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College Composition and Communication, Vol. 45, No. 1, February 1994

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Trimbur, John. “Review Essay: Taking the Social Turn: Teaching Writing Post-Process.” Rev. of Academic Discourse and Critical Consciousness by Patricia Bizzell; Critical Teaching and the Idea of Literacy by C. H. Knoblauch and Lil Brannon; Common Ground: Dialogue, Understanding, and the Teaching of Composition by Kurt Spellmeyer. CCC 45.1 (1994): 108-118.

Carr, Jean Ferguson , Shirley Brice Heath, and Susan Miller. “Interchanges: Responses to Anne Ruggles Gere, ‘The Extracurriculum of Composition.'” CCC 45.1 (1994): 93-107.

Gere, Anne Ruggles. “Kitchen Tables and Rented Rooms: The Extracurriculum of Composition.” CCC 45.1 (1994): 75-92.


Gere sees composition scholars as having neglected to recount the history of composition in contexts outside the school classroom. She briefly reviews contemporary community-based writer’s groups that encourage participants to hone their craft. She then examines historical popular magazines and women’s clubs that encouraged literacy practices outside academia. In urging an examination of the relationship between domestic and academic scenes, Gere does not claim we should move away from current professionalism but rather that we consider “our own roles as agents within the culture that encompasses the communities on both sides of the classroom wall.”


ccc45.1 Composition Writing Women Writers Curriculum Extracurriculum Workshop Work Classroom Groups Walls Tenderloin

Works Cited

Applebee, Arthur. Tradition and Reform in the Teaching of English. Urbana: NCTE, 1974.
Bentson, Kimberly W. “Being There: Performance as Mise-en-Scene, Abscene, Obscene and Other Scene.” PMLA 107 (1992): 434-449.
Bok, Edward. “Editor’s Column.” Ladies Home Journal 7 (1890): 12.
Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle Record Book, CLSC Clubhouse, Chautauqua, New York, 1904 (unpaged).
“Column.” Bay View Magazine 5.2 (1897): 6.
Connors, Robert, Lisa Ede and Andrea Lunsford. Essays on Classical Rhetoric and Modern Discourse. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1984.
Fisher, George. The American Instructor: Or; Young Man’s Best Companion. Philadelphia: Franklin and Hall, 1748.
Freedman, Jonathan. “Beyond the Usual Suspects: Theorizing the Middlebrow.” Unpublished paper, U of Michigan, 1993.
Goodman, Nathan, Ed. A Benjamin Franklin Reader. New York: Crowell, 1945.
Graff, Gerald. Professing Literature: An Institutional History. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1987.
Hale, Sarah Josepha. “Editor’s Column.” Godey’s Ladies Magazine 16 (1838):191.
Heath, Shirley Brice. “Toward an Ethnohistory of Writing in American Education.” Writing: The Nature, Development and Teaching of Written Communication. Ed. Marcia Farr Whiteman. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1981.
Heller, Carol Elizabeth. “Writers of the Tenderloin.” Unpublished essay. U of California, Berkeley, 1987.
—. “The Multiple Functions of the Tenderloin Women’s Writing Workshop: Community in the Making.” Diss. U of California, Berkeley, 1992.
—. The Tenderloin Women’s Writing Workshop: Until We Are All Strong Together. New York: Teacher College Press, forthcoming.
Hoffman, Nicole Tonkovich. “Scribbling, Writing, Author(iz)ing Nineteenth Century Women Writers.” Diss. U of Utah, 1990.
Holt, Thomas. “Knowledge is Power’: The Black Struggle for Literacy.” The Right to Literacy. Eds. Andrea A. Lunsford, Helene Moglen, and James Slevin. New York, MLA, 1990. 91-102.
Hubbard, Ruth. Notes from the Underground: Unofficial Literacy in One Sixth Grade.” Anthropology and Education Quarterly 20 (1989): 291-307.
Kitzhaber, Albert Raymond. “Rhetoric in American Colleges, 1850-1900.” Diss. U of Washington, 1953.
Larcom, Lucy. A New England Girlhood. Boston: Houghton, 1889.
Miller, Susan. Textual Carnivals: The Politics of Composition. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1991.
Moore, Elizabeth, Dora Gilbert Tompkins, and Mildred MacLean. English Composition for College Women. New York: Macmillan, 1914.
Oxley, J. MacDonald. “Column.” Ladies Home Journal 9 (1894):16.
Perrin, Porter Gale. “The Teaching of Rhetoric in the American Colleges before 1750.” Diss. U of Chicago, 1936.
Porter, Dorothy B. “The Organized Educational Activities of Negro Literary Societies, 1828-1846.” The Journal of Negro Education 5 (1936):555-576.
Rudolph, Frederick. American College and University: A History. New York: Vintage, 1962.
—. Saturday Morning Club Yearbook, 1898, Schlesinger Library, Cambridge, MA.
Terdiman, Richard. “Is there Class in this Class?” The New Historicism. Ed. H. Aram Veeser. New York: Routledge, 1989.
Vincent, David. Literacy and Popular Culture: England 1750-1914. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1989.
Wagner, Jay P. “Alamakee Farmers Cultivate Writing Habits.” Des Moines Register 12 March 1991.
—. “Writers in Overalls.” The Washington Post. 2 January 1993.
Wolf, Robert. Free River Press Newsletter I. (January, 1993): l.
—, ed. Voices from the Land. Lansing, Iowa: Free River Press, 1992.

