiritual Side of Writing: Releasing the Learner’s Whole Potential. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton, 1997.
- Foss, Sonya. Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration and Practice. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland, 1989.
- Freedman, Aviva, and Peter Medway, eds. Learning and Teaching Genre. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton, 1994.
- Fulkerson, Richard. “Composition in the Eighties.” CCC 41.4 (Dec. 1990): 409-29.
- —. “Newsweek ‘My Turn’ Columns and the Concept of Rhetorical Genre: A Preliminary Study.” Defining the New Rhetorics. Ed. Theresa Enos and Stuart Brown. Sage Series in Written Communication 7. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1993. 227-43.
- —. “Of Pre- and Post-Process: Reviews and Ruminations.” Composition Studies 29.2 (Fall 2001): 93-119.
- —. Teaching the Argument in Writing. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1996.
- — . “Technical Logic, Comp-Logic, and the Teaching of Writing.” CCC 39 (Dec. 1988): 436-52.
- George, Ann. “Critical Pedagogy: Dreaming of Democracy.” Tate, Rupiper, and Schick 92-112.
- George, Diana, and John Trimbur. Reading Culture. 5th ed. New York: Pearson, 2004.
- Graff, Gerald. Clueless in Academe: How Schooling Obscures the Life of the Mind. New Haven: Yale UP, 2003.
- Greenbaum, Andrea. Emancipatory Movements in Composition: The Rhetoric of Possibility. Albany: SUNY P, 2002.
- Hairston, Maxine. “Diversity, Ideology, and Teaching Writing.” CCC 43 (May 1992): 179-93.
- Heilker, Paul. The Essay: Theory and Pedagogy for an Active Form. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1996.
- Heimer, Carrie. “Forty-Eight Eyeballs.” What to Expect When You’re Expected to Teach. Ed. Anne Bramblett and Alison Knoblauch. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton, 2002. 11-14.
- Hunt, Douglas. Misunderstanding the Assignment: Teenage Students, College Writing, and the Pains of Growth. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton, 2002.
- Hurlbert, C. Mark, and Michael Blitz. Composition and Resistance. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton, 1991.
- Hyland, Ken. “Genre-Based Pedagogies: A Social Response to Process.” Journal of Second Language Writing 12 (2003): 17- 29.
- Jolliffe, David, Michael Keene, Mary Trachsel, and Ralph Voss, eds. Against the Grain: A Volume in Honor of Maxine Hairston. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton, 2002.
- Kent, Thomas. “Introduction.” Post-Process Theory: Beyond the Writing Process Paradigm. Ed. Thomas Kent. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1999.
- Levin, Harry. Prose Models: An Inductive Approach to Writing. New York: Harcourt, 1964.
- Lunsford, Andrea A., and John Ruszkiewicz. Everything’s an Argument. Boston: Bedford, 1999.
- McLemee, Scott. “Deconstructing Composition: The ‘New Theory Wars’ Break Out in an Unlikely Discipline.” Chronicle of Higher Education 21 Mar. 2003. A16-A17.
- Miller, Carolyn R. “Genre as Social Action.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 70 (May 1984): 151-67.
- Murray, Don. “Writing as Process: How Writing Finds Its Own Meaning.” Donovan and McClelland 3-20.
- North, Stephen M. The Making of Knowledge in Composition: Portrait of an Emerging Field. Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton, 1987.
- Paley, Karen Surman. I-Writing: The Politics and Practice of Teaching First-Person Writing. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2001.
- Perl, Sondra. “Writing Process: A Shining Moment.” Landmark Essays on Writing Process. Ed. Sondra Perl. Davis, CA: Hermagoras, 1994. xi-xx.
- Porter, Jim. Audience and Rhetoric. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1992.
- Ramage, John, John Bean, and June Johnson. Writing Arguments. 6th ed. New York: Pearson, 2004.
- Rottenberg, Annette T. Elements of Argument. 6th ed. Boston: Bedford, 2000.
- Shor, Ira. Empowering Education: Critical Teaching for Social Change. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1987.
- Sommers, Nancy. “Revision Strategies of Student Writers and Experienced Adult Writers.” CCC 31 (Dec. 1980): 378-88.
- Spellmeyer, Kurt. Common Ground: Dialogue, Understanding, and the Teaching of Composition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice, 1993.
- Straub, Richard. The Practice of Response: Strategies for Commenting on Student Writing. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton, 2000.
- Straub, Richard, and Ronald Lunsford. Twelve Readers Reading: Responding to College Student Writing. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton, 1995.
