Conference on College Composition and Communication Logo

College Composition and Communication, Vol. 41, No. 1, February 1990

Click here to view the individual articles in this issue at

Tuman, Myron C. Rev. of The Culture and Politics of Literacy by W. Ross Winterowd. CCC 41.1 (1990):. 92-94.

Neel, Jasper. Rev. of Composition as a Human Science by Louise Wetherbee Phelps. CCC 41.1 (1990): 94-96.

White, Edward M. Rev. of A Teacher’s Introduction to Deconstruction by Sharon Crowley. CCC 41.1 (1990):. 96-97.

Klein, Thomas D. Rev. of Strengthening Programs for Writing across the Curriculum by Susan H. McLeod. CCC 41.1 (1990): 97-98.

Fulkerson, Richard. Rev. of Preparing to Teach Writing by James Williams. CCC 41.1 (1990): 98-100.

Fearing, Bertie E. Rev. of Writing in the Business Professions by Myra Kogen. CCC 41.1 (1990): 100-102.

Nolte, Edward. Rev. of Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education by Joint Committee on Testing Practices. CCC 41.1 (1990): 102-103.

Flynn, Elizabeth A. “Composing ‘Composing as a Woman’: A Perspective on Research.” CCC 41.1 (1990): 83-89.

McKendy, Thomas F. “Legitimizing Peer Response: A Recycling Project for Placement Essays.” CCC 41.1 (1990): 89-91.

Lunsford, Andrea A. “Composing Ourselves: Politics, Commitment, and the Teaching of Writing.” CCC 41.1 (1990): 71-82.


In this, her 1989 CCCC Chair’s Address, Lunsford argues that the field of rhetoric and composition must compose itself both historically and subjectively. Scholars, working in tandem with colleagues in anthropology, classics, history, and psychology, can broaden the history of the development of writing by looking for ways to “tell it slant.” Also, the field should study not just writing and writers, but also the teachers of writing, probing for those stories throughout history that reflect a teacher’s political and value-driven decision to teach writing to others in the hopes of changing the existing reality. Both inside and outside the academy, people are trying to compose the field in negative light, and so Lunsford argues that it is vital for composition and rhetoric scholars to compose themselves, asserting the merit of the field: its interdisciplinary, collaborative, postmodern, dynamic and democratic nature.


ccc41.1 ChairsAddress Writing History Teachers Students Rhetoric Stories Address CCCC Talk Technology Women Narratives Politics