Clark, Gregory. “Rescuing the Discourse of Community.” CCC 45.1 (1994): 61-74.


Beginning with the premise that most contemporary rhetorics of discourse community assume political equality and obviate against difference, Clark seeks to redefine the concept. Maintaining that such a collectivity should remain democratic, he cites the work of ethicists Nel Noddings and Edith Wyschogrod to guide the participation of discourse that “directs people to value their differences because that is what enables their cooperation as equals.”


ccc45.1 Community Discourse People Practices Collectivity Difference Concept Cooperation Agreement Ethics Expertise AMacintyre Wyschogrod

Works Cited

Aristotle. The Ethics of Aristotle: The Nichomachean Ethics. New York: Penguin, 1976.
Bartholomae, David. “Inventing the University.” When a Writer Can’t Write: Studies in Writer’s Block and Other Composing Process Problems. Ed. Mike Rose. New York: Guilford Press, 1985.
Belenky, Mary Field. Blythe McVicker Clinchy, Nancy Rule Goldberger, and Jill Mattuck Tarule. Women’s Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice, and Mind. New York: Basic, 1986.
Bizzell, Patricia. “Beyond Anti-Foundationalism to Rhetorical Authority: Problems Defining ‘Cultural Literacy: ” College English 52 (1990): 661-75.
Bruffee, Kenneth. “Collaborative Learning and the ‘Conversation of Mankind: ” College English 46 (1984): 635-52.
Burke. Kenneth. The Rhetoric of Religion: Studies in Logology. Berkeley: U of California P. 1970.
Clark, Gregory. Dialogue, Dialectic, and Conversation: A Social Perspective on the Function of Writing. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP. 1990.
Clark, Gregory and S. Michael Halloran. “Transformations of Public Discourse in Nineteenth-Century America.” Oratorical Culture in Nineteenth-Century America: Transformations in the Theory and Practice of Public Discourse, ed. G. Clark and S.M. Halloran. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1993 (in press).
Doheny-Farina, Stephen. Rhetoric, Innovation, Technology: Case Studies of Technical Communication in Technology Transfers. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1992.
Friedson, Eliot. Professional Powers: A Study of the Institutionalization of Formal Knowledge. Chicago: U of Chicago P. 1986.
Harris, Joseph. “The Idea of Community in the Study of Writing.” CCC 40 (1989): 11-22.
Kastely, James L. “In Defense of Plato’s Gorgias.” PMLA 106, (1991): 96-109.
Kent, Thomas. “On the Very Idea of a Discourse Community.” CCC 42 (1991): 425-45.
MacIntyre, Alasdair. After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory, 2nd ed. Notre Dame: Notre Dame UP. 1984.
—. Whose Justice? Which Rationality? London: Duckworth, 1988.
Miller, Carolyn R. “What’s Practical about Technical Writing.” Technical Writing: Theory and Practice. Ed. B. E. Fearing and W. K. Sparrow. New York: MLA, 1989. 14-24.
Myers, Greg. “Reality, Consensus, and Reform in the Rhetoric of Composition Teaching.” College English 48 (1986): 154-7 J.
Noddings, Nel. Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education. Berkeley: U of California P. 1984.
—. Women and Evil. Berkeley: U of California P. 1989.
Rooney, Ellen. Seductive Reasoning: Pluralism as the Problematic of Contemporary Literary Theory. Ithaca: Cornell UP. 1989.
Trimbur, John. “Consensus and Difference in Collaborative Learning.” College English 51 (1989): 602-16.
Wyschogrod, Edith. Saints and Postmodernism: Revisioning Moral Philosophy. Chicago: U of Chicago P. 1990.
Young, Iris Marion. “The Ideal of Community and the Politics of Difference,” Feminism/Postmodernism. Ed. Linda J. Nicholson New York: Routledge, 1990. 300-23.

