Click here to view the individual articles in this issue at http://www.ncte.org/cccc/ccc/issues/v41-4
Halloran, S. Michael and John Hollow. Rev. of The English Coalition Conference: Democracy through Language by Richard Lloyd-Jones and Andrea A. Lunsford. CCC 41.4 (1990): 472-475.
Phelps, Louise Wetherbee. Rev. of Developing Successful College Writing Programs by Edward M. White. CCC 41.4 (1990): 475-477.
Chapman, David W. Rev. of Advanced Placement English: Theory, Politics, and Pedagogy by Gary A. Olson, Elizabeth Metzger, and Evelyn Ashton-Jones. CCC 41.4 (1990): 477-478.
Greenberg, Karen L. Rev. of Creating Writers: Linking Assessment and Writing Instruction by Vicki Spandel and Richard J. Stiggins. CCC 41.4 (1990): 478-480.
White, Edward M. Rev. of A Program Development Handbook for the Holistic Assessment of Writing by Norbert Elliot, Maximino Plata, and Paul Zelhart. CCC 41.4 (1990): 480-481.
Trimmer, Joseph F. Rev. of Programs That Work: Models and Methods for Writing across the Curriculum by Toby Fulwiler and Art Young; Disciplinary Perspectives on Thinking and Writing by Barbara S. Morris. CCC 41.4 (1990): 481-483.
Harris, Joseph. Rev. of Discourse and the Construction of Society: Comparative Studies of Myth, Ritual, and Classification by Bruce Lincoln. CCC 41.4 (1990): 483-484.
Guilford, Chuck. “Creating a Learning Flow for Exploratory Writing.” CCC 41.4 (1990): 460-465.
Cleary, Linda Miller and Earl Seidman. “In-Depth Interviewing in the Preparation of Writing Teachers.” CCC 41.4 (1990): 465-471.
Laib, Nevin. “Conciseness and Amplification.” CCC 41.4 (1990): 443-459.
In this article, the author argues for a more balanced approach to style, one that recognizes both the value of conciseness as well as the art of amplification through elaboration, emphasis, and copiousness of style. The author points out that the difference between the two – a style that values brevity and disclosure and one that values superfluity and repetition – is not cut and dry; a plain style can be just as deceptive as an elaborate one and a redundant paragraph can be more understandable than a concise one. He surveys how amplification is taught in classical, medieval, and contemporary rhetoric and offers fifteen amplification strategies that teachers can have students practice and use to enrich their own writing.
ccc41.4 Amplification Style Elaboration Children Conciseness Texts Development Emphasis Paragraph Repetition Substance Rhetoric Teaching
- Aristotle. The Rhetoric and the Poetics of Aristotle. Trans. W. Rhys Roberts and Ingram Bywater. New York: Modern Library, 1984.
- Basevorn, Robert of. The Form of Preaching. Three Medieval Rhetorical Arts. Ed. James J. Murphy. Berkeley: U of California P, 1971. 107-215.
- Bernstein, Basil. “Linguistic Codes, Hesitation Phenomena, and Intelligence.” Language and Speech 5 (Jan.-Mar. 1962): 31-46.
- Burke, Kenneth. A Grammar of Motives. Berkeley: U of California P, 1969.
- —. A Rhetoric of Motives. Berkeley: U of California P, 1969.
- Byron, George Gordon, Lord. Don Juan. Selected Poetry and Letters. Ed. Edward E. Bostetter. New York: Holt, 1966.
- Christensen, Francis, and Bonniejean Christensen. Notes Toward a New Rhetoric: Nine Essays for Teachers. New York: Harper, 1978.
- Erasmus, Desiderius. De duplici copia verborum ac rerum commentarii duo. Collected Works of Erasmus: Literary and Educational Writings. Vol. 2. Ed. Craig R. Thompson. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1978.
- Group Mu (J. Dubois, et al.). A General Rhetoric. Trans. Paul B. Burrell and Edgar M. Slotkin. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1981.
