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College Composition and Communication, Vol. 40, No. 3, October 1989

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Royster, Jacqueline Jones. Rev. of Lives on the Boundary: The Struggle and Achievements of America’s Underprepared by Mike Rose. CCC 40.3 (1989): 349-350.

Penticoff, Richard. Rev. of Audits of Meaning: A Festschrift in Honor of Ann E. Berthoff by Louise Z. Smith. CCC 40.3 (1989): 350-352.

Bamberg, Betty. Rev. of Composition Research/Empirical Designs by Janice M. Lauer and J. William Asher. CCC 40.3 (1989): 352-353.

Dasenbrock, Reed Way. Rev. of Shaping Written Knowledge: The Genre and the Activity of the Experimental Article in Science by Charles Bazerman. CCC 40.3 (1989): 354-355.

Nienhuis, Terry. Rev. of Focus on Collaborative Learning by Jeff Golub and NCTE Committee on Classroom Practices. CCC 40.3 (1989): 355-356.

Rankin, Elizabeth. Rev. of Student Writing Groups: Demonstrating the Process . CCC 40.3 (1989): 356-357.

Flachmann, Kim. Rev. of The Plural I. And After by William E. Coles, Jr.; Seeing through Writing by William E. Coles, Jr. CCC 40.3 (1989): 357-360.

Smith, Susan Belasco. Rev. of The I-Search Paper by Ken Macrorie. CCC 40.3 (1989): 360-361.

McLeod, Susan H. “Writing across the Curriculum: The Second Stage, and beyond.” CCC 40.3 (1989): 337-343.

Daemmrich, Ingrid. “A Bridge to Academic Discourse: Social Science Research Strategies in the Freshman Composition Course.” CCC 40.3 (1989): 343-348.

CCCC Executive Committee. “Statement of Principles and Standards for the Postsecondary Teaching of Writing.” CCC 40.3 (1989): 329-336.


This statement outlines the executive committee’s position on the professional standards that promote quality education for full-time faculty, graduate students, temporary faculty, and part-time faculty. It stresses how important it is for both students and faculty to keep writing class sizes small and for writing programs to have adequately funded writing centers and support systems, space for conferencing with students, and opportunities for professional development.


ccc40.3 Faculty Writing Composition Teaching Research PartTimeFaculty Institutions Standards Departments

No works cited.

Thomas, Trudelle. “Demystifying the Job Search: A Guide for Candidates.” CCC 40.3 (1989): 312-327.


The author suggests several guidelines for composition and rhetoric candidates entering the job market. She proposes that candidates approach the job search as a research project: they should know what kind of job they want, what kind of institution they want to teach at, and where they want to teach. She also emphasizes the importance of building professional identity by attending and presenting at conferences, submitting articles, and completing dissertations on schedule. The article also explains when and where interviews in composition and rhetoric jobs occur and how to approach both the interview and the campus visit.


ccc40.3 JobSearch Interview Writing Schools Position Jobs Questions Faculty Campus Researchers Application GraduateStudents MLA Dossier CV