- “Students’ Right to Their Own Language.” Spec. issue of CCC 25 (Fall 1974).
- Tate, Gary. “Empty Pedagogical Spaces and Silent Students.” Fitts and France 269- 73.
- Tate, Gary, Amy Rupiper, and Kurt Schick, eds. A Guide to Composition Pedagogies. New York: Oxford, 2001.
- Tobin, Lad. “Process Pedagogy.” Tate, Rupiper, and Schick 1-18.
- Trimbur, John. The Call to Write. 1st and 2nd eds. New York: Longman, 1999, 2002.
- —. “Composition Studies: Postmodern or Popular.” Into the Field: Sites of Composition Studies. Ed. Anne Ruggles Gere. New York: MLA, 1993. 117-32.
- — . “Cultural Studies and the Teaching of Writing.” Focuses 1.2 (1988): 5-18.
- — . “Taking the Social Turn: Teaching Writing Post-Process.” CCC 45.1 (1994): 108-18.
- Trimbur, John, and Diana George. “Cultural Studies and Composition.” Tate, Rupiper and Schick 71-92.
- Trimbur, John, et al. “Reply to Maxine Hairston: Diversity, Ideology, and Teaching Writing.” CCC 44.2 (1993): 248-55.
- Weisser, Christian R. Moving beyond Academic Discourse: Composition Studies and the Public Sphere. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2002.
- Williams, Joseph M., and Gregory G. Colomb. The Craft of Argument 2nd ed. New York: Addison, 2003.
- “WPA Outcomes Statement for First-Year Composition.” WPA: Writing Program Administration 23.1/2 (Fall/Winter 1999): 59-66.
- Young, Richard. “Paradigms and Problems: Needed Research in Rhetorical Invention.” Research on Composing: Points of Departure. Ed. Charles R. Cooper and Lee Odell. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1978. 29-47.
You, Xiaoye. “Ideology, Textbooks, and the Rhetoric of Production in China.” CCC 56.4 (2005): 632-53.
This article examines a writing textbook published in the People’s Republic of China over two editions. I will argue that competing ideologies have constantly and in multifold manners dictated the ways this textbook was produced, disseminated, consumed, and reproduced: the rhetoric for a textbook’s production and existence.
Textbooks Composition Ideology Writing China Students Rhetoric Production Market Society Economy
- Althusser, Louis. Lenin and Philosophy. London: New Left Books, 1971.
- Berlin, James. Rhetoric and Reality: Writing Instruction in American Colleges, 1900- 1985. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1987.
- Brereton, John C. The Origins of Composition Studies in the American College, 1875-1925: A Documentary History. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1995.
- Brody, Miriam. Manly Writing: Gender, Rhetoric, and the Rise of Composition. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1993.
- Clifford, John. “The Subject in Discourse.” Contending with Words: Composition and Rhetoric in a Postmodern Age. Ed. Patricia Harkin and John Schilb. New York: MLA, 1991. 38-51.
- Connors, Robert. “The Rise and Fall of the Modes of Discourse.” CCC 32 (1981): 444-463.
- DeShazer, Mary K. “Reply by Mary DeShazer.” CCC 34 (1983): 490-91.
- — . “Sexist Language in Composition Textbooks: Still a Major Issue?” CCC 32 (1981): 57-64.
- Ding, Wangdao, Bing Wu, Meisun Zhang, and Qiqing Guo. <I?Yingyu Xiezuo=” Shouce=” [A=” Handbook=” of=” Writing=”].=” Rev. ed. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research P, 1994.
- Ding, Wangdao, Bing Wu, Zhongzai Zhang, Taijin Zhang, Dezhang Cheng, and Jiansheng Guo. Yingyu Xiezuo Shouce [A College Handbook of Composition]. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research P, 1984.
- Faigley, Lester. Fragments of Rationality: Postmodernity and the Subject of Composition. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1992.
- Gale, Xin Liu, and Fredric G. Gale, eds. (Re)Visioning Composition Textbooks: Conflicts of Culture, Ideology, and Pedagogy. Albany: SUNY P, 1999.
- Hawhee, Debra. “Composition History and the Harbrace College Handbook.” CCC 50 (1999): 504-23.
- Hu, Shiming, and Eli Seifman, eds. Education and Socialist Modernization: A Documentary History of Education in the People’s Republic of China, 1977- 1986. New York: AMS, 1987.
- Li, Liangyou, Risheng Zhang, and Li Liu.Zhangguo Yingyu Jiaoxue Shi [A History of English Language Teaching in China]. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education P, 1988.
- Link, Perry. The Uses of Literature: Life in the Socialist Chinese Literary System. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2000.