- Guth, Hans. In conversation. 1987.
- Hayakawa, S. I. Language in Thought and Action. New York: Harcourt, 1949.
- Kinneavy, James L. A Theory of Discourse: The Aims of Discourse. New York: Norton, 1980.
- Lanham, Richard. A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms. Berkeley: U of California P, 1969.
- —. The Motives of Eloquence: Literary Rhetoric in the Renaissance. New Haven: Yale UP, 1976.
- —. Style: An Anti-Textbook. New Haven: Yale UP, 1974.
- Macrorie, Ken. Writing to Be Read. New York: Hayden, 1968.
- Markels, Robin Bell. A New Perspective on Cohesion in Expository Paragraphs. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1984.
- O’Hare, Frank. Sentence Combining: Improving Student Writing without Formal Grammar Instruction. Urbana: NCTE, 1973.
- Ong, Walter. Fighting for Life: Contest, Sexuality, and Consciousness. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1981.
- —. Interfaces of the Word: Studies in the Evolution of Consciousness and Culture. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1977.
- Orwell, George. “Politics and the English Language.” The Bedford Reader. Ed. X. J. Kennedy and Dorothy M. Kennedy. New York: St. Martin’s, 1985. 537-51.
- Perelman, Chaim. The Realm of Rhetoric. Notre Dame: U of Notre Dame P, 1982.
- Perelman, Chaim, and Louise Olbrechts-Tyteca. The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation. Notre Dame: U of Notre Dame P, 1969.
- Polanyi, Michael. Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1958.
- Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Trans. H. E. Butler. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1980.
- Rhetorica ad Herennium. Trans. Harry Caplan. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1954.
- Valesio, Paolo. Novantiqua: Rhetorics as a Contemporary Theory. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1980.
- Williams, Joseph. Style: Ten Lessons in Clarity and Grace. Glenview: Scott Foresman, 1981.
- Williamson, George. The Senecan Amble: A Study in Prose Form from Bacon to Collier. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1951.
- Witte, Stephen. “Topical Structure and Revision: An Exploratory Study.” CCC 34 (Oct. 1983): 313-41.
- Zukowski-Faust, Jean. In conversation. 1986.
Podis, JoAnne M. and Leonard A. Podis. “Identifying and Teaching Rhetorical Plans for Arrangement.” CCC 41.4 (1990): 430-442.
The authors in this article offer a new taxonomy of rhetorical heuristics for arrangement of academic prose, an area of study they claim has been largely ignored in the past decade of composition research. They base their rhetorical patterns, such as “obvious before remarkable” and “presentation before refutation,” on current cognitive processing theories, which place importance on text readability and retention, ease of processing, and a sense of orientation in the text. The authors warn composition teachers against using the heuristics as rigid prescriptions, pointing out that good, persuasive writing reflects the audience’s expectations and contains creative rhetorical choices. Arrangement is never foolproof, for it is also affected, as literary theory shows, by the social and historical parameters of the writer, which may compromise the author’s control over his or her language choices.
ccc41.4 Arrangement Plans Students Order Reader Texts Audience Readability Patterns Schemes Organization Control Writing
- Brooke, Robert. “Control in Writing; Flower, Derrida, and Images of the Writer.” College English 51 (April 1989); 405-17.
- Champagne, Roland. Literary History in the Wake of Roland Barthes. Birmingham, AL: Summa Publications, 1984.
- Coe, Richard M. “An Apology for Form; Or, Who Took Form Out of the Process?” College English 49 (Jan. 1987): 13-28.
- Comley, Nancy R., and Robert Scholes. “Literature, Composition, and the Structure of English.” Composition and Literature: Bridging the Gap. Ed. Winifred Bryan Horner. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1983.96-109.
- Corbett, Edward P. J. The Little Rhetoric and Handbook. New York: Wiley, 1977.