Hollis, Karyn. “Liberating Voices: Autobiographical Writing at the Bryn Mawr Summer School for Women Workers, 1921-1938.” CCC 45.1 (1994): 31-60.


Hollis examines the pedagogy and student texts associated with the Bryn Mawr Summer School for Women Workers, the first of four resident colleges for women established in the 1920s and 30s in America. She claims such pedagogy and autobiographical writing provide valuable examples for composition teachers to better understand current feminist and progressive pedagogies such as non-hierarchical teaching, student-centered pedagogy, interdisciplinary approaches, and student writing across of a wide range of genres. Recovering such history shows “one of the few instances” of a “successful cross-class alliance among upper,-, middle-, and working-class women from a variety of ethnic, religious, and geographic backgrounds.”


ccc45.1 Women School Workers Students BrynMawr Autobiography Faculty Narrative Education SummerSchool History Assignments

Works Cited

Andrews, William L. “The Changing Moral Discourse of Nineteenth-Century African American Women’s Autobiography: Harriet Jacobs and Elizabeth Keckley.” De/Colonizing the Subject. Ed. Sidonie Smith and Julia Watson. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1992.
Bakhtin, M. M. The Dialogic Imagination. Austin: U of Texas P, 1981.
Belenky, Mary Field and Blythe McVicker Clinchy, Nancy Rule Goldberger and Jill Mattuck Tarule. Women’s Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice and Mind. New York: Basic. 1986.
Bizzell, Patricia. “Power, Authority, and Critical Pedagogy.” Journal of Basic Writing 10.2 (1991): 54-70.
Blackburn, Regina. “In Search of the Black Female Self. African-American Women’s Autobiographies and Ethnicity.” Women’s Autobiography: Essays in Criticism. Ed. Estelle C. Jelinek. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980. 133-148.
Campbell, JoAnn. “Women’s Work, Worthy Work: Composition Instruction at Vassar College, I987-1922.” Constructing Rhetorical Education. Ed. Marie Secor and Davida Charney. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1992. 26-42.
Carter, Jean and Hilda W. Smith. Education and the Worker-Student. New York: Affiliated Schools for Workers, Inc., 1934.
Coiner, Constance. “Literature of Resistance: The Intersection of Feminism and the Communist Left in Meridel Le Sueur and Tillie Olsen.” Left Politics and the Literary Profession. Ed. Leonard J. Davis and M. Bella Mirabella. New York: Columbia UP, 1990. 162-185.
Culley, Margo. “What a Piece of Work is Woman! An Introduction.” American Women’s Autobiography: Fea(s)ts of Memory. Madison: U Wisconsin P, 1992.3-31.
Davies, Margaret Llewelyn, ed. Life As We Have Known It by Cooperative Working Women. New York: Norton, 1975.
Eisenstein, Sarah. Give Us Bread But Give Us Roses: Working Women’s Consciousness in the United States, 1890 to the First World War. London: Routledge, 1983.
Eudovich, Faye. “Thoughts on Utopian Education.” Shop and School (1930): 22.
Fickland, Eloise. “Looking Back.” Shop and School (1933): 32.
Flynn, Elizabeth A. “Composing As a Woman.” CCC 39 (1988): 423-435.
Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth. “My Statue, My Self: Autobiographical Writings of Afro-American Women.” The Private Self Theory and Practice of Woman ‘s Autobiographical Writings. Ed. Shari Benstock. Chapel Hill: U North Carolina P, 1988. 63-89.
Friedman, Susan Stanford. “Women’s Autobiographical Selves: Theory and Practice.” The Private Self’ Theory and Practice of Women’s Autobiographical Writings. Ed. Shari Benstock. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1988. 34-63.
Gagnier, Regina. “The Literary Standard, Working-Class Autobiography, and Gender.” Revealing Lives: Autobiography, Biography and Gender. Ed. Susan Groag Bell and Marilyn Yalom. Albany: SUNY Press, 1990. 93-114.
Giroux, Henry A. Theory and Resistance in Education: A Pedagogy for the Opposition. Boston: Bergin & Garvey, 1983.