Selected Bibliography

Bestor, Dorothy K. Aside from Teaching English, What in the World Can You Do? Seattle: U of Washington P, 1977.
—. Aside from Teaching, What in the World Can You Do: Career Strategies for Liberal Arts Graduates. Seattle: U of Washington P, 1982.
Bolles, Richard N. What Color Is Your Parachute? A Practical Manual for job-Hunters and Career Changers. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 1988.
Boyer, Richard and David Savageau, eds. Places Rated Almanac: Your Guide to Finding the Best Places to Live in America. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1988.
A Career Guide for PhDs and PhD Candidates in English and Foreign Languages. Revised by English Showalter. New York: Modern Language Association, 1985.
CCCC Committee on Professional Guidance. “Draft Statement of Professional Guidance to Junior Faculty and Department Chairs.” CCC 38 (December 1987): 493-97.
Conference on College Composition and Communication. “Statement of Principles and Standards for the Postsecondary Teaching of Writing.” CCC 40 (October 1989): 329-36.
Connolly, Paul, and Teresa Vilardi, eds. New Methods in College Writing Programs: Theories in Practice. New York: Modern Language Association, 1986.
Fiske, Edward B. The Fiske Guide to Colleges 1989. New York: Times Books, 1988.
Guide to America’s Best Colleges and Professional Schools. Washington: U.S. News and World Report, 1988.
Hartzog, Carol P. Composition in the Academy: A Study of Writing Program Administration. New York: Modern Language Association, 1986.
Insiders’ Guide to the Colleges, 1988-89: Students from Coast to Coast Tell What Their Colleges Are Really Like. 14th ed. Compiled by Yale Daily News Staff. New York: St. Martin’s, 1988.
Irish, Richard K. Go Hire Yourself an Employer. 3rd ed. New York: Doubleday, 1987.
Medley, H. Anthony. Sweaty Palms: The Neglected Art of Being Interviewed. Berkeley, CA; Ten Speed Press, 1984.
Sternberg, David. How to Complete and Survive a Doctoral Dissertation. New York: St. Martin’s, 1981.
Timmerman, John H. “Advice to Candidates.” College English 50 (November 1988): 748-51.
Velez, Orlando, ed. Market Guide, 1989. New York: Editor and Publisher Co., 1989.
Worldwide Chamber of Commerce Directory, 1989. Loveland, CO: Worldwide Chamber of Commerce Directory, Inc., 1989.

Flower, Linda. “Cognition, Context, and Theory Building.” CCC 40.3 (1989): 282-311.


In this article, the author tries to bridge the gap between cognition and context – whether the composing act is more influenced by either individual cognition and personal values or social forces and cultural context – by suggesting that the two are always interconnected and informing one another. The author claims that moving beyond the debate between the two camps would help scholars understand more deeply how writing happens and help teachers guide their students through the hurdles, both personal and social, they face while writing. She offers three principles that show that cognition and context not only influence each other, but construct one another: that context provides cues to the individual writer, that context is always mediated by the individual writer, and that a writer’s purpose, though constrained and bounded, is always a meaningful rhetorical act. The article goes on to discuss observational research methodology and explain why observational research is essential in creating a theory that explains the intimate relationship between cognition and context.


ccc40.3 Theory Process Data Context Research Cognition Cognitive Students Writers Writing Response Knowledge Evidence Goals Experience TheoryBuilding Observation