- Liu, Kang. Aesthetics and Marxism: Chinese Aesthetic Marxists and Their Western Contemporaries. Durham: Duke UP, 2000.
- McKay, Sandra Lee. “Examining L2 Composition Ideology: A Look at Literacy Education.” Journal of Second Language Writing 2 (1993): 65-81.
- McMurtry, John Murray. The Structure of Marx’s World-View. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1978.
- Meisner, Maurice. The Deng Xiaoping Era: An Inquiry into the Fate of Chinese Socialism 1978-1994. New York: Hill, 1996.
- —. Marxism, Maoism, and Utopianism: Eight Essays. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1982.
- Miles, Elizabeth. “Building Rhetorics of Production: An Institutional Critique of Composition Textbook Publishing.” Diss. Purdue U, 1999.
- Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China. “[Congratulatory Telegraph from Ministry of Education of People’s Republic of China for the Sixtieth Anniversary of the Establishment of Beijing Foreign Studies University].” Online posting. 20 Sept. 2001. 30 Oct. 2001 http:// www.bfsu.edu.cn/department/xqxw/ xq/default.htm.
- Ramanathan, Vai, and Dwight Atkinson. “Individualism, Academic Writing, and ESL Writers.” <i.Journal of=”” Second=”” Language=”” Writing=”” 8 (1999): 45-75.
- Reynolds, Nedra. “Composition’s Imagined Geographies: The Politics of Space in the Frontier, City, and Cyberspace.” CCC 50 (1998): 12-35.
- Trimbur, John. “Essayist Literacy and the Rhetoric of Deproduction.” Rhetoric Review 9 (1990): 72-86.
- Wang, James C. F. Contemporary Chinese Politics: An Introduction. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice, 1999.
- Welch, Kathleen E. “Ideology and Freshman Textbook Production: The Place of Theory in Writing Pedagogy.” CCC 38 (1987): 269-82.
- Winterowd, W. Ross. “Composition Textbooks: Publisher-Author Relationships.” CCC 40 (1989): 139-51.
- Xinhua News Agency. “Nation Drafts FiveYear Blueprint.” China Daily 6 Mar. 2001: 1.
- Xu, George Q. “Instruction of EFL Composition in China.” 1989. ERIC ED304019.
- Zavarzadeh, Mas’ud, and Donald Morton. Theory as Resistance: Politics and Culture after (Post)structuralism. New York: Guilford, 1994.
Ritter, Kelly. “The Economics of Authorship: Online Paper Mills, Student Writers, and First-Year Composition.” CCC 56.4 (2005): 601-31.
Using sample student analyses of online paper mill Web sites, student survey responses, and existing scholarship on plagiarism, authorship, and intellectual property, this article examines how the consumerist rhetoric of the online paper mills construes academic writing as a commodity for sale, and why such rhetoric appeals to students in first-year composition, whose cultural disconnect from the academic system of authorship increasingly leads them to patronize these sites.
Students Papers Authorship Writing Online Plagiarism PaperMills Composition Author Research Sources Internet Culture Essays Property
- “About Us.” Swap Termpapers Web site. 2002. 16 Apr. 2005 http://www.swap termpapers.com/aboutus.htm. Authentic Essays Web site. 2003. 16 Nov. 2003 http://www.AuthenticEssays.com.
- Edmunson, Mark. “How Teachers Can Stop Cheaters.” New York Times 9 Sept. 2003: A29.
- Fain, Margaret, and Peggy Bates. “Cheating 101: Paper Mills and You.” 27 Jan. 2005. 12 Apr. 2005 http://www.coastal.edu/ library/presentations/papermil.html.
- Foster, Andrea. “Plagiarism Detection Tool Creates Legal Quandary.” Chronicle of Higher Education 17 May 2002: A37+.
- Genius Papers Web site. N.d. 16 Nov. 2003 http://www.GeniusPapers.com.
- Horner, Bruce. “Students, Authorship, and the Work of Composition.” College English 59.5 (1997): 505-29.
- Howard, Rebecca Moore. “The Ethics of Plagiarism.” The Ethics of Writing Instruction: Issues in Theory and Practice. Ed. Michael A. Pemberton. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 2000: 79-90.
- —. “Plagiarisms, Authorships, and the Academic Death Penalty.” College English 57.7 (1995): 788-806.
- — . Standing in the Shadow of Giants: Plagiarists, Authors, Collaborators. Stamford, CT: Ablex, 1999.
- Lohr, Steve. “In the Age of Internet, Whatever Will Be Will Be Free.” New York Times 14 Sept. 2003, sec. 4: 1+.
