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College Composition and Communication, Vol. 45, No. 2, May 1994

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Reynolds, Nedra, et al. “Review: Fragments in Response: An Electronic Discussion of Lester Faigley’s Fragments of Rationality.” CCC 45.2 (1994): 264-273.

Berthoff, Ann E., Beth Daniell, JoAnn Campbell, C. Jan Swearingen, and James Moffett. “Interchanges: Spiritual Sites of Composing.” CCC 45.2 (1994): 237-263.

Haswell, Richard and Susan Wyche-Smith. “Adventuring into Writing Assessment.” CCC 45.2 (1994): 220-236.


The authors discuss what they deem a “success story” of how they and writing faculty reclaimed their land grant university’s assessment program. They offer the narrative of their work in contrast to what they perceive as a stereotyped story of teachers victimized by administrative interests. They claim the “moral is that writing teachers should be leery of assessment tools made by others” but “should, and can, make their own.”


ccc45.2 Students Assessment Writing Exams PlacementExam Teachers Literature Courses Readers University Holistic Testing

Works Cited

Anson, Chris M., and Robert L. Brown, Jr. “Large-Scale Portfolio Assessment.” Belanoff and Dixon 248-69.
Baker, Eva L. and Edys Quellmalz. Results of pilot Studies: Effects of Variations in Writing Task Stimuli on the Analysis of Student Writing Performance. Studies in Measurement and Methodology No.2: Effects of Topic Familiarity. EDRS No. ED213728, 1979.
Barritt, Loren, Patricia L. Stock, and Francelia Clark. “Researching Practice: Evaluating Assessment Essays.” CCC 37 (1986): 315-27.
Belanoff, Pat. “The Myths of Assessment.” Journal of Basic Writing 10 (1991): 54-67.
Belanoff, Pat, and Marcia Dickson, eds. Portfolios: Process and Product. Portsmouth: Boynton/Cook, 1991.
Bernhardt, Stephen A. “Text Revisions by Basic Writers: From Impromptu First Draft to Take-Home Revision.” Research in the Teaching of English 22 (1988): 266-80.
Bizzell, Patricia. “Composing Processes: An Overview.” The Teaching of Writing. 85th Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education (Pan II). Ed. Anthony R. Petrosky and David Bartholomae. Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education, 1986.49-70.
Boomer, Garth. “Assessment of Writing.” Directions and Misdirections in English Evaluation. Ed. Peter J. A. Evans. Toronto: Canadian Council of Teachers of English, 1985. 63-64.
Braddock, Richard, Richard Lloyd-Jones, and Lowell Schoer. Research in Written Composition. Champaign: NCTE, 1963.
Breland, Hunter M., et al. Assessing Writing Skill. Research Monograph No. 11. New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 1987.
— and Roberta J. Jones. “Perceptions of Writing Skills.” Written Communication 1 (1984): 101-19.
Brooks, Elaine. Interviews with Students and Colleagues: What Can We Learn? EDRS No. ED314958, 1989.
Brossell, Gordon and Barbara Hoetker Ash. “An Experiment with the Wording of Essay Topics.” CCC 35 (1984): 423-25.
Caroll, Karen and Sandra Murphy. A Study of the Construction of the Meanings of a Writing Prompt by Its Authors, the Student Writers, and the Raters. EDRS No. ED230576, 1982.
Charney, Davida. “The Validity of Using Holistic Scoring to Evaluate Writing: A Critical Overview.” Research in the Teaching of English 18 (1984): 65-81.
Clark, Michael. “Evaluating Writing in an Academic Setting.” fforum: Essays on Theory and Practice in the Teaching of Writing. Ed. Patricia Stock. Upper Montclair: Boynton/Cook, 1983.59-79.
Cohen, Elaine, et al. Approaches to Predicting Student Success: Findings and Recommendations from a Study of California Community Colleges. EDRS No. ED310808, 1989.
Condon, William, and Liz Hamp-Lyons. “Introducing a Portfolio-Based Writing Assessment.” Belanoff and Dickson 231-47.
Elbow, Peter, and Pat Belanoff. “Portfolios as a Substitute for Proficiency Examinations.” College Communication and Composition 37 (Oct. 1986): 336-39.
Ewell, Peter. “To Capture the Ineffable: New Forms of Assessment in Higher Education.” Review of Research in Higher Education 17 (1991): 75-125.
Feldhusen, John E, Kevin Hynes, and Carole A. Ames. “Is a Lack of Instructional Validity Contributing to the Decline of Achievement Test Scores?” The Test Score Decline: Meaning and Issues. Ed. Lawrence Lipsitz. Englewood Cliffs: Educational Technology Publications, 1977. 87-96.