Works Cited

Ackerman, John. “Translating Context into Action.” Reading-to-Write: Exploring a Cognitive and Social Process. Linda Flower et al. New York: Oxford UP, in press.
Applebee, Arthur N. “Problems in Process Approaches: Toward a Reconceptualization of Process Instruction.” The Teaching of Writing. Ed. David Bartholomae and Anthony Petrosky. Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education, 1985. 95-113.
—. Contexts for Learning to Write. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1984.
Bartholomae, David. “Inventing the University.” When a Writer Can’t Write: Studies in Writer’s Block and Other Composing-Process Problems. Ed. Mike Rose. New York: Guilford Press, 1985. 134-65.
Bazerman, Charles. “Physicists Reading Physics: Schema-laden Purposes and Purpose-laden Schemas.” Written Communication 2 (January 1985): 3-23.
Bereiter, Carl, and Marlene Scardamalia. The Psychology of Written Composition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1987.
Berlin, James. “Rhetoric and Ideology in the Writing Class.” College English 50 (September 1988): 477-94.
Berthoff, Ann. “Reading the World. . . Reading the Word: Paulo Freire’s Pedagogy of Knowing.” Only Connect: Uniting Reading and Writing. Ed. Thomas Newkirk. Upper Montclair: Boynton/Cook, 1986. 119-30.
Bizzell, Patricia. “Cognition, Convention, and Certainty: What We Need to Know about Writing.” Pre/Text 3 (Fall 1982): 213-44.
—. “College Composition: Initiation into the Academic Discourse Community.” Curriculum Inquiry 12.2(982): 191-207.
Brown, John Seely, Allan Collins, and Paul Duguid. “Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning.” Educational Researcher 18.1 (February 1989): 32-42.
Bruffee, Kenneth A. “Social Construction, Language, and the Authority of Knowledge: A Bibliographical Essay.” College English 48 (December 1986): 773-90.
Donmoyer, Robert. “The Rescue from Relativism: Two Failed Attempts and an Alternative Strategy.” Educational Researcher 14.10 (December 1985) 13-20.
Dyson, Anne Haas. “Individual Differences in Beginning Composing: An Orchestral Vision of Learning to Compose.” Written Communication 9 (October 1987): 411-42.
Emig, Janet. The Composing Processes of Twelfth Graders. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English, 1971.
Enos, Richard Leo. The Composing Process of the Sophist: New Directions for Composition Research. Occasional Paper. Berkeley: Center for the Study of Writing at University of California, Berkeley and Carnegie Mellon University, 1989.
Fetterman, David M. “Qualitative Approaches to Evaluating Education.” Educational Researcher 17.8 (November 1988): 17-23.
Firestone, William A. “Meaning in Method: The Rhetoric of Quantitative and Qualitative Research.” Educational Researcher 16.7 (October 1987): 16-2l.
Flower, Linda. “The Construction of Purpose in Writing and Reading.” College English 50 (September 1988): 528-50.
—. “The Role of Task Representation in Reading-to-Write.” Reading-to-Write: Exploring a Cognitive and Social Process. Linda Flower et al. New York: Oxford UP, in press.
Flower, Linda, and John R. Hayes. “Images, Plans and Prose: The Representation of Meaning in Writing. Written Communication 1 (January 1984): 120-60.
Flower, Linda, Karen A. Schriver, Linda Carey, Christina Haas, and John R. Hayes. Planning in Writing: The Cognition of a Constructive Process. Technical Report No. 34. Berkeley: Center for the Study of Writing at University of California, Berkeley and Carnegie Mellon University, 1989.
Flower, Linda, Victoria Stein, John Ackerman, Margaret J. Kantz, Kathleen McCormick, and Wayne C. Peck. Reading-to-Write: Exploring a Cognitive and Social Context. New York: Oxford UP, in press.
Freedman, Sarah, with Cynthia Greenleaf and Melanie Sperling. Response to Student Writing. Ur
bana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1987. Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Trans. Myra Ramos. New York: Continuum, 1986.
Garrison, James W. “Some Principles of Postpositivistic Philosophy of Science.” Educational Researcher 15.9 (November 1986): 12-18.
Glaser, Barney, and Anselm Scrauss. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Chicago: Aldine Publishing, 1967.