Goldberg, Edith. “My Autobiography.” Echo (1928): 25.
Gordon, Sarah. “A Typical Day in My Life.” Shop and School (1929): 27-28.
Greenstein, Rose. “Sacrifice.” Shop and School (1930): 30-31.
Hantz, Rose. “The Banana Argument.” Shop and School (1932): 62.
Hansen, Alice. Personal Interview. 16 June 1992.
Heller, Rita. “Blue Collars and Blue Stockings: The Bryn Mawr School for Women Workers, 1921-1938.” Sisterhood and Solidarity: Workers’ Education for Women, 1914 1984. Philadelphia: Temple U P, 1984. 110-145.
—. “The Women of Summer: The Bryn Mawr Summer School for Women Workers, 1921-1938.” Diss. Rutgers University, 1986.
—. The Women of Summer. Film. National Endowment for the Humanities. 1985.
Hollis, Karyn L. “Literacy Theory, Teaching Composition and Feminist Response.” Pre/Text 13 (Spring/Summer 1992): 103-116.
Jackson, Marion. “It Set Me Thinking.” Shop and School (1936): 9-10.
Jelinek, Estelle C. The Tradition of Women’s Autobiography: From Antiquity to the Present. Boston: Twayne, 1986.
Johnston, Ellen. The Autobiography, Poems, and Songs of ‘The Factory Girl’. Glasgow: William Love, 1867.
Kennan, Ellen. “Autobiography.” English Syllabus. Bryn Mawr Summer School for Women Workers, 1926. 1.
—. Autobiography.” English Syllabus. Bryn Mawr Summer School for Women Workers, 1934. 1.
Lauter, Paul. “Working-Class Women’s literature: An Introduction to Study.” Radical Teacher (1980): 16-26.
Maynes, Mary Jo. “Gender and Class in Working-Class Women’s Autobiographies.” German Women in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries: A Social and Literary History. Ed. Ruth-Ellen B. Joeres and Mary Jo Maynes. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1986. 230-246.
—. “Gender and Narrative Form in French and German Working-Class Narratives,” Interpreting Lives: Feminist Theory and Personal Narratives. Ed. Personal Narratives Group. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1989. 103-117.
Parrish, Beulah. “Those Mill Villages.” Shop and School (1930): 6.
Peterson, Linda H. “Gender and the Autobiographical Essay: Research Perspectives, Pedagogical Practices.” CCC 42. May (1991): 171-183.
Rose, Shirley K. “Reading Representative Anecdotes of Literacy Practice; or ‘See Dick and Jane read and write!’.” Rhetoric Review 8 (1990): 244-259.
Rowbotham, Sheila. Woman’s Consciousness, Man’s World. London: Penguin, 1973.
Roydhouse, Marion W. “Partners in Progress: The Affiliated Schools for Women Workers, 1928-1939.” Sisterhood and Solidarity: Worker’s Education for Women, 1914-1984. Ed. Joyce L. Kornbluh and Mary Frederickson. Philadelphia: Temple Up, 1984. 189-221.
Rury, John L. Education and Women’s Work: Female Schooling and the Division of Labor in Urban America, 1870-1930. Albany: SUNY Press, 1991.
Sirc, Geoffrey. “Gender and ‘Writing Formations’ in First-Year Narratives.” Freshman English News 18 (1989): 4-11.
Smith, Emma. A Cornish Waif’s Story: An Autobiography. London: Odhams, 1954.
Smith, Hilda Worthington. “The Student and Teacher in Workers’ Education.” Workers’ Education in the United States. Ed. Theodore Brameld. New York: Harper, 1941. 181-202.
—. Women Workers at the Bryn Mawr Summer School. New York: Affiliated Summer Schools for Women Workers in Industry and American Association for Adult Education, 1929.
Smith, Sidonie. A Poetics of Women’s Autobiography: Marginality and the Fictions of Self-Presentation. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1987.
—. “Resisting the Gaze of Embodiment: Women’s Autobiography in the Nineteenth Century.” American Women’s Autobiography: Fea(s)ts of Memory. Ed. Margo Culley. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1992. 75-110.
Weedon, Chris. Feminist Practice and Poststructuralist Theory. Oxford: Blackwell. 1987.
Zandy, Janet, ed. Calling Home: Working-Class Women’s Writings, An Anthology. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1990.