Fitzgerald, Kathryn. “Rhetorical Implications of School Discourse for Writing Placement.” Journal of Basic Writing 7 (1988): 61-72.
Freedman, Sara Warshauer, and William S. Robinson. “Testing Proficiency in Writing at San Francisco State University.” CCC 33 (1982): 393-98.
Gorman, Thomas P., Alan C. Purves, and R. E. Degenhart. The LEA Study of Written Composition I: The International Writing Tasks and Scoring Scales. Vol. 5 of International Studies in Educational Achievement. Oxford: Pergamon, 1988.
Haswell, Richard. Contrasting Ways to Appraise Improvement in a Writing Course: Paired Comparison and Holistic. EDRS No. ED294315, 1989.
Haswell, Richard, Lisa Johnson-Shull, and Susan Wyche-Smith. “Shooting Niagara: Making Portfolio Assessment Serve Instruction at a State University.” Conference on New Directions in Portfolio Assessment. Miami OR, October 1992.
Hoetker, James, Gordon Brassell, and Barbara Hoetker Ash. Creating Essay Examination Topics. Tallahassee: Florida State Department of Education, 1981.
Huot, Brian. “Reliability, Validity, and Holistic Scoring: What We Know and What We Need to Know.” CCC 41 (1990): 201-13.
Johns, Ann M. “Interpreting an English Competency Examination: The Frustrations of an ESL Science Student.” Written Communication 8 (1991): 379-401.
Livingston, Samuel. The Effects of Time Limits on the Quality of Student- Written Essays. EDRS No. ED286936, 1980.
Loofbourrow, Peggy T. Composition in the Context of CAP: A Case Study of the Interplay Between Assessment and School Life. Berkeley: National Center for the Study of Writing and Literacy, 1992.
Lucas, Catherine Keech. “Toward Ecological Evaluation.” The Quarterly 10 (1988) no. 1:1-3, 12-17; no. 2: 4-10.
—. “Unexpected Direction of Change in Writing Performance.” Properties of Writing Tasks: A Study of Alternative Procedures for Holistic Writing Assessment. Ed. Leo Ruth. EDRS No. ED230576, 1982. 473-568.
Millward, Jody. “Placement and Pedagogy: UC Santa Barbara’s Preparatory Program. Journal of Basic Writing 9 (1990): 99-113.
Morante, Edward A. “A Primer on Placement Testing.” Issues in Student Assessment. New Directions for Community Colleges No. 59. Ed. Dorothy Bray and Marcia J. Belcher. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1987. 55-63.
Peyton, Joy Kreeft, et al. “The Influence of Writing Task on ESL Students’ Written production.” Research in the Teaching of English 24 (1990): 142-71.
Plasse, Lorraine A. The Influence of Audience on the Assessment of Student Writing. EDRS No. ED229760, 1982.
Quellmalz, Edys S. “Designing Writing Assessments: Balancing Fairness, Utility, and Cost.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 6 (1984): 63-72.
Raforth, Bennett A. “Audience and Information.” Research in the Teaching of English 23 (1989): 273-90.
Roemer, Marjorie, Lucille M. Schultz, and Russel K. Durst. ” Portfolios and the Process of Change .” CCC 42 (1991): 455-69.
Ruth, Leo, and Sandra Murphy. Designing Tasks for the Assessment of Writing. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1988.
Scharton, Maurice. “Models of Competence: Responses to a Scenario Writing Assignment.” Research in the Teaching of English 23 (1989): 163-80.
Smith, Laura, et al. Characteristics of Student Writing Competence: An Investigation of Alternative Scoring Systems. Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles Center for the Study of Evaluation, 1980.
Smith, William L. “Teachers Informing Placement Testing: A New Method Based on Teacher Expertise.” Conference on College Composition and Communication. Cincinnati, April, 1992.
Stock, Patricia, and Jay L. Robinson. “Taking on Testing: Teachers as Tester- Researchers.” English Education 19 (1987): 93-121.
White, Edward. “The Damage of Innovations Set Adrift.” Bulletin of the American Association for Higher Education 43 (1990): 3-5.
White, Edward, and Leon Thomas. “Racial Minorities and Writing Skills Assessment in the California State University and Colleges.” College English 43 (1981): 276-83.
Wiener, Harvey S. “Evaluating Assessment Programs in Basic Skills.” Journal of Developmental Education 13 (Winter 1989): 24-26.
Winters, Lynn. The Effects of Differing Response Criteria on the Assessment of Writing Competence. EDRS No. ED212659, 1982.