Works Cited

Bakhtin, M[ikhail] M. “Discourse in the Novel.” The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Ed. Michael Holquist. Austin: U of Texas P, 1981. 259-422.
Barthes, Roland. “The Death of the Author.” Image-Music-Text. New York: Hill and Wang, 1977.
Bartholomae, David. “The Reach of Composition.” CCCC Convention. St. Louis, March 1988. Rpt. as ” Freshman English, Composition, and CCCC .” CCC 40 (February 1989); 38-50.
Berlin, James A. Rhetoric and Reality: Writing Instruction in American Colleges, 1900-1985. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1987.
—. Writing Instruction in Nineteenth Century American Colleges. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1984. Bloom, Allan David. The Closing of the American Mind. New York: Simon, 1987.
Brooks, Charlotte K., ed. Tapping Potential: English and Language Arts for the Black Learner. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1985.
Brown, Betsy E. “Comestible Communication: The Rhetoric of the Power Lunch.” CCCC Convention. Minneapolis, March 1985.
Burke, Kenneth. A Rhetoric of Motives. Berkeley: U of California P, 1962.
—. “Terministic Screens.” Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature and Method. Berkeley: U of California P, 1966.44-62.
Clark, Suzanne. “Julia Kristeva.” CCCC Convention. Seattle, March 1989.
Connors, Robert J. “Angelina Grimke.” CCCC Convention. Seattle, March 1989.
—. “Grammar in American College Composition: A Historical Overview.” The Territory of Language: Linguistics, Stylistics, and the Teaching of Composition. Ed. Donald A. McQuade. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1986. 3-22.
—. “Mechanical Correctness as a Focus in Composition Instruction.” CCC 36 (February 1985): 61-72.
—. “The Rhetoric of Explanation: Explanatory Rhetoric from Aristotle to 1850.” Written Communication 1 (April 1984): 189-210.
—. “The Rhetoric of Explanation: Explanatory Rhetoric from 1850 to the Present.” Written Communication 2 (January 1985): 49-73.
—. “The Rise and Fall of the Modes of Discourse.” CCC 32 (December 1981): 444-55.
—. “The Rise of Technical Writing Instruction in America.” Journal of Technical Writing and Communication 12 (982): 329-52.
—. “Textbooks and the Evolution of the Discipline.” CCC 37 (May 1986): 178-94.
Covino, William A. The Art of Wondering: A Revisionist Return to the History of Rhetoric. Portsmouth: Boynton/Cook, 1988.
Crowley, Sharon. “The Current-Traditional Theory of Style: An Informal History.” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 16 (Fall 1986): 233-50.
—. “The Evaluation of Invention in Current-Traditional Rhetoric: 1850-1970.” Rhetoric Review 3 (January 1985): 146-62.
—. “Neo-Romanticism and the History of Rhetoric.” Pre/Text 5 (Spring 1984): 19-37.
—. “A Plea for the Revival of Sophistry.” Rhetoric Review 7 (Spring 1989): 318-34.
—. “On Poststructuralism and Compositionists.” Pre/Text 5 (Fall-Winter 1984): 185-95.
—. “Response to Robert J. Connors, ‘The Rise and Fall of the Modes of Discourse.'” CCC 35 (February 1984): 88-90.
Derrida, Jacques. Limited Inc. Evanston: Northwestern UP, 1988.
—. Of Grammatology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1976.
Dickinson, Emily. The Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson. Ed. Thomas H. Johnson. Boston: Little, 1957.
Ede, Lisa. “Lucia Olbrechts-Tyteca.” CCCC Convention. Seattle, March 1989.
—. “Collaborative Learning: Lessons from the World of Work.” Writing Program Administration 9 (Spring 1986): 17-27.
Ede, Lisa, and Andrea Lunsford. “Let Them W rite-Together.” English Quarterly 18.3 (Winter 1985): 119-27.
—. Singular Texts/Plural Authors: Perspectives on Collaborative Writing. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, forthcoming.
Emig, Janet. The Composing Processes of Twelfth Graders. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1971.
Enos, Richard. “The Effects of Imperial Patronage on the Rhetorical Tradition of Athenia Second Sophistic.” Communication Quarterly 25 (Spring 1977): 3-10.
—. “Emerging Notions of Heuristic, Eristic, and Protreptic Rhetoric in Homeric Discourse: Proto-Literate Conniving, Wrangling, and Reasoning.” Texas Writing Research Conference. Austin, 1981.