Schultz, Lucille M. “Elaborating Our History: A Look at Mid-19th Century First Books of Composition.” CCC 45.1 (1994): 10-30.


Schultz notes that composition historians have reexamined 19th-century composition pedagogy and subsequently found more differentiated practices than previously thought. Schultz adds to these new findings with her examination of lesser-known composition textbooks written between 1838 and 1855.


ccc45.1 Composition Writing Students Books RFrost Teaching Rules 19thCentury FirstBooks Texts Topics Themes Grammar

Works Cited

Applebee. Arthur N. Study of Book Length Works Taught in High School English Courses. Report Series 1.2. Center for the Learning and Teaching of Literature: SUNY Albany. 1989.
Besig, Emma. “The History of Composition Teaching in Secondary Schools Before 1900.” Diss. Cornell U, 1935.
Berlin, James A. Writing Instruction in Nineteenth-Century American Colleges. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Up, 1984.
Blair, Hugh. Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres. Philadelphia: James Kay, Jun. and Brother, 1833.
Brookfield, Charles. First Book in Composition. New York: A.S. Barnes, 1855.
Burrell, Edward William. “Authors of English Textbooks Published in the United States, 1845-1855.” Diss. Harvard U, 1964.
Campbell, JoAnn. “Controlling Voices: The Legacy of English A at Radcliffe College, 1883-1917.” CCC 43 (1992): 472-485.
Carpenter, Charles. History of American Schoolbooks. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania, 1963.
Connors, Robert J. “Personal Writing Assignments.” CCC 38 (1987):166-183.
—. “The Rhetoric of Explanation: Explanatory Rhetoric from Aristotle to 1850.” Written Communication 2 (1985): 49-72.
—. “Writing the History of Our Discipline.” An Introduction to Composition Studies. Ed. Erika Lindemann and Gary Tate. New York: Oxford U P, 1991.
Crowley, Sharon. The Methodical Memory. Carbondale: Southern Illinois U P, 1990.
Emig, Janet. The Relation of Thought and Language Implicit in Some Early American Rhetoric and Composition Texts. Unpublished Qualifying Paper. Harvard University, 1963.
—. “The Relation of Thought and Language Implicit in Some Early American Rhetoric and Composition Texts.” The Web of Meaning. Ed. Dixie Goswami and Maureen Butler. Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook, 1983. 3-43.
Frost, John. Easy Exercises in Composition. 2nd ed. Stereotyped. Philadelphia: W. Marshall, 1839.
—. ed. Lessons on Common Things; Their Origin, Nature, and Uses. Philadelphia: Thomas T. Ash, 1835.
—, ed. The School Master, and Advocate of Education. Assisted by W. R. Johnson, J. M. Keagy, W. Russell, and J. B. Walker. Philadelphia: W. Marshall. 1836.
—, ed. The Young People’s Book. Philadelphia: Morton M’Michael. 1842.
Giroux, Henry. Border Crossings. New York: Routledge, 1992.
Green, J. A., ed. Pestalozzi’s Educational Writings. London: Edward Arnold, 1916.