Smith, Jeff. “Against ‘Illegeracy’: Toward a New Pedagogy of Civic Understanding.” CCC 45.2 (1994): 200-219.


Smith proposes a solution to what he deems the lack of comprehensive and operative clout of the concept of illiteracy. Illiteracy fails to adequately describe a larger cultural failure in education and mass media. He proposes the word illegeracy as a multivalent solution. Illegeracy, he argues is more inclusive than the word illiteracy to describe “a missing skill, an unhappy state and a social (in)action that follows in consequence.” Furthermore he claims illegeracy applies to a wider berth of citizens, not just to students. Three problems that contribute to illegeracy are an inability to read, a failure to see choices, and an abdicating of political power.


ccc45.2 Students Issues People System Government Society Illegeracy Questions Problems Knowledge Teachers Citizens Media Writing Community Civic Pedagogy

Works Cited

Berman, Paul. “Introduction: The Debate and its Origins.” Debating P.c. Ed. Paul Berman. New York: Dell, 1992. 1-26.
Colombo, Gary, Robert Cullen, and Bonnie Lisle, eds. Re-Reading America: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing. 2nd ed. New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 1992.
Dionne, E.J., Jr. Why Americans Hate Politics. New York: Simon, 1991.
Fulghum, Robert. All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten. New York: Knopf, 1989.
Greider, William. Who Will Tell the People: The Betrayal of American Democracy. New York: Simon, 1992.
Hirsch, E.D., Jr. Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know. Boston: Houghton, 1987.
Lazere, Donald. “Teaching the Political Conflicts: A Rhetorical Schema.” CCC 43 (1992): 194-213.
Rose, Mike. “What’s Wrong with Remedy: A College Try.” Los Angeles Times 23 April 1989: Opinion 1, 3.
Rothman, Donald, “Caliban in the Composition Classroom.” The Right to Literacy. Ed. Andrea Lunsford, Helene Moglen, and James Slevin. New York: MLA, 1990. 12027.
Sledd, Andrew. “Readin’ Not Riotin’: The Politics of Literacy.” College English 50 (1988): 495-508.
“Understanding the Riots-Six Months Later.” Series of articles. Los Angeles Times 16-20 Nov. 1992: Sec JJ.
Wolff, Robert Paul. “A Discourse on Grading.” The Ideal of the University. Boston: Beacon, 1969. 58-68.

Glenn, Cheryl. “Sex, Lies, and Manuscript: Refiguring Aspasia in the History of Rhetoric.” CCC 45.2 (1994): 180-199.


Glenn reconstructs the life and rhetoric of Aspasia of Miletus, a woman rhetor of the firth century BCE as part of a larger project in challenging dominant contemporary rhetorical history and theory that neglects women. Against lists and indices of primary works in rhetorical history do not mention women, many have assumed women have not been involved in rhetorical history. A remapping of such unquestioned scholarship is necessary for a more gender representative “understanding of rhetorics of the past [that] underwrites our capacity for further theorizing.”


ccc45.2 BraddockAward Aspasia Pericles Rhetoric Women Socrates History Athens Men Plato Oration Speech Funeral Truth Xenophon Polis Politics Power Tradition Influence