—. “The Epistemology of Gorgias’s Rhetoric: A Re-examination.” Southern Speech Communication Journal 42 (Fall 1976): 35-51.
—. “The Features of Sophistic Composition.” New Directions in Composition Scholarship Conference. U of New Hampshire, Durham, 1986.
—. “The Formulae of Sophistic Composition.” CCCC Convention. Atlanta, March 1987.
—. “Rhetorical Theory and Sophistic Composition: A Reconstruction.” The Report of the 1985 National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Stipend. 1986.
Faigley, Lester. “Peristalsis as Paradigm: From Process to Product.” CCCC Convention. Minneapolis, March 1985.
Gaur, Albertine. A History of Writing. London: The British Library, 1984.
Gelb, I. J. A Study of Writing. 1952. Rev. ed. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1963.
Geertz, Clifford. Local Knowledge: Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology. New York: Basic Books, 1983.
Glenn, Cheryl. “Aspasia.” CCCC Convention. Seattle, March 1989.
Goody, Jack. The Domestication of the Savage Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1977.
—. The Interface between the Written and the Oral. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987.
—. The Logic of Writing and the Organization of Society. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1986.
Goody, Jack, and Ian Watt. “The Consequences of Literacy.” Literacy in Traditional Societies. Ed. Jack Goody. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1968. 27-68.
Gutman, Herbert G. Power and Culture. New York: Pantheon, 1987.
Haas, Christina, and Linda Flower. “Rhetorical Reading Strategies and the Construction of Meaning.” CCC 39 (May 1988): 167-83.
Hairston, Maxine. “Breaking Our Bonds and Reaffirming Our Connections.” CCCC Convention. Minneapolis, May 1985. Rpt. in CCC 36 (October 1985): 272-82. Rpt. in ADE Bulletin 81 (Fall 1985): 1-5.
Halloran, S. Michael. “Aristotle’s Concept of Ethos, or If Not His, Somebody Else’s.” Rhetoric Review 1 (September 1982): 58-63.
—. “Eating Aristotle: Semiotics as Salivation in The Name of the Rose.” CCCC Convention. Minneapolis, March 1985.
—. “On the End of Rhetoric, Classical and Modern.” College English 36 (February 1975): 621-31.
—. “Rhetoric in the American College Curriculum: The Decline of Public Discourse.” Pre/Text 3 (Fall 1982): 245-69.
—. “Tradition and Theory in Rhetoric.” Quarterly journal of Speech 62 (October 1976): 234-41.
Halloran, S. Michael, and Mertill O. Whitburn. “Ciceronian Rhetoric and the Rise of Science: The Plain Style Reconsidered.” The Rhetorical Tradition and Modern Writing. Ed. James J. Murphy. New York: MLA, 1982. 58-72.
Havelock, Eric A. The Muse Learns to Write: Reflections on Orality and Literacy from Antiquity to the Present. New Haven: Yale UP, 1986.
Heath, Shirley Brice. Ways With Words: Language, Life, and Work in Communities and Classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1983.
Heilbrun, Carolyn. Writing a Woman’s Life. New York: Norton, 1988.
Herrington, Anne J. “Wining and Dining Across the Curriculum: The Smorgasbord of Discourse.” CCCC Convention. Minneapolis, March 1985.
Hirsch, E.D., Jr. Cultural Literacy. Boston: Houghton, 1987.
Holt, Thomas. ”’Knowledge Is Power’: The Black Struggle for Literacy.” The Right to Literacy Conference. Columbus, Ohio, September 1988.
Hubert, Henry Allan. “The Development of English Studies in Nineteenth-Century Anglo Canadian Colleges.” Diss. U of British Columbia, 1988.
Jarrett, Susan. “Toward a Sophistic Historiography.” Pre/Text 8 (Spring 1987): 9-28.
—. “The First Sophists and the Political Implications of Techne.” CCCC Convention. Seattle, March 1989.
—. “The First Sophists as Precursors of Humanism: Expanding the Limits of Literacy.” CCCC Convention. Atlanta, March 1987.
Johnson, Nan. Nineteenth-Century Rhetoric: Theory and Practice in North America. Carbondale; Southern Illinois UP, forthcoming.
—. “English Composition, Rhetoric, and English Studies at Nineteenth-Century Canadian Colleges and Universities.” English Quarterly 20.4 (Winter 1987): 296-304.
—. “Rhetoric and Belles Lettres in the Canadian Academy; An Historical Analysis.” College English 50 (December 1988): 861-73.
