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College Composition and Communication, Vol. 39, No. 3, October 1988

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Berthoff, Ann E. Rev. of Freire for the Classroom: A Sourcebook for Liberatory Teaching by Ira Shor. CCC 39.3 (1988): 359-360.

Bloom, Lynn Z. Rev. of Teaching Composition: Twelve Bibliographical Essays by Gary Tate. CCC 39.3 (1988): 361-362.

Schwartz, Helen J. Rev. of The Wordworthy Computer: Classroom and Research Applications in Language and Literature by Paula R. Feldman and Buford Norman. CCC 39.3 (1988): 362-363.

Johnstone, Anne. Rev. of The Journal Book by Toby Fulwiler. CCC 39.3 (1988): 363-365.

Fulkerson, Richard. Rev. of The Shape of Reason by John Gage. CCC 39.3 (1988): 365-366.

Olive, Barbara. Rev. of The Harper & Row Rhetoric: Writing as Thinking, Thinking as Writing by Wayne C. Booth and Marshall W. Gregory. CCC 39.3 (1988): 366-367.

Curtis, Marcia S. “Windows on Composing: Teaching Revision on Word Processors.” CCC 39.3 (1988): 337-344.

Sullivan, Patricia. “Desktop Publishing: A Powerful Tool for Advanced Composition Courses.” CCC 39.3 (1988): 344-347.

Clark, Irene Lurkis. “Preparing Future Composition Teachers in the Writing Center.” CCC 39.3 (1988): 347-350.

Walker,Nancy L. “Mr. V and ‘A Saturday Morning in the Republic of One.'” CCC 39.3 (1988): 350-353.

Hall, Chris. “Interacting with a Reader: Using the Strip Story to Develop Reciprocity.” CCC 39.3 (1988): 353-356.

Danis,M. Francine. “Catching the Drift: Keeping Peer-Response Groups on Track.” CCC 39.3 (1988): 356-358.

Larson, Richard L. “Selected Bibliography of Scholarship on Composition and Rhetoric, 1987.” CCC 39.3 (1988): 316-336.


This article is an annotated bibliography of recently published work in composition and rhetoric. When selecting essays and books for this list, the author tried to choose works that offered new approaches, theories, and ways of conceiving issues over items dealing with topics already well explored. The bibliography is organized under the following categories: rhetorical and epistemic theory, literary theory and composing, psychological and developmental studies, research processes, composing processes, “basic” writing, younger children’s writing, language studies, structures of texts, instructional advice/assignments, response to writing/tutoring/group work, assessment/evaluation, instructional trends: historical/recent, writing across the curriculum and in non-academic settings, and computers and writing.

No works cited.

Haswell, Richard H. “Dark Shadows: The Fate of Writers at the Bottom.” CCC 39.3 (1988): 303-315.


>The author, noting that when using holistic grading scales, evaluators agreed more on what constituted “bad” writing than what was “good writing,” compares student essays given low holistic scores to those that achieved high scores and professional non-academic essays. He finds that although remedial writers do not closely follow expected academic writing conventions, their writing, as opposed to the work of their higher-scoring peers, does have logical organizational patterns, complex syntax, and a grasp of metaphor that is more like that of professional writers. Based on this finding, the author argues that instructors should seek out these strengths of remedial writers as a basis to further develop their writing to fit academic conventions. In addition, the author challenges teachers of writing to go beyond assessing student writing to diagnosing it – to understand the numerous choices the writer makes, which might transform what are seen now as deficiencies into proficiencies and strengths. </p


ccc39.3 Writing Writers Essays Students Teachers Organization Holistic Paragraph Remedial BottomWriters Wit