- D’Angelo, Frank. A Conceptual Theory of Rhetoric. Cambridge: Winthrop, 1975.
- —. “The Topic Sentence Revisited.” CCC 37 (Dec. 1986): 431-39.
- Dillon, George 1. Constructing Texts: Elements of a Theory of Composition and Style. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1981.
- Eagleton, Terry. Marxism and Literary Criticism. London: Methuen, 1976.
- Enos, Richard Leo. “Ciceronian Dispositio as an Architecture for Creativity in Composition: A Note for the Affirmative.” Rhetoric Review 4 (Sept. 1985): 108-10.
- Fish, Stanley. Is There a Text in this Class? Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1980.
- Flores, Ralph. The Rhetoric of Doubtful Authority. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1984.
- Hartwell, Patrick. “Grammar, Grammars, and the Teaching of Grammar.” College English 47 (Feb. 1985): 105-27.
- —. “Teaching Arrangement: A Pedagogy.” College English 40 (Jan. 1979): 548-54.
- Haswell, Richard H. “The Organization of Impromptu Essays.” CCC 37 (Dec. 1986): 402-15.
- Kintsch, Walter. “Comprehension and Memory of Text.” Handbook of Learning and Cognitive Processes. Vol. 6. Ed. W. K. Estes. Hillsdale: Erlbaum, 1978. 57-86.
- Kintsch, Walter, and Teun A. van Dijk. “Toward a Model of Text Comprehension and Production.” Psychological Review 85 (Sept. 1978): 363-94.
- Knoblauch, C. H., and Lil Brannon. Rhetorical Traditions and the Teaching of Writing. Upper Montclair: Boynton, 1984.
- Kroll, Barry M. “Writing for Readers: Three Perspectives on Audiences.” CCC 35 (May 1984): 172-85.
- Larson, Richard. “Structure and Form in Non-Narrative Prose.” Teaching Composition: Twelve Bibliographical Essays. Ed. Gary Tate. Rev. ed. Fort Worth: Texas Christian UP, 1987. 39-82.
- Meyer, Bonnie J. F. The Organization of Prose and Its Effects on Memory. Amsterdam: North Holland, 1975.
- Phelps, Louise Wetherbee. “Cross-sections in an Emerging Psychology of Composition.” Research in Composition and Rhetoric. Ed. Michael G. Moran and Ronald F. Lunsford. Westport; Greenwood, 1984. 27-69.
- Podis, Leonard A. “Teaching Arrangement: Defining a More Practical Approach.” CCC 31 (May 1980): 197-204.
- Selzer, Jack. “Teaching Arrangement: A Rhetorical Approach.” Conference on College Composition and Communication Convention. Atlanta, Mar. 1987.
- White, Edward M. “Post-Structural Literary Criticism and the Response to Student Writing.” CCC 35 (May 1984): 186-95.
Fulkerson, Richard. “Composition Theory in the Eighties: Axiological Consensus and Paradigmatic Diversity.” CCC 41.4 (1990): 409-429.
This article argues that in the 1980s, the field of composition moved toward a general axiological agreement of what makes good writing – rhetorical understanding that takes into account the needs of the audience – but disagreed on the methods for teaching toward this end. The author points out that the many trends in writing instruction piloted in the 1980s, such as discourse analysis and writing across the curriculum, are differing pedagogical models for the same purpose: audience and context awareness. He also points out that although there are many ways for achieving the same goal in teaching composition, some textbooks and handbooks advocate exercises and assignments that do not support the rhetorical axiology that the field seems ready to endorse.
ccc41.4 Writing Audience Composition Axiology Process Pedagogy Theory Students JBerlin Epistemology Philosophy Teaching Discourse
- Abrams, M. H. The Mirror and the Lamp: Romantic Theory and the Critical Tradition. New York: Norton, 1953.
- Axelrod, Rise B., and Charles R. Cooper. The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing. Short ed. New York: St. Martin’s, 1986.