Kerckhove, Derrick de, and Charles J. Lumsden, eds. The Alphabet and the Brain. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1988.
Knoblauch, C.L., and Lil Brannon. Rhetorical Traditions and the Teaching of Writing. Upper Montclair: Boynton/Cook, 1984.
Leonardi, Susan J. “Recipes for Reading: Summer Pasta, Lobster a la Riseholme, and Key Lime Pie.” PMLA 104 (May 1989): 340-47.
Lipscomb-Burnett, Drema. “Sojourner Truth: A Practical Public Discourse.” CCCC Convention. Seattle, March 1989.
Lunsford, Andrea. “Masticatio: A New Trope from Classical Rhetoric.” CCCC Convention. Minneapolis, March 1985.
Lunsford, Andrea, and Lisa Ede. “Classical Rhetoric, Modern Rhetoric, and Contemporary Discourse Studies.” Written Communication 1 (1984): 78-100.
—. “Why Write. . . Together: A Research Update.” Rhetoric Review 5 (Fall 1986): 71-77.
—. “Collaboration and Compromise: The Fine Arc of Writing with a Friend.” Writers on Writing. Vol. 2. Ed. Tom Waldrep. New York: Random House, 1987. 121-28.
Lyon, Arabella. “Susanne Langer.” CCCC Convention. Seattle, March 1989.
Moffett, James. “Censorship and Spiritual Education.” The Right to Literacy Conference. Columbus, Ohio, September 1988.
—. Storm in the Mountains. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois UP, 1988.
Olson, David. “From Utterance to Text: The Bias of Language in Speech and Writing.” Harvard Educational Review 47 (August 1977): 257-81.
—. “The Languages of Instruction: The Literate Bias of Schooling.” Schooling and the Acquisition of Knowledge. Ed. R. Spiro. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1977. 65-89.
—. “Mind, Media, and Memory: The Archival and Epistemological Functions of Written Text.” The Alphabet and the Brain: The Lateralization of Writing. Ed. Derrick de Kerckhove and Charles J. Lumsden. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1988.422-41.
Olson, David R., Nancy Torrance, and Angela Hillyard, eds. Literacy, Language, and Learning: The Nature and Consequences of Reading and Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1985.
Ong, Walter. Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word. London: Methuen, 1982.
Plato. Gorgias. Trans. W.E. Helmbold. Indianapolis: Liberal Arts Press, 1952.
Redfern, Jenny R. “Christine de Pisan and Her Medieval Rhetoric.” CCCC Convention. Seattle, March 1989.
Rose, Mike. Lives on the Boundary. New York: The Free Press, 1989.
Royster, Jacqueline Jones. “Muted Voices: Perspectives on Black Women as Writers of Non-Fiction Prose.” The Right to Literacy Conference. Columbus, Ohio, September 1988.
—. “Contending Forces: The Struggles of Black Women for Intellectual Affirmation.” Ohio State U, Columbus, Ohio, 1 March 1989.
Ruszkiewicz, John J. “A Theory of Dis-Course and Dat-Course.” CCCC Convention. Minneapolis, March 1985.
Scribner, Sylvia, and Michael Cole, The Psychology of Literacy. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1981.
Secor, Marie. “La Technique: An Alimentary Approach to Stylistic Analysis,” CCCC Convention. Minneapolis, March 1985.
Selzer, Jack. “Upchuck Retaught: A Bulimic Finds An Authentic Voice (A Case Study).” CCCC Convention. Minneapolis, March 1985.
Shaughnessy, Mina. Errors and Expectations: A Guide for the Teacher of Basic Writing. New York: Oxford UP, 1977.
Smith, Barbara Herrnstein. “Cult-Lit: Hirsch, Literacy, and ‘The National Culture.”’ South Atlantic Quarterly, forthcoming.
Standley, Fred. “William Bennett, Alan Bloom, E.D. Hirsch, Jr.: ‘Great Nature has another thing to do to you and me. . . . “, Teaching English in the Two-Year College 15 (December 1988): 266-77.
Stimpson, Catherine R. Where the Meanings Are. New York: Methuen, 1988.
Swearingen, E. Jan. “Inez de la Cruz.” CCCC Convention. Seattle, March 1989.
Swenson, May. “Look Closer.” New Yorker 12 December 1988: 48.
Sykes, Charles. Profscam: Professors and the Demise of Higher Education. Washington: Regnery Gateway. 1988.
Troyka, Lynn Quitman. “Perspectives on Legacies and Literacy in the 1980’s.” CCC 33 (1982): 252-62.
Vitanza, Victor. “Editorial Preface 2: ‘Rhetoric, Cookery, and Recipes.”’ Pre/Text 1.1-2 (1980): 205-14.
Washington, Mary Ellen, ed. Invented Lives. New York: Doubleday, 1987.
Webber, Thomas. Deep Like the Rivers. New York: Norton, 1978.