Gould, Stephen Jay. “Pretty Pebbles.” Natural History 97.4 (April 1988): 14-26.
Hayes, John R. “Empirical Research in Rhetoric.” National Council of Teachers of English Research Council Meeting. Chicago, 19 Feb. 1988.
Hayes, John R., and Linda Flower. “Identifying the Organization of Writing Processes.” Cognitive Processing in Writing: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Ed. Lee Gregg and Erwin Steinberg. Hillsdale: Erlbaum, 1980. 3-30.
Heath, Shirley B. Ways with Words: Language, Life and Work in Communities. Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge UP, 1983.
Herrington, Ann. “Teaching, Writing and Learning: A Naturalistic of Writing in an Undergraduate Literature Course.” Writing in Academic Disciplines. Vol. II of Advances in Writing Research. Ed. David Jolliffe. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1988. 133-66.
Howe, Kenneth R. “Against the Quantitative-Qualitative Incompatibility Thesis or Dogmask Die Hard.” Educational Researcher 17.8 (November 1988): 10-16.
Huck, Schuyler W., and Howard M. Sandler. Rival Hypotheses: Alternative Interpretations of Data Based Conclusions. New York: Harper, 1979.
Knoblauch, C. H. “Rhetorical Constructions: Dialogue and Commitment.” College English 50 (February 1988): 125-40.
Lauer, Janice M., and J. William Asher. Composition Research: Empirical Designs. New York: Oxford UP, 1988.
Lunsford, Andrea, and Lisa Ede. “Why Write. . . Together: A Research Update.” Rhetoric Review 5 (Fall 1986): 71-8l.
Mathison, Sandra. “Why Triangulate?” Educational Researcher 17.2 (March 1988): 13-17.
Miles, Matthew B., and A. Michael Huberman. “Drawing Valid Meaning from Qualitative Data: Toward a Shared Craft.” Educational Researcher 13.5 (May 1984): 20-30.
Myers, Greg. “The Social Construction of Two Biologists’ Proposals.” Written Communication 2 (July 1985): 219-45.
McCormick, Kathleen. “The Cultural Imperatives Underlying Cognitive Acts.” Reading-to-Write: Exploring A Cognitive and Social Process. Linda Flower et al. New York: Oxford UP, in press.
Nelson, Jennie, and John R. Hayes. How the Writing Context Shapes Students’ Strategies for Writing from Sources. Technical Report No. 12. Berkeley: Center for the Study of Writing at University of California, Berkeley and Carnegie Mellon University, 1988.
North, Stephen M. The Making of Knowledge in Composition: Portrait of an Emerging Field. Upper Montclair: Boynton/Cook, 1987.
O’Keefe, Daniel J. “Logical Empiricism and the Study of Human Communication.” Speech Monographs 42 (August 1975): 169-83.
Perelman, Chaim, and L. Olbrechts-Tyteca. The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation. Trans. John Wilkinson and Purcell Weaver. Notre Dame: U of Notre Dame, 1969.
Peshkin, Alan. “In Search of Subjectivity–One’s Own.” Educational Researcher 17.7 (October 1988): 17-22.
Phillips, D. “After the Wake: Postpositivistic Educational Thought.” Educational Researcher 12.5 (May 1983): 4-12.
Rose, Mike. “Complexity, Rigor, Evolving Method, and the Puzzle of Writer’s Block: Thoughts on Composing-Process Research.” When A Writer Can’t Write: Studies in Writer’s Block and Other Composing-Process Problems. Ed. Mike Rose. New York: Guilford Press, 1985. 227-60.
—. “Narrowing the Mind and Page: Remedial Writers and Cognitive Reductionism.” CCC 39 (October 1988): 267-302.
Schriver, Karen A. “What Are We Doing as a Research Community? Theory Building in Rhetoric and Composition: The Role of Empirical Scholarship.” Rhetoric Review 7 (Spring 1989): 272-88.
Shaughnessy, Mina. Errors and Expectations: A Guide for the Teacher of Basic Writing. New York: Oxford UP, 1977.
Spradley, James. Participant Observation. New York: Holt, 1980.
Stein, Victoria. “Elaboration: Using What You Know.” Reading-to-Write: Exploring a Cognitive and Social Process. Linda Flower et al. New York: Oxford UP, in press.
Toulmin, Stephen. Foresight and Understanding. New York: Harper, 1961.
Wason, Peter C., and Philip N. Johnson-Laird. Psychology of Reasoning: Structure and Content. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1972.
Witte, Stephen. ” Pre-Text and Composing .” CCC 38 (December 1987): 397-425.