- Baker, Sheridan. The Practical Stylist. 7th ed. New York: Harper, 1990.
- Beale, Walter. A Pragmatic Theory of Rhetoric. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1987.
- Berlin, James. “Contemporary Composition: The Major Pedagogical Theories.” College English 44 (Dec. 1982): 765-77.
- —. “Rhetoric and Ideology in the Writing Class.” College English 50 (Sept. 1988): 477-94.
- —. Rhetoric and Reality: Writing Instruction in American Colleges, 1900-1985. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1987.
- —. Writing Instruction in Nineteenth-Century American Colleges. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1984.
- Berthoff, Ann E. Forming Thinking Writing: The Composing Imagination. Rochelle Park: Hayden, 1978.
- Bizzell, Patricia. “Cognition, Convention, and Certainty: What We Need to Know about Writing.” Pre/Text 3 (Fall 1982): 213-43.
- —. “Composing Processes: An Overview.” The Teaching of Writing: Eighty-Fifth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Ed. Anthony Petrosky and David Bartholomae. Part 2. Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education, 1986.49-70.
- Bogel, Fredric V., and Katherine K. Gottschalk. Teaching Prose: A Guide for Writing Instructors. New York: Norton, 1988.
- Booth, Wayne, and Marshall W. Gregory. The Harper and Row Rhetoric. New York: Harper, 1987.
- Brannon, Lil. “The Teacher as Philosopher: The Madness Behind Our Method.” Journal of Advanced Composition 4 (983): 25-32.
- —. “Toward a Theory of Composition.” Perspectives on Research and Scholarship in Composition. Ed. Ben McClelland and Timothy Donovan. New York: MLA, 1985.6-25.
- Brinton, Alan. “Situation in the Theory of Rhetoric.” Philosophy and Rhetoric 14 (Fall 1981): 234-48.
- Brooke, Robert, and John Hendricks. Audience Expectations and Teacher Demands. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1989.
- Btuffee, Kenneth. “Collaborative Learning and the ‘Conversation of Mankind.”’ College English 46 (Nov. 1984): 635-52.
- Christensen, Francis, and Bonniejean Christensen. Notes Toward a New Rhetoric. 2nd ed. New York: Harper, 1978.
- Coe, Richard M. Process, Form, and Substance. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice, 1990.
- Coles, William. The Plural I: The Teaching of Writing. New York: Holt, 1978.
- Coles, William, and James Vopat. What Makes Writing Good. Lexington: Heath, 1985.
- Coney, Mary B. “Contemporary Views of Audience: A Rhetorical Perspective.” Technical Writing Teacher 19 (Fall 1987): 319-26.
- Connors, Robert J. “Current-Traditional Rhetoric: Thirty Years of Writing with a Purpose.” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 11 (Fall 1981): 208-21.
- Connors, Robert J., and Cheryl Glenn. The St. Martin’s Guide to Teaching Writing. New York: St. Martin’s, 1989.
- Cooper, Marilyn. “The Ecology of Writing.” Writing as Social Action. Ed. Marilyn Cooper and Michael Holzman. Portsmouth: Boynton, 1989. 1-13.
- Cooper, Marilyn, and- Michael Holzman. Writing as Social Action. Portsmouth: Boynton, 1989.
- Crowley, Sharon. Rev. of Rhetoric and Reality: Writing Instruction in American Colleges, 1900-1985, by James Berlin. CCC 39 (May 1988): 245-47.
- Donovan, Timothy, and Ben McClelland, eds. Eight Approaches to Teaching Composition. Urbana: NCTE, 1980.
- Dowst, Kenneth. “The Epistemic Approach: Writing, Knowing, and Learning.” Eight Approaches to Teaching Composition. Ed. Timothy Donovan and Ben McClelland. Urbana: NCTE, 1980. 65-86.
- Ede, Lisa. “On Audience and Composition.” CCC 30 (Oct. 1979): 291-95.