Winsor, Dorothy A. “Engineering Writing/Writing Engineering.” CCC 41.1 (1990): 58-70.


The author, using both a file of engineering documents and interviews with a engineer with his PhD in mechanical engineering, seeks to discredit the notion held among engineers that language is only a way to transmit knowledge, not to discover it. She claims that engineers need writing in order to analyze their physical data and convert it into knowledge that can be shared with others and used in conjunction with other information in later experiments. Engineers also use language to “write themselves as engineers”: their reports transform their often creative, non-linear decisions in an experiment to an ostensibly logical progression of choices, since engineering values facts and data, not tacit knowledge.


ccc41.1 Knowledge Writing Documents Papers Engineering Research DataSheets Computers Graphs Handouts Scientists Data Reports

Works Cited

Allen, Thomas J. Managing the Flow of Technology: Technology Transfer and the Dissemination of Technological Information in an R&D Organization. Cambridge: MIT P, 1977.
Anderson, Paul V. Technical Writing: A Reader-Centered Approach. San Diego: Harcourt, 1987.
Bazerman, Charles. “Modern Evolution of the Experimental Report in Physics: Spectroscopic Articles in Physical Review, 1893-1980.” Social Studies of Science 14 (Winter 1984): 163-96.
—. “Scientific Writing as a Social Act: A Review of the Literature.” New Essays in Technical and Scientific Communication. Ed. Paul Anderson, R. John Brockmann, and Carolyn Miller. Farmingdale: Baywood, 1983. 156-84.
—. Shaping Written Knowledge: The Genre and Activity of the Experimental Article in Science. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1988.
Broadhead, Glenn J, and Richard C. Freed. The Variables of Composition: Process and Product in a Business Setting. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1986.
Bruffee, Kenneth A. “Social Construction, Language, and the Authority of Knowledge.” College English 48 (December 1986): 773-90.
Dobrin, David N. “Is Technical Writing Particularly Objective?” College English 47 (March 1985): 237-51.
Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books, 1973.
Houp, Kenneth W., and Thomas E. Pearsall. Reporting Technical Information. 6th ed. New York: Macmillan, 1988.
Knorr, Karin D. “Tinkering Toward Success: Prelude to a Theory of Scientific Practice.” Theory and Society 8 (April 1979): 347-76.
Lannon, John M. Technical Writing. 3rd ed. Boston: Little, 1985.
Latour, Bruno. “Is It Possible to Reconstruct the Research Process?” The Social Process of Scientific Investigation. Ed. Karin D. Knorr, Roger Krohn, and Richard Whitley. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel, 1981. 53-73.
—. Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers Through Society. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1987.
Latour, Bruno, and Steve Woolgar. Laboratory Life. Beverly Hills: Sage, 1979.
Law, John, and R. J. Williams. “Putting Facts Together: A Study of Scientific Persuasion.” Social Studies of Science 12 (Fall 1982): 535-58.
Lefevre, Karen B. Invention as a Social Act. Studies in Writing and Rhetoric. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1987.
Mathes, J. c., and Dwight W. Stevenson. Designing Technical Reports: Writing for Audiences in Organizations. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1976.
Miller, Carolyn R. “The Ethos of Science and the Ethos of Technology.” CCCC Convention. Washington, Mar. 1980.
—. “Genre as Social Action.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 70 (May 1984); 151-67.
Miller, Carolyn R., and Jack Selzer. “Special Topics of Argument in Engineering Reports.” Writing in Nonacademic Settings. Ed. Lee Odell and Dixie Goswami. New York: Guilford, 1985. 309-4l.
Nelson, John S., Allan Megill, and Donald N. McCloskey. The Rhetoric of the Human Sciences. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1987.
Paradis, James, David Dobrin, and Richard Miller. “Writing at Exxon ITD: Notes on the Writing Environment of an R&D Organization.” Writing in Nonacademic Settings. Ed. Lee Odell and Dixie Goswami. New York: Guilford, 1985.281-307.
Selzer, Jack. “The Composing Processes of an Engineer.” CCC 34 (May 1983): 178-87.
Toulmin, Stephen. Human Understanding: The Collective Use and Evolution of Concepts. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1972.