Halloran, S. Michael. “From Rhetoric to Composition: The Teaching of Writing in America to 1900.” A Short History of Writing Instruction. Ed. James J. Murphy. Davis, CA: Hermagoras, 1990. 151-82.
Haley-Oliphant, Ann E. “Classroom Ecology in a Science Class: A Description of Interaction Patterns in the Margins of Lessons.” Diss. U of Cincinnati, 1989.
“Hints and Methods for the use of Teachers.” Connecticut Common School Journal 4 (1842):53-60.
Illustrated Composition Book, The. New York: A. R. Phippen, 1854.
Jolliffe, David. “The Moral Subject in College Composition: A Conceptual Framework and the Case of Harvard, 1865-1900.” College English 51 (l989): 163-173.
Kitzhaber, Albert. Rhetoric in American Colleges, 1850–1900. Dallas: SMU Press, 1990.
Lilienthal, M.B. and Robert Allyn. Things Taught: Systematic Instruction in Composition and Object Lessons. Cincinnati: W.B. Smith, 1862.
Morley, Charles. A Practical Guide to Composition. New York: Robinson, Pratt, 1838.
Newkirk, Thomas. “Barrett Wendell’s Theory of Discourse.” Rhetoric Review 10 (l991):20-30.
Nietz, John A. Old Textbooks. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1961.
—. The Evolution of American Secondary School Textbooks. Rutland, Vermont: Tuttle, 1966.
Northend, Charles. The Young Composer. Portland: Sanborn and Carter, 1848.
—. The Teacher and the Parent; A Treatise upon Common School Education. Boston: Jenks, Hickling, and Swan, 1853.
Oberholtzer, Ellis Paxson. The Literary History of Philadelphia. Philadelphia: George W. Jacobs, 1906.
Parker, Richard Green. Progressive Exercises in English Composition. Boston: Lincoln and Edmands, 1832.
—. Aids to English Composition. Boston: Robert S. Davis, 1844.
Phippen, A. R. The Illustrated Composition Book. New York: Henry W. Law, 1854.
Quackenbos, George P. First Lessons in Composition. New York: Appleton, 1851.
—. Illustrated Lessons in Our Language. New York: Appleton, 1876.
Rippingham, John. Rules for English Composition. Poughkeepsie: Paraclete Potter, 1816.
Russell, William. A Grammar of Composition. New Haven: A.H. Maltby, 1823.
Schultz, Lucille M., Chester Laine, and Mary Savage. ” Interaction Among School and College Writing Teachers: Toward Recognizing and Remaking Old Patterns .” CCC 39 (1988):139-53.
Simmons, Sue Carter. “Critiquing the Myth of Current Traditional Rhetoric: Invention in Writing Instruction at Harvard.” Penn State Conference on Rhetoric and Composition. University Park, July 1 991.
Spring, Joel The American School 1642-1990. 2nd ed. New York: Longman, 1990.
Walker, John. The Teacher’s Assistant in English Composition. Carlisle: Kline, 1808.
Whately, Richard. Elements of Rhetoric. Ed. Douglas Ehninger. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1963.
Woods, William. “The Reform Tradition in Nineteenth-Century Composition Teaching.” Written Communication 2 (1985): 377-390.

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