- Ede, Lisa, and Andrea Lunsford. “Audience Addressed/Audience Invoked: The Role of Audience in Composition Theory and Pedagogy.” CCC 35 (May 1984): 155-71.
- Elbow, Peter. “Closing My Eyes as I Speak: An Argument for Ignoring Audience.” College English 49 (1987): 50-69.
- —. “A Method for Teaching Writing.” College English 30 (November 1968): 115-25.
- —. Writing Without Teachers. New York: Oxford UP, 1973.
- —. Writing with Power: Techniques for Mastering the Writing Process. New York: Oxford, 1981.
- Elbow, Peter, and Pat Belanoff. A Community of Writers: A Workshop Course in Writing. New York: Random, 1989.
- Faigley, Lester. “Competing Theories of Process: A Critique and a Proposal” College English 48 (Oct. 1986): 527-42.
- Faigley, Lester. “Judging Writing, Judging Selves.” CCC 40 (Dec. 1989): 395-412.
- Flower, Linda. Problem-Solving Strategies for Writing. 2nd ed. New York: Harcourt, 1985.
- —. “Writer-Based Prose: A Cognitive Basis for Problems in Writing.” College English 41 (Sept. 1979): 19-37. A Writing Teacher’s Sourcebook. Ed. Gary Tate and E. P. J. Corbett. New York: Oxford UP, 1981. 268-92.
- Friedrich, Dick, and David Kuester. It’s Mine and I’ll Write It That Way. New York: Random, 1972.
- Fulkerson, Richard. “Four Philosophies of Composition.” CCC 30 (Dec. 1979): 343-48.
- Gage, John. “An Adequate Epistemology for Composition: Classical and Modem Perspectives.” Essays on Classical Rhetoric and Modern Discourse. Ed. Robert Connors, Lisa Ede, and Andrea Lunsford. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1984. 152-69.
- —. “Philosophies of Style and Their Implications for Composition.” College English 41 (Feb. 1980): 615-22.
- —. The Shape of Reason. New York: Macmillan, 1987.
- Graser, Elsa R. Teaching Writing-A Process Approach: A Survey of Research. Dubuque: Kendall, 1983.
- Hairston, Maxine. Successful Writing. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 1986.
- —. “The Winds of Change: Thomas Kuhn and the Revolution in The Teaching of Writing.” CCC 33 (1982): 76-88.
- Hamilton-Wieler, Sharon. “Empty Echoes of Dartmouth: Dissonance between the Rhetoric and the Reality.” The Writing Instructor 8 (Fall 1988): 29-4l.
- Hempel, Carl. Philosophy of Natural Science. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice, 1966.
- Hillocks, George, Jr. Research on Written Composition. Urbana: NCTE, 1986.
- Hirsch, E. D. The Philosophy of Composition. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1977.
- —. “Reading, Writing, and Cultural Literacy.” Composition and Literature: Bridging the Gap. Ed. Winifred Bryan Homer. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1983. 141-47.
- Huff, Roland, and Charles R. Kline, Jr. The Contemporary Writing Curriculum: Rehearsing, Composing, and Valuing. New York: Teachers College P, 1987.
- Irmscher, William. Teaching Expository Writing. New York: Holt, 1979.
- Kameen, Paul. “Coming of Age in College Composition.” The Teaching of Writing: Eighty-Fifth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Ed. Anthony Petrosky and David Bartholomae. Part 2. Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education, 1986. 170-87.
- Kelly, Lou. From Dialogue to Discourse: An Open Approach to Competence and Creativity. Glenview: Scott, 1972.
- —. “Toward Competence and Creativity in an Open Class.” College English 34 (Feb. 1973): 644-60. Rpt. in Ideas for English 101: Teaching Writing in College. Ed. Richard Ohmann and W. B. Coley. Urbana: NCTE, 1975. 2-18.
- Kinneavy, James. A Theory of Discourse. New York: Norton, 1980.