Stotsky, Sandra. “On Planning and Writing Plans. Or Beware of Borrowed Theories!” CCC 41.1 (1990): 37-57.


This article illustrates the current research and pedagogical problem caused by the lack of a cohesive definition of planning and writing plans, gives reasons why the problem is occurring, and offers a new definition of writing plans. Stotsky argues that the absence of a precise definition has stunted research in planning, because without a clear conceptual definition, theories cannot be produced, tested, refined or shared. She claims that composition’s borrowing of other disciplines’ theoretical frameworks have caused the ambiguity surrounding writing plans. Cognitive psychology’s theory that thinking precedes writing created a binary between product and process, a binary that is challenged in writing plans because of the difficulty of separating mental planning from physical writing action. She proposes that researchers adopt a Vygotskian view of language and offers a new theory of planning as the composing (not writing) process, which she defines as “the activity of creating ideas and connecting them coherently, internally, and visibly.”


ccc41.1 Writing Process Research Plans Thinking Goals MentalConstructs LFlower JHayes Purpose Study Planning

Works Cited

Axelrod, Rise B., and Charles R. Cooper. The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing. 2nd ed. New
York: St. Martin’s, 1988.
Bronowski, Jacob. Insight. New York: Harper, 1964.
Cooper, Marilyn, and Michael Holzman. “Talking about Protocols.” CCC 34 (October 1983): 284-93.
Emig, Janet. The Composing Processes of Twelfth Graders. Research Report No. 13. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1971.
Flower, Linda. The Role of Task Representation in Reading to Write. Technical Report No.6. Berkeley: Center for the Study of Writing at U of California, Berkeley and Carnegie Mellon U, 1987.
Flower, Linda, and John Hayes. “A Cognitive Process Theory of Writing.” CCC 32 (December 1981): 365-87.
—. “The Dynamics of Composing: Making Plans and Juggling Constraints.” Cognitive Processes in Writing. Ed. Lee Gregg and Erwin Steinberg. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1980. 31-50.
—. “Images, Plans, and Prose: The Representation of Meaning in Writing.” Written Communication 1 (January 1984): 120-60.
—. “Plans that Guide the Composing Process.” Writing: The Nature, Development, and Teaching of Written Communication, Volume 2. Ed. Carl H. Frederiksen and Joseph Dominic. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1981. 39-58.
Halliday, Michael A.K., and Ruqaiya Hasan. Cohesion in English. London: Longman, 1976.
Harris, Muriel. Practice for a Purpose. Boston: Houghton, 1984.
Hashimoto, Irwin, Barry Kroll, and John Schafer. Strategies for Academic Writing, Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1982.
Haswell, Richard. “Critique: Length of Text and the Measurement of Cohesion.” Research in the Teaching of English 22 (December 1988): 428-33.
Hayes, John, and Linda Flower. “Identifying the Organization of Writing Processes.” Cognitive Processes in Writing. Ed. Lee Gregg and Erwin Steinberg. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1980. 3-30.
Hennings, Dorothy G. “A Writing Approach to Reading Comprehension-Schema Theory in Action.” Composing and Comprehending. Ed. Julie Jensen. Urbana: National Conference on Research on English, 1984. 191-200.