Kostelnick, Charles. “Process Paradigms in Design and Composition: Affinities and Directions.” CCC 40.3 (1989): 267-281.


This article attempts to create a cross-disciplinary theory of the creative act by juxtaposing the process movement, applied in composition theory and pedagogy, and design theory, used in fields like architecture and urban planning. The article explains the history and major tenets of both process and design theory, emphasizing that both value creativity as an important problem-solving tool, are concerned with the choices writers and designers make in the process of creating, emphasize the importance of context, and borrow theories from cognitive psychology and other fields. The author warns against urges in the field of composition to create a unified process theory, as no one model can fit all students’ needs and rhetorical situations.


ccc40.3 Process Design Writing Problems Methods Invention Model Designers Analysis Students Writers Theorists Paradigm Methodology CAlexander

Works Cited

Akin, Omer. “Exploration of the Design Process.” Design Methods and Theories 13 (July-Dec. 1979): 115-19.
Alexander, Christopher. Notes on the Synthesis of Form. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1964.
—. “The State of the Art in Design Methodology.” Interviewed by Max Jacobson. DMG Newsletter 5.3 (March 1971): 3-7.
Alexander, Christopher, and Barry Poyner. “The Atoms of Environmental Structure.” Emerging Methods in Environmental Design and Planning. Proc. of The Design Methods Group First International Conference. June 1968. Ed. Gary T. Moore. Cambridge: MIT P, 1970. 308-21.
Anderson, Paul V. “What Survey Research Tells Us about Writing at Work.” Odell and Goswami 3-83.
Berlin, James A. “Contemporary Composition: The Major Pedagogical Theories.” College English 44 (Dec. 1982): 765-77.
Brandt, Deborah. “Toward an Understanding of Context in Composition.” Written Communication 3 (April 1986): 139-57.
Broadbent, Geoffrey. “The Development of Design Methods-A Review.” Design Methods and Theories 13 (Jan.-March 1979): 41-45.
Broadbent, Geoffrey, Richard Bunt, and Charles Jencks. Signs, Symbols, and Architecture. New York: Wiley, 1980.
Broadhead, Glenn J, and Richard C. Freed. The Variables of Composition: Process and Product in a Business Setting. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP, 1986.
Bruffee, Kenneth A. “Social Construction, Language, and the Authority of Knowledge: A Bibliographical Essay.” College English 48 (Dec. 1986): 773-90.
Buchanan, Richard. “Declaration by Design: Rhetoric, Argument, and Demonstration in Design Practice.” Design Issues 2.1 (Spring 1985): 4-22.
Cooper, Marilyn M. “The Ecology of Writing.” College English 48 (April 1986): 364-75.
Cross, Anita. “Design Intelligence: The Use of Codes and Language Systems in Design.” Design Studies 7 (Jan. 1986): 14-19.
Cross, Nigel. “Designerly Ways of Knowing.” Design Studies 3 (Oct. 1982): 221-27.
—, ed. Developments in Design Methodology. New York: Wiley, 1984.
—. “Understanding Design: The Lessons of Design Methodology.” Design Methods and Theories 20 (1986): 409-38.
Daley, Janet. “Design Creativity and the Understanding of Objects.” Design Studies 3 (July 1982): 133-37.
Dobrin, David N. “Protocols Once More.” College English 48 (Nov. 1986): 713-25.
Doheny-Farina, Stephen. “Writing in an Emerging Organization: An Ethnographic Study.” Written Communication 3 (April 1986): 158-85.
Emig, Janet. The Composing Processes of Twelfth Graders. NCTE Research Report No. 13. Urbana, 11: NCTE, 1971.
Faigley, Lester. “Competing Theories of Process: A Critique and a Proposal.” College English 48 (Oct. 1986): 527-42.
Faigley, Lester, Roger D. Cherry, David A. Jolliffe, and Anna M. Skinner. Assessing Writers’ Knowledge and Processes of Composing. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1985.
Faigley, Lester, and Stephen Witte. “Analyzing Revision.” CCC 32 (Dec. 1981): 400-14.