Works Cited

Aristophanes. The Archarnians. Trans. Douglass Parker. Four Comedies. Ed. William Arrowsmith. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1969. 99-112.
Aristotle. Politics. Trans. H. Rackman. Cambridge: Loeb-Harvard UP, 1977.
—. The Rhetoric and Poetics of Aristotle. Trans. W. Rhys Robens and Ingram Bywater. New York: Modern Library, 1984.
Athenaeus. The Deipnosophists. Trans. C’harles Bunon Gulick. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1967.
Ballif, Michelle. “Re/Dressing Histories; Or, On Re/Covering Figures Who Have Been Laid Bare by Our Gaze.” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 22 (1992): 91-98.
Biesecker, Barbara. “Coming to Terms with Recent Attempts to Write Women into the History of Rhetoric.” Philosophy and Rhetoric 25 (1992): 140-61.
Bizzell, Patricia. “Opportunities for Feminist Research in the History of Rhetoric.” Rhetoric Review II (1992): 50-58.
—. “The Praise of Folly, The Woman Rhetor, and Post-Modern Skepticism.” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 22 (1992): 7-17.
Bizzell, Patricia, and Bruce Herzberg. The Rhetorical Tradition: Readings from Classical Times to the Present. Boston: Bedford-St. Martin’s, 1990.
Blair, Carole. “Contested Histories of Rhetoric: The Politics of Preservation, Progress, and Change.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 78 (1992): 403-28.
—, and Mary L. Kahl. “Introduction: Revising the History of Rhetorical Theory.” Western Journal of Speech Communication 54 (1990): 148-59.
Bloedow. Edmund F. “Aspasia and the ‘Mystery’ of the Menexenos.” Wiener Studien (Zeitschrift fur Klassiche Philologie und Patristic) Neu Folge 9 (1975): 32-48.
Cantarella, Eva. Pandora’s Daughters. 1981. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1987.
Cicero. De Inventione, De Optimo Genere, Oratorum, Topica. Trans. H. M. Hubbell. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1976. 1-348.
—. De Oratore. 2 vols. Trans. E. W. Sutton. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1979.
Cole, Susan Guettel. “Could Greek Women Read and Write?” Foley 219-45.
Corbett, Edward P. J. Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford UP, 1990.
Courtney, William. “Sappho and Aspasia.” Fortnightly Review 97 (1912): 488-95.
Delcourt, Marie. Pericles. N.p.: Gallemard, 1939.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke. Public Man, Private Woman. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1987.
Ferguson, Margaret W., Maureen Quilligan, and Nancy J. Vickers, eds. Rewriting the Renaissance. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1986.
Flaceliere, Robert. Love in Ancient Greece. 1960. Trans. James Cleugh. London: Frederick Muller, 1962.
Foley, Helene P. Reflections of Women in Antiquity. New York: Gordon, 1981.
Glenn, Cheryl. “Author, Audience, and Autobiography: Rhetorical Technique in The Book of Margery Kempe.” College English 53 (1992): 540-53.
—. Rhetoric Retold: Regendering the Tradition from Antiquity through the Renaissance. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, forthcoming.
Gutherie, W. K. C. A History of Greek Philosophy. 6 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 1969.
Halperin, David M. One Hundred Years of Homosexuality. New York: Routledge, 1990.
Harris, William V. Ancient Literacy. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1989.
Jarratt, Susan C. “The First Sophists and Feminism: Discourses of the ‘Other:” Hypatia 5 (1990): 27-41.
—. “Performing Feminisms, Histories, Rhetorics.” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 22 (1992): 1-6.
—. Rereading the Sophists: Classical Rhetoric Refigured. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1991.
Jarratt, Susan L., and Rory Ong. “Aspasia: Rhetoric, Gender, and Colonial Ideology.” Lunsford, Reclaiming Rhetorica, in press.
Jehlen, Myra. “Archimedes and the Paradox of Feminist Criticism.’ Warhol and Herndl. 75-96.
Just, Roger. Women in Athenian Law and Life. London: Routledge, 1989.
Kelly, Joan. “The Social Relation of the Sexes.” Kelly 1-18.
—. Women, History, and Theory: The Essays of Joan Kelly. Chicago: U of Chicago P. 1984.
Keuls, Eva C. The Reign of the Phallus. New York: Harper, 1985.
Kirk, G. S.. and J. E. Raven. The Presocratic Philosophers. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1962.
Kitto, H. D. F. The Greeks. Middlesex: Penguin, 1951.
Kneupper, Charles, ed. Rhetoric and Ideology: Compositions and Criticisms of Power. Arlington: Rhetoric Society of America. 1989.
Laqueur, Thomas. Making Sex. Cambridge: Harvard UP. 1990.
Licht, Hans [Paul Brandt]. Sexual Life in Ancient Greece. London: Abbey Library, 1932.
Loraux, Nicole. The Invention of Athens. Trans. Alan Sheridan. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1986.
Lunsford, Andrea A., ed. Reclaiming Rhetorica. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, in press.
Mackin, James A., Jr. ‘Schismogenesis and Community: Pericles’ Funeral Oration.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 77 (1991): 25162.
Moncrieff, C. K. The Letters of Abelard and Heloise. New York: Knopf. 1942.
Nye, Andrea. “A Woman’s Thought or a Man’s Discipline? The Letters of Abelard and Heloise.” Hypatia 7 (1992): 1-22.
Ober, Josiah. Mass and Elite in Democratic Athens. Princeton: Princeton Up, 1989.
Peaden, Catherine. “Feminist Theories, Historiographies, and Histories of Rhetoric: The Role of Feminism in Historical Studies.” Kneupper 116-26.
Plato. Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo, Phaedrus. Trans. H. N. Fowler. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1977.405-579.
—. Gorgias. Trans. W. C. Helmbold. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1952.
—. Republic. Trans. Paul Shorey. 2 vols. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1982.
—. Timaeus, Critias, Cleitophon, Menexenus, Epistles. Trans. R. G. Bury. 1929. London: Heinemann-Loeb, 1981.
Plutarch. The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans. Trans. John Dryden. Rev. Arthur Hugh Clough. New York: Modem Library, 1932.
Pomeroy, Sarah. Goddesses, Whores, Wives, and Slaves. New York: Schocken, 1975.
—. Women’s History and Ancient History. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1991.
Quintilian. Institutio aratoria. Trans. H. E. Butler. 1920. 4 vols. London: Heinemann, 1969.
Schaps, David M. “The Woman Least Mentioned: Etiquette and Women’s Names.” Classical Quarterly 27 (1977): 323-3 I.
Scott, Joan Wallach. Gender and the Politics of History. New York: Columbia UP, 1988.
Selfe, Cynthia. “Aspasia: The First Woman Rhetorician.” Unpublished essay.
Smith, Barbara Herrnstein. .Contingencies of Value.” Contingencies of Value. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1988. 30-53.
Sprague, Rosamond Kent, ed. The Older Sophists. Columbia: U of South Carolina P, 1972.
Stallybrass, Peter. “Patriarchal Territories: The Body Enclosed.” Ferguson et al. 123-44.
Swearingen, C. Jan. Rhetoric and Irony. New York: Oxford UP, 1991.
Taylor, A. E. Plato, the Man and his Work. 7th ed. London: Methuen, 1960.
Thucydides. History of the Peloponnesian War. Trans. Rex Warner. London: Penguin, 1954.
Vernant, Jean-Pierre. Myth and Society in Ancient Greece. 1974. New York: Zone, 1980.
—. Myth and Thought Among the Greeks.1965. London: Routledge, 1983.
—. The Origins of Greek Thought. 1962. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1982.
Vidal-Naquet, Pierre. The Black Hunter. Trans. Andrew Szegedy-Maszak. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1986.
Waithe, Mary Ellen, ed. A History of Women Philosophers, Vol. 1/600 BC-500 AD. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1987. 4 vols.
Warhol, Robyn R., and Diane Price Herndl. Feminisms. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1991.
Xenophon. Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. Trans. E. C. Marchant. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1988.