- Knoblauch, C. H., and Lil Brannon. Rhetorical Traditions and the Teaching of Writing. Upper Montclair: Boynton, 1984.
- Kroll, Barry. “Writing for Readers: Three Perspectives on Audience.” CCC 35 (May 1984): 172-85.
- Larson, Richard. “Why It Is Unimportant How I Write.” Writers on Writing. Ed. Tom Waldrep. Vol 2. New York: Random, 1988. 111-20.
- LeFevre, Karen Burke. Invention as a Social Act. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1987.
- Lindemann, Erika. A Rhetoric for Writing Teachers. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford UP, 1987.
- Lunsford, Andrea, and Lisa Ede. “On Distinctions between Classical and Modem Rhetoric.” Essays on Classical Rhetoric and Modern Discourse. Ed. Robert Connors, Lisa Ede, and Andrea Lunsford. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1984. 37-49.
- Lynn, Steven. “Reading the Writing Process: Toward a Theory of Current Pedagogies.” College English 49 (Dec. 1987): 902-10.
- Macrorie, Ken. Uptaught. Rochelle Park: Hayden, 1970.
- Marius, Richard. “How I Write.” Writers on Writing. Ed. Tom Waldrep. Vol. 2. New York: Random, 1988. 147-55.
- Martin, Lee J. The Five-Hundred-Word Theme. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice, 1974.
- McCracken, Timothy, and W. Allen Ashby. “The Widow’s Walk: An Alternative for English 101Creative Communications.” College English 36 (Jan. 1975): 555-70. Rpt. in Ideas for English 101: Teaching Writing in College. Ed. Richard Ohmann and W. B. Coley. Urbana: NCTE, 1975. 58-73.
- McPherson, Elizabeth. “Composition.” The Teaching of English: The Seventy-Sixth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Ed. James R. Squire. Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education, 1977. 178-88.
- Mendelson, Michael. “Teaching Writing Inductively.” Journal of Business Communication 25 (Spring 1988): 67-83.
- Moffett, James. Teaching the Universe of Discourse. Boston: Houghton, 1968.
- Murray, Donald. A Writer Teaches Writing: A Practical Method of Teaching Composition. Boston: Houghton, 1968.
- Neeld, Elizabeth Cowan. Writing. 3rd ed. Glenview: Scott, 1990.
- Neman, Beth. Teaching Students to Write. Columbus: Charles Merrill, 1980.
- North, Stephen. The Making of Knowledge in Composition: Portrait of an Emerging Field. Upper Montclair: Boynton, 1987.
- Nystrand, Martin. The Structure of Written Communication: Studies in Reciprocity between Writers and Readers. Orlando: Academic, 1986.
- Ohmann, Richard. English in America. New York: Oxford UP, 1976.
- Rafoth, Bennett. “Discourse Community: Where Writers, Readers, and Texts Come Together.” The Social Construction of Written Communication. Ed. Bennett Rafoth and Donald Rubin. Norwood: Ablex, 1988. 131-46.
- Rafoth, Bennett A., and Donald 1. Rubin, eds. The Social Construction of Written Communication. Norwood: Ablex, 1988.
- Ramage, John, and John Bean. Writing Arguments. New York: Macmillan, 1989.
- Reese, William 1. Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion. Atlantic Highlands: Humanities, 1980.
- Reither, James A., and Douglas Vipond. “Writing as Collaboration.” College English 51 (Dec. 1989): 855-67.
- Rotenberg, Annette. Elements of Argument: A Text and Reader. 2nd ed. New York: St. Martin’s, 1988.
- Rubin, Donald C. “Introduction: Four Dimensions of Social Construction in Written Communication.” The Social Construction of Written Communication. Ed. Bennett Rafoth and Donald Rubin. Norwood: Ablex, 1988. 1-33.
- Shot, Ira. Critical Teaching and Everyday Life. 1980. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1987.
- Stewart, Donald C. The Authentic Voice: A Pre-Writing Approach to Student Writing. Dubuque: William C. Brown, 1972.