Flower, Linda. Problem-Solving Strategies for Writing. 3rd ed. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1989.
Flower, Linda, and John R. Hayes. “The Cognition of Discovery: Defining a Rhetorical Problem.” CCC 31 (Feb. 1980): 21-32.
—. “A Cognitive Process Theory of Writing.” CCC 32 (Dec. 1981): 365-87.
Fowles, Robert A., ed. “Special Issue: Design Methods in U. K. Schools of Architecture.” Editorial. Design Methods and Theories 13 (Jan.-March 1979): 2-5.
—. “What Happened to Design Methods in Architectural Education?” Design Methods and Theories 11 (Jan.-March 1977): 17-31.
Foz, Adel T.K. “Observations on Designer Behavior in the Parti.” DMG-DRS Journal: Design Research and Methods 7 (Oct.-Dec. 1973): 320-23.
Grant, Donald P. “Aims and Potentials of Design Methodology.” Responding to Social Change. Ed. Basil Honikman. Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, 1975. 96-108.
Hagge, John. “The Process Religion and Business Communication.” The Journal of Business Communication 24.1 (Winter 1987): 89-120.
Hairston, Maxine. “Different Products, Different Processes: A Theory About Writing.” CCC 37 (Dee. 1986): 442-52.
—. “The Winds of Change: Thomas Kuhn and the Revolution in the Teaching of Writing.” CCC 33 (Feb. 1982): 76-88.
Hillier, Bill, John Musgrove, and Pat O’Sullivan. “Knowledge and Design.” Environmental Design: Research and Practice. Proc. of the EDRA Conference. January 1972. Ed. William J. Mitchell. Los Angeles: UCLA, 1972.2 vols. 29-3-1 to 14.
Jones, J. Christopher. Design Methods: Seeds of Human Futures. London: Wiley-Interscience, 1970.
—. “How My Thoughts about Design Methods Have Changed during the Years.” Design Methods and Theories 11 (Jan.-March 1977): 48-62.
—. “A Method of Systematic Design.” Conference on Design Methods. Papers Presented at the Conference on Systematic and Intuitive Methods in Engineering, Industrial Design, Architecture and Communications. Sept. 1962. Ed. J. Christopher Jones and D.G. Thornley. Oxford: Pergamon, 1963. 53-73.
Lawson, Bryan R. “Cognitive Strategies in Architectural Design.” Ergonomics 22 (Jan. 1979): 59-68.
Lera, Sebastian. “Synopses of Some Recent Published Studies of the Design Process and Designer Behaviour.” Design Studies 4 (April 1983): 133-40.
Murray, Donald M. “Teaching the Other Self: The Writer’s First Reader.” CCC 33 (May 1982): 140-47.
—. “Writing as Process: How Writing Finds Its Own Meaning.” Eight Approaches to Teaching Composition. Ed. Timothy R. Donovan and Ben W. McClelland. Urbana, 11: NCTE, 1980. 3-20.
Odell, Lee, and Dixie Goswami, eds. Writing in Nonacademic Settings. New York: Guilford, 1985.
Perl, Sondra. “Understanding Composing.” CCC 31 (Dee. 1980): 363-69.
Piazza, Carolyn L. “Identifying Context Variables in Research on Writing: A Review and Suggested Directions.” Written Communication 4 (April 1987): 107-37.
Rittel, Horst W.J. “Some Principles for the Design of an Educational System for Design-Part One.” DMG Newsletter 4. 12 (Dec. 1970): 3-10.
—. “The State of the Art in Design Methods.” Interviewed by Donald P. Grant and Jean Pierre Protzen. DGM-DRS Journal 7 (April-June 1973): 143-47.
Rittel, Horst W. J., and Melvin M. Webber. “Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning.” Policy Sciences 4 (June 1973): 155- 69.
Robinson, Julia W. “Design as Exploration.” Design Studies 7 (April 1986): 67-79.
Rohman, D. Gordon. “Pre-Writing: The Stage of Discovery in the Writing Process.” CCC 16 (May 1965): 106-12.
Selzer, Jack. “The Composing Processes of an Engineer.” CCC 34 (May 1983): 178-87.
Simmonds, Roger. “Limitations in the Decision Strategies of Design Students.” Design Studies 1 (Oct. 1980): 358-64.
Sommers, Nancy. “Revision Strategies of Student Writers and Experienced Adult Writers.” CCC 31 (Dec. 1980): 378-88.
Ward, A. “Design Cosmologies and Brain Research.” Design Studies 5 (Oct. 1984): 229-38.

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