Miller, Richard E. “Composing English Studies: Towards a Social History of the Discipline.” CCC 45.2 (1994): 164-179.


Miller first reviews how histories of English Studies demarcate a hierarchical division of labor where intellectual work is deemed the province of literary studies not composition. He suggests an alternative history, one which deem the student work rather than literary text would serve as the principal object of study in the composition field, one he deems the “single most institutional function” of English departments, one rife with positive political possibilities of discussion, and one that would “provide a common ground” upon which the relationship between composition and literary studies might be reworked.


ccc45.2 Composition Work EnglishStudies History Student EWatkins Field LiteraryStudies GGraff Institutions Practices Writing Conflicts Discipline

Works Cited

Bartholomae, David. “Producing Adult Readers: 1930-50.” The Right to Literacy. Eds. Andrea A. Lunsford, Helene Moglen, and James Slevin. MLA 1990: 13-27.
Connors, Robert J. “Writing the History of Our Discipline.” An Introduction to Composition Studies. Eds. Erika Lindemann and Gary Tate. New York: Oxford UP, 1991. 49-71.
Graff, Gerald. Beyond the Culture Wars: How Teaching the Conflicts Can Revitalize American Education. W.W. Norton: New York. 1992.
—. Professing Literature: An Institutional History. U of Chicago P, 1987.
Miller, Susan. Rescuing the Subject: A Critical Introduction to Rhetoric and the Writer. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois UP, 1989.
—. Textual Carnivals: The politics of Composition. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois UP, 1991.
North, Stephen M. Making of Knowledge in Composition: Portrait of an Emerging Field. Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook, 1987.
Ohmann, Richard. English in America. New York: Oxford UP, 1976.
Said, Edward. The World, the Text, and the Critic. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1983.
Slevin, James F. “Depoliticizing and Politicizing Composition Studies.” The Politics of Writing Instruction: Postsecondary. Eds. Richard Bullock, John Trimbur, and Charles Schuster. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1991. 1-22.
Strain, Margaret M. “Toward a Hermeneutic Model of Composition History: Robert Carlsen’s ‘The State of the Profession 1961-1962.'” Journal of Advanced Composition. Winter 93: 217-240.
Varnum, Robin. “The History of Composition: Reclaiming Our Lost Generations.” Journal of Advanced Composition. Winter 92: 39-56.
Watkins, Evan. Work Time: English Departments and the Circulation of Cultural Value. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1989.

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