Hillocks, George A., Jr. Research on Written Composition. Urbana: National Conference on Research on English and ERIC-RCS, 1986.
Humes, Ann. “Research on the Composing Process.” Review of Educational Research 5 3 (Summer 1983): 201-16.
Johnson, Jean. The Bedford Guide to the Research Process. New York: St. Martin’s, 1987.
Johnston, Peter H. Reading Comprehension Assessment: A Cognitive Basis. Newark: International Reading Association, 1983.
Kaufer, David, John Hayes, and Linda Flower. “Composing Written Sentences.” Research in the Teaching of English 20 (May 1986): 121-40.
Kuhlthau, Carol C. “The Library Research Process: Case Studies and Interventions with High School Seniors in Advanced Placement English Classes Using Kelly’s Theory of Constructs.” Diss. Rutgers U, 1983.
—. “Longitudinal Case Studies of the Information Search Process of Users in Libraries.” Library Information Science Research (Fall 1988): 257-304.
Larson, Richard L. “Toward a Linear Rhetoric of the Essay.” CCC 22 (May 1971): 140-46.
Markels, Robin Bell. A New Perspective on Cohesion in Expository Paragraphs. Studies in Writing and Rhetoric. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1984.
Matsuhashi, Ann. “Pausing and Planning: The Tempo of Written Discourse.” Research in the Teaching of English 15 (May 1981): 113-34.
Murray, Donald. Write to Learn. 1st ed. New York: Holt, 1984. 2nd ed. New York: Holt, 1987.
Nelson, Jennie, and John Hayes. How the Writing Context Shapes College Students’ Strategies for Writing from Sources. Technical Report No. 16. Berkeley: Center for the Study of Writing at U of California, Berkeley and Carnegie Mellon University, 1988.
Newell, Allen, and Herbert A. Simon. Human Problem Solving. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice, 1972.
Scardamalia, Marlene, Carl Bereiter, and Hillel Goelman. “The Role of Production factors in Writing Ability.” What Writers Know: The Language, Process, and Structure of Written Discourse. Ed. Martin Nystrand. New York: Academic, 1982. 173-210.
Schank, Roger, and Robert Abelson. Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1977.
Sommers, Nancy, and Donald McQuade. Student Writers at Work: The Bedford Prizes. New York: St. Martin’s, 1984.
Spivey, Nancy, and James King. “Readers as Writers: Composing from Sources.” Reading Research Quarterly 24.1 (Winter 1989): 7-26.
Stallard, Charles. “An Analysis of the Behavior of Good Student Writers.” Research in the Teaching of English 8 (Fall 1974): 206-18.
Stotsky, Sandra. Making Connections Between Civic Education and Language Education. New York: Teachers College, forthcoming.
—. “On Learning to Write About Ideas.” CCC 37 (October 1986): 276-93.
—. Rev. of A New Perspective on Cohesion in Expository Paragraphs, by Robin Bell Markels. CCC 37 (December 1986): 489-90.
Trimmer, Joseph, and James McCrimmon. Writing with a Purpose. 9th ed. Boston: Houghton, 1988.
Tuinman, Jaap. Rev. of Reading Comprehension Assessment: A Cognitive Basis, by Paul Johnston. Journal of Reading Behavior 16 (1984): 159-64.
Walvoord, Barbara Fassler. Writing: Strategies for all Disciplines. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice, 1985.
Witte, Stephen. “Pre-Text and Composing.” CCC 38 (December 1987): 397-425.

Worth, Anderson, et al. “Cross-Curricular Underlife: A Collaborative Report on Ways with Academic Words.” CCC 41.1 (1990): 11-36.


The six authors (five students and one professor) conducted a study of the reading and writing practices in the University of Utah’s required writing course and in other lower-division courses at the institution. Each of the five student-authors reflected individually on how learning was (or wasn’t) happening in their second-quarter courses: the literacy practices used, their motivation for taking certain classes, and the effect of the teacher’s and other students’ attitudes on the class. They found that what defines “academic literacy” varies by the discourse community that the student is in. The student-authors conclude that a narrowly defined first-year course that does not consider the varying ways students will be writing does not adequately prepare students to use language efficiently in other courses. Susan Miller agrees and points out that first-year composition’s view of academic literacy is “simultaneously too uniformed and idealistic about, and too alienated from, the multicultural, multileveled settings in which that literacy has purchase,” and that students must learn in first-year writing how to analyze and understand the ethoi that informs each rhetorical situation they encounter.


ccc41.1 Students Classrooms Writing Courses Teachers Language Notes Learning Observations AcademicLiteracy DBrandt Underlife Values

Works Cited

Bazerman, Charles. The Informed Writer. 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton, 1988.
Brooke, Robert. “Underlife and Writing Instruction.” CCC 38 (May 1987): 141-53.
Chase, Geoffrey. “Accommodation, Resistance and the Politics of Student Writing.” CCC 39 (February 1988): 13-22.
Connors, Robert J., and Andrea A. Lunsford. “Frequency of Formal Errors in Current College Writing, or Ma and Pa Kettle Do Research.” CCC39 (Dec. 1988): 395-409.
Lindemann, Erika. “Grading Rubrics for Class Evaluations of Writing Assignments.” Ms. distributed to class.
Miller, Susan. “The Subject of Composition.” Ch. 3 of Textual Carnivals: The Politics of Composition. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, forthcoming 1990.

Works Consulted

Bartholomae, David. “Inventing the University.” When A Writer Can’t Write. Ed. Mike Rose. New York: Guilford, 1985. 134-65.
Bizzell, Patricia. “Foundationalism and Anti-Foundationalism in Composition Studies.” Pre/Text 7.1-2 (Spring/Summer 1986): 37-56.
Freed, Richard C., and Glenn J. Broadhead. “Discourse Communities, Sacred Texts, and Institutional Norms.” CCC 38 (May 1987): 154-65.
Harris, Joseph. ” The Idea of Community in the Study of Writing .” CCC40 (February 1989): 11-22.
Heath, Shirley Brice. Ways With Words. New York: Cambridge UP, 1983.
Kadar-Fulop, Judit. “Culture, Writing, and Curriculum.” Purves 25-50.
McCarthy, Lucille. “A Stranger in Strange Lands: A College Student Writing Across the Curriculum.” Research in the Teaching of English 21 (October 1987): 233-65.
Murphy, Ann. ” Transference and Resistance in the Basic Writing Classroom: Problematics and Praxis .” CCC 40 (May 1989): 175-87.
Purves, Alan C., ed. Introduction. Writing Across Languages and Cultures: Issues in Contrastive Rhetoric. Written Communication Annual 2. Newbury Park: Sage, 1988. 9-21.
Warnock, John, and Tilly Eggers [Warnock]. “The Freshman Writing Program at the University of Wyoming.” Options for the Teaching of English: Freshman Composition. Ed. Jasper P. Neel. New York: MLA, 1978. 1-9.

Renew Your Membership

Join CCCC today!
Learn more about the SWR book series.
Connect with CCCC
CCCC on Facebook
CCCC on LinkedIn
CCCC on Twitter
CCCC on Tumblr
OWI Principles Statement
Join the OWI discussion


Copyright © 1998 - 2023 National Council of Teachers of English. All rights reserved in all media.

1111 W. Kenyon Road, Urbana, Illinois 61801-1096 Phone: 217-328-3870 or 877-369-6283

Looking for information? Browse our FAQs, tour our sitemap and store sitemap, or contact NCTE

Read our Privacy Policy Statement and Links Policy. Use of this site signifies your agreement to the Terms of Use