- Lunsford, Andrea, and Susan West. “Intellectual Property and Composition Studies.” CCC 47.3 (1996): 383-411.
- McCabe, Donald L., Linda Klebe Trevino, and Kenneth D. Butterfield. “Dishonesty in Academic Environments: The Influence of Peer Reporting Requirements.” Journal of Higher Education 72.1 (2001): 29-45.
- McCollum, Kelly. “One Way to Get into College: Buy an Essay That Worked for Someone Else.” Chronicle of Higher Education 28 Feb. 1997: A25-A26.
- McHenry, William. “Reflections on the Internet Paper Mills.” 1998. 15 Jan. 2002 http://www.Georgetown.edu/honor/ Papermill.html.
- Mohr-Corrigan, Lori. “Role of Women: Renaissance and Today.” Purchased from the Paper Store.
- Moore, Thomas H. “Colleges Try New Ways to Thwart Companies that Sell Term Papers.” Chronicle of Higher Education 9 Nov. 1988: A1+.
- Pemberton, Michael. “Threshold of Desperation: Winning the Fight against Term Paper Mills.” Writing Instructor 11.3 (Spring/Summer 1992): 143-52.
- Price, Margaret. “Beyond ‘Gotcha!’: Situating Plagiarism in Policy and Pedagogy.” CCC 54.1 (2002): 88-115.
- Roy, Alice M. “Whose Words These Are I Think I Know: Plagiarism, the Postmodern, and Faculty Attitudes.” Perspectives on Plagiarism and Intellectual Property in a Postmodern World. Ed. Lise Buranen and Alice M. Roy. Albany, NY: SUNY P, 1999. 55-61.
- Sanjek, David. “‘Don’t Have to DJ No More’: Sampling and the ‘Autonomous’ Creator.” The Construction of Authorship: Textual Appropriation in Law and Literature. Ed. Martha Woodmansee and Peter Jaszi. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1994: 343-60.
- Spigelman, Candace. Across Property Lines: Textual Ownership in Writing Groups. Studies in Writing and Rhetoric. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2000.
- Whitaker, Elaine. “A Pedagogy to Address Plagiarism.” CCC 44.4 (1993): 509-14.
- White, Edward M. “Student Plagiarism as an Institutional and Social Issue.” Perspectives on Plagiarism and Intellectual Property in a Postmodern World. Ed. Lise Buranen and Alice Roy. Albany: SUNY Press, 1999: 205-10.
- Woodmansee, Martha. “Introduction.” The Construction of Authorship: Textual Appropriation in Law and Literature. Ed. Martha Woodmansee and Peter Jaszi. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 1994. 1-14.
- Young, Jeffrey R. “The Cat-and-Mouse Game of Plagiarism Detection.” Chronicle of Higher Education 6 July 2001: A26-A27.
White, Edward M. “The Scoring of Writing Portfolios: Phase 2.” CCC 56.4 (2005): 581-600.
Although most portfolio evaluation currently uses some adaptation of holistic scoring, the problems with scoring portfolios holistically are many, much more than for essays, and the problems are not readily resolvable. Indeed, many aspects of holistic scoring work against the principles behind portfolio assessment. We have from the start needed a scoring methodology that responds to and reflects the nature of portfolios, not merely an adaptation of essay scoring. I here propose a means for scoring portfolios that allows for relatively efficient grading where portfolio scores are needed and where time and money are in short supply. It is derived conceptually from portfolio theory rather than essay-testing theory and supports the key principle behind portfolios, that students should be involved with reflection about and assessment of their own work. It is time for the central role that reflective writing can play in portfolio scoring to be put into practice.
Portfolios Assessment Goals Writing Students ReflectiveLetter Program Faculty Grades Holistic Reflection
- Belanoff, Pat, and Marcia Dickson, eds. Portfolios: Process and Product. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton, 1991.
- Belanoff, Pat, and Peter Elbow. “Using Portfolios to Increase Collaboration and Community in a Writing Program.” WPA: Writing Program Administration 9.3 (1986): 27-40. Rpt. in Belanoff and Dickson 17-36.
- Black, Laurel, Donald Daiker, Jeffrey Sommers, and Gail Stygall, eds. New Directions in Portfolio Assessment: Reflective Practice, Critical Theory, and Large-Scale Scoring. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton, 1994.
- Diederich, Paul Bernard. Measuring Growth in English. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1974.
- Hamp-Lyons, Liz, and William Condon. Assessing the Portfolio: Principles for Practice, Theory, and Research. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton, 2000.