- —. “Collaborative Learning and Composition: Boon or Bane?” Rhetoric Review 7 (Fall 1988): 58-85.
- Thomas, Gordon P. “Mutual Knowledge: A Theoretical Basis for Analyzing Audience.” College English 48 (Oct. 1986): 580-94.
- Toulmin, Stephen. The Uses of Argument. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1958.
- Trimmer, Joseph, and James McCrimmon. Writing with a Purpose. Short ed. Boston: Houghton, 1988.
- White, Edward. Developing Successful College Writing Programs. San Francisco: Jossey, 1989.
- Willey, R. J. “Audience Awareness: Methods and Madness.” Freshman English News 18 (Spring 1990): 20-25.
- Williams, James. Preparing to Teach Writing. Belmont: Wadswotth, 1989.
- Woods, William. “Composition Textbooks and Pedagogical Theory 1960-80.” College English 43 (April 1981): 393-409.
- Youga, Jan. The Elements of Audience Analysis. New York: Macmillan, 1989.
Durst, Russel K. “The Mongoose and the Rat in Composition Research: Insights from the RTE Annotated Bibliography.” CCC 41.4 (1990): 393-408.
This article analyzes five years (1984-1989) of empirical studies of composition from the Research in the Teaching of English Annotated Bibliography, examining the major patterns and trends in composition research. The author points out that composition is being called on to solve the literacy crisis in American education, and in order to contribute to the solution, more research focused on minority, middle school, and high school writers needs to be conducted by composition scholars. The author also warns against creating divisions over theoretical frameworks or methodologies because these debates can stall the production of research and knowledge.
ccc41.4 Research Studies Writing Students Composition College Instruction Texts Assessment Process Bibliography Contexts Holistic
- Anson, Chris, and Hildy Miller. ”Journals in Composition: An Update.” CCC 39 (May 1988): 198-216.
- Applebee, Arthur. Contexts for Learning to Write: Studies of Secondary School Instruction. Norwood: Ablex, 1984.
- Armstrong, Cheryl. The Poetic Dimensions of Revision. ERIC, 1986. ED 278 024.
- Berkenkotter, Carol, Thomas Huckin, and John Ackerman. “Conventions, Conversations, and the Writer: Case Study of a Student in a Rhetoric Ph.D. Program.” Research in the Teaching of English 22 (Feb. 1988): 9-44.
- Berlin, James. Rhetoric and Reality: Writing Instruction in American Colleges, 1900-1985. Carbon dale: Southern Illinois UP, 1987.
- Black, Kathleen. “Audience Analysis and Persuasive Writing at the College Level.” Research in the Teaching of English 23 (Oct. 1989): 231-53.
- Breland, Hunter. Assessing Writing Skill. ERIC, 1987. ED 286 920.
- Breland, Hunter, and Roberta Jones. “Perceptions of Writing Skills.” Written Communication 1 (Jan. 1984): 101-19.
- Bridwell, Lillian. “Revising Strategies in Twelfth Grade Students’ Transactional Writing.” Research in the Teaching of English 14 (Oct. 1980): 197-222.
- Brooke, Robert. ” Underlife and Writing Instruction .” CCC 38 (May 1987): 141-53.
- Brossell, Gordon, and Barbara Hoetker Ash. “An Experiment with the Wording of Essay Topics.” CCC 35 (Dec. 1984): 423-25.
- Charney, Davida. “The Validity of Using Holistic Scoring to Evaluate Writing: A Critical Overview.” Research in the Teaching of English 18 (Feb. 1984): 65-81.
- Connor, Ulla, and Janice Lauer. “Understanding Persuasive Essay Writing: A Linguistic/Rhetorical Approach.” Text 5 (Winter 1985): 309-26.
- Connors, Robert, and Andrea Lunsford. “Frequency of Formal Errors in Current College Writing, or Ma and Pa Kettle Do Research.” CCC 39 (