Works Cited

Bartholomae, David. “The Study of Error.” CCC 31 (Oct. 1980): 253-69.
Basseches, Michael A. “Dialectical Thinking as a Metasystematic Form of Cognitive Organization.” Beyond Formal Operations: Late Adolescent and Adult Cognitive Development. Ed. Michael L. Commons, Francis A. Richards, and Cheryl Armon. New York: Praeger, 1983. 216-38.
Bizzell, Patricia. “Cognition, Convention, and Certainty: What We Need to Know about Writing.” Pre/Text 3 (Fall 1982): 213-44.
Bradford, Annette N. “Cognitive Immaturity and Remedial College Writers.” The Writer’s Mind: Writing as a Mode of Thinking. Ed. Janice N. Hays et al. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1983. 15-24.
Haswell, Richard H. Change in Undergraduate and Post-Graduate Writing Performance: Quantified Findings. ERIC, 1986. ED 269 780.
—. “The Organization of Impromptu Essays.” College Composition and Communication 37 (Dec. 1986): 402-15.
Hays, Janice N. “Teaching the Grammar of Discourse.” Reinventing the Rhetorical Tradition. Ed. Aviva Freedman and Ian Pringle. Conway, AK: L & S Books, 1980. 145-55.
Hoagland, Edward. Red Wolves and Black Bears. New York: Random House, 1976.
Hull, Glynda. “The Editing Process in Writing: A Performance Study of More Skilled and Less Skilled College Writers.” Research in the Teaching of English 21 (Feb. 1987): 8-29.
Inhelder, Barbel, and Jean Piaget. The Growth of Logical Thinking from Childhood to Adolescence: An Essay on the Construction of Formal Operational Structures. Trans. Anne Parsons and Stanley Milgram. New York: Basic Books, 1958.
Labouvie-Vief, Gisela. “Discontinuities in Development from Childhood to Adulthood: A Cognitive-Developmental View.” Review of Human Development. Ed. Tiffany M. Field et al. New York: Wiley, 1982. 447-55.
Lunsford, Andrea. “The Content of Basic Writers’ Essays.” CCC 31 (Oct. 1980): 278-90.
Murphy, J .M., and Carol Gilligan. “Moral Development in Late Adolescence and Adulthood: A Critique and Reconstruction of Kohlberg’s Theory.” Human Development 23 (1980): 77 -104.
Ohmann, Richard. “Use Definite, Specific, Concrete Language.” College English 41 (Dec. 1979): 390-97.
Rose, Mike. “Remedial Writing Courses: A Critique and a Proposal.” College English 45 (Feb. 1983): 109-28.
Shaughnessy, Mina P. Errors and Expectations: A Guide for the Teacher of Basic Writing. New York: Oxford UP, 1977.
Stotsky, Sandra. “On Learning to Write about Ideas.” CCC 37 (Oct. 1986): 276-93.

Rose, Mike. “Narrowing the Mind and Page: Remedial Writers and Cognitive Reductionism.” CCC 39.3 (1988): 267-302.


This article attacks what the author terms cognitive reductionism by looking at the theories, claims, and terms surrounding the discourse of remediation and pointing out problems in applying over-generalized cognitive and literacy theories to poor college writers. The author shows how uncritical acceptance of cognitive theories such as Witkin’s field independence-dependence theory, hemispheticity, Jean Piaget’s stages of cognitive development, and the orality-literacy divide leads to dangerous, ungrounded political and educational conclusions of remedial writers.


ccc39.3 Cognitive Literacy Theory Problems Field Studies Differences Language Cognition Tests Writing Style JPiaget Research Brains Remediation Students