- Haswell, Richard H., ed. Beyond Outcomes: Assessment and Instruction within a University Writing Program. Westport, CT: Ablex, 2001.
- Larson, Richard L. “Portfolios in the Assessment of Writing: A Political Perspective.” White, Lutz, and Kamusikiri 271-83.
- White, Edward M. “An Apologia for the Timed Impromptu Essay Test.” CCC 46.1 (Feb. 1995): 30-45.
- — . Teaching and Assessing Writing: Recent Advances in Understanding, Evaluating, and Improving Student Performance. 2nd ed. San Francisco: Jossey, 1994.
- White, Edward M., William Lutz, and Sandra Kamusikiri, eds. Assessment of Writing: Politics, Policies, Practices. New York: MLA, 1996.
- Williamson, Michael, and Brian Huot, eds. Validating Holistic Scoring for Writing Assessment: Theoretical and Empirical Foundations. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton, 1993.
- Yancey, Kathleen Blake, ed. Portfolios in the Writing Classroom: An Introduction. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1992.
- — . Reflection in the Writing Classroom. Logan: Utah State UP, 1998.
- Yancey, Kathleen Blake, and Brian Huot. Assessing Writing Across the Curriculum: Diverse Approaches and Practices. Greenwich, CT: Ablex, 1997.
- Yancey, Kathleen Blake, and Irwin Weiser, eds. Situating Portfolios: Four Perspectives. Logan: Utah State UP, 1997.
McLeod, Susan, Heather Horn, and Richard H. Haswell. “Accelerated Classes and the Writers at the Bottom: A Local Assessment Story.” CCC 56.4 (2005): 556-80.
Assessment, including writing assessment, is a form of social action. Because standardized tests can be used to reify the social order, local assessments that take into account specific contexts are more likely to yield useful information about student writers. This essay describes one such study, a multiple-measure comparison of accelerated summer courses with nonaccelerated courses. We began with the assumption that the accelerated courses would probably not be as effective as the longer courses; but our assessment found that assumption largely to be incorrect. Contextual information made it clear that students were taking summer accelerated courses strategically, for reasons we had been unaware of and in ways that forced us to reinterpret their writing and our courses.
AcceleratedCourses Students Summer Writing WritingCourses Study Assessment
- Allen, Michael S., and Barbara Sherr Roswell. “Self-Evaluation in Holistic Assessment.” 1989. ERIC, ED303809.
- American Psychological Assn. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 5th ed. Washington, DC: APA, 2001.
- Charney, Davida. “The Validity of Using Holistic Scoring to Evaluate Writing: A Critical Overview.” Research in the Teaching of English 18.1 (1984): 65-85.
- David, Carol, and Donna Stine. “Measuring Skill Gains and Attitudes of Adult Writers in Short Courses.” ABCA Bulletin 47.1 (1984): 14-20.
- Feirn, Mary. “Writing in Health Science: A Short Course for Grad Nursing.” Writing Lab Newsletter 13.5 (1980): 5-8.
- Flacks, Richard. “How Engaged Are UC Students in the Academic Life of the University?” Learning and Academic Engagement in the Multiversity: Results of the First University of California Undergraduate Experience Surveys. Berkeley, CA: Center for Studies in Higher Education, 2004.
- Flacks, Richard, and Scott L. Thomas. “Among Affluent Students, a Culture of Disengagement.” Chronicle of Higher Education 27 Nov. 1998: A48.
- Freedman, Sarah Warshauer. “Influences on Evaluators of Expository Essays: Beyond the Text.” Research in the Teaching of English 15.3 (1981): 245-55.
- Haswell, Richard H., ed. Beyond Outcomes: Assessment and Instruction within a University Writing Program. Westport, CT: Ablex, 2001.
- Herrnstein, Richard J., and Charles Murray. The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. New York: Free P, 1999.
- Hillocks, George, Jr. The Testing Trap: How State Writing Assessments Control Learning. New York: Teachers College P, 2002.
- Huot, Brian. (Re)Articulating Writing Assessment for Teaching and Learning. Logan: Utah State UP, 2002.
- Jenson, Richard M. “Can Growth in Writing Be Accelerated? An Assessment of Regular and Accelerated College Composition Courses.” Research in the Teaching of English 26.2 (1992): 194-210.
- Kirkman, John. “Short Courses on Effective Communication.” Journal of Technical Writing and Communication 4.1 (1974): 23-32.
- Kostelnick, Charles. “Training in Context Using Participants’ Writing in ShortTerm Seminars.” ABCA Bulletin 52.1 (1989): 14-16.
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