Works Cited

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Bartholomae, David. “Inventing the University.” Rose, When a Writer Can’t Write 134-65.
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Berthoff, Ann E. “Is Teaching Still Possible?” College English 46 (1984): 743-55.
Bizzell, Patricia. “Cognition, Convention, and Certainty: What We Need to Know about Writing.” Pre/Text 3 (1982): 213-44.
Bizzell, Patricia, and Bruce Herzberg. The Bedford Bibliography for Teachers of Writing. Boston: Bedford Books, 1987.
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Brown, Warren S., James T. Marsh, and Ronald E. Ponsford. “Hemispheric Differences in Event-Related Brain Potentials.” Benson and Zaidel 163-79.
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Carey, Susan. Conceptual Change in Childhood. Cambridge: MIT P, 1985.
Chafe, Wallace L. “Linguistic Differences Produced by Differences in Speaking and Writing.” Olson, Torrance, and Hildyard 105-23.
Clanchy, M.T. From Memory to Written Record: England 1066-1307. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1979.
Cole, Michael, and Barbara Means. Comparative Studies of How People Think. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1981.
Cressy, David. “The Environment for Literacy: Accomplishment and Context in Seventeenth Century England and New England.” Literacy in Historical Perspective. Ed. Daniel P. Resnick. Washington: Library of Congress, 1983.23-42.
Cronbach, Lee J. Essentials of Psychological Testing. New York: Harper and Row, 1960.
DeRenzi, Ennio. Disorders of Space Exploration and Cognition. London: Wiley, 1982.
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Donchin, Emanuel, Gregory McCarthy, and Marta Kutas. “Electroencephalographic Investigations of Hemispheric Specialization.” Language and Hemispheric Specialization in Man: Cerebral Event-Related Potentials. Ed. John E. Desmedt. Basel, NY: Karger, 1977. 212-42.
Dumas, Roland, and Arlene Morgan. “EEG Asymmetry as a Function of Occupation, Task and Task Difficulty.” Neuropsychologia 13 (1975): 214-28.
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Ehrlichman, Howard, and Arthur Weinberger. “Lateral Eye Movements and Hemispheric Asymmetry: A Critical Review.” Psychological Bulletin 85 (1978): 1080-110l.
Elbow, Peter. “The Shifting Relationships Between Speech and Writing.” CCC 34 (1985): 283-303.
Enos, Richard Leo, and John Ackerman. “Letteraturizzazione and Hellenic Rhetoric: An Analysis for Research with Extensions.” Proceedings of 1984 Rhetoric Society of America Conference. Ed. Charles Kneupper, forthcoming.
Fillmore, Charles J. “On Fluency.” Individual Differences in Language Ability and Language Behavior. Ed. Charles). Fillmore, Daniel Kempler, and William S.Y. Wang. New York: Academic Press, 1979. 85-101.
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Freedman, Sarah, et al. Research in Writing: Past, Present, and Future. Berkeley: Center for the Study of Writing, 1987.
Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind. New York: Basic Books, 1983.
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Gardner, Howard, and Ellen Winner. “Artistry and Aphasia.” Acquired Aphasia. Ed. Martha Taylor Sarno. New York: Academic Press, 1981. 361-84.
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Gilman, Sandor. Difference and Pathology. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1985. Ginsburg, Herbert. “Poor Children, African Mathematics, and the Problem of Schooling.” Educational Research Quarterly 2 (1978); 26-44.
Glaser, Robert. “Education and Thinking: The Role of Knowledge.” American Psychologist 39 (1984); 93-104.
Goodenow, Jacqueline. “The Nature of Intelligent Behavior: Questions Raised by Cross Cultural Studies.” The Nature of Intelligence. Ed. Lauren B. Resnick. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1976. 168-88.
Goody, Jack. The Domestication of the Savage Mind. London: Cambridge UP, 1977.
Gould, Stephen Jay. The Mismeasure of Man. New York: Norton, 1981.
Graff, Harvey. The Literacy Myth. New York: Academic Press, 1979.
—. “Reflections on the History of Literacy: Overview, Critique, and Proposals.” Humanities and Society 4 (1981): 303-33.
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Halliday, M.A.K. “Differences Between Spoken and Written Language.” Communication through Reading. Vol. 2. Ed. Glenda Page, John Elkins, and Barrie O’Connor. Adelaide, SA: Australian Reading Association, 1979. 37-52.
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—. Ways With Words. London: Cambridge UP, 1983.
Hillyard, Steve A., and David L. Woods. “Electrophysiological Analysis of Human Brain Function.” Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology. Vol. 2. Ed. Michael S. Gazzaniga. New York: Plenum, 1979. 343-78.
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Hull, Glynda. “The Editing Process in Writing; A Performance Study of Experts and Novices.” Diss. U of Pittsburgh, 1983.
Hunt, Earl. “On the Nature of Intelligence.” Science 219 (1983): 141-46. Hunter, Carman Sc. John, and David Harmon. Adult Illiteracy in the United States. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985.
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Kuhn, Deanna, Victoria Ho, and Catherine Adams. “Formal Reasoning Among Pre- and Late Adolescents.” Child Development 50 (1979): 1128-35.
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Latour, Bruno, and Steve Woolgar. Laboratory Life. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1979.
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LeDoux, Joseph E. “Cerebral Asymmetry and the Integrated Function of the Brain.” Functions of the Right Cerebral Hemisphere. Ed. Andrew W. Young. London: Academic Press, 1983. 203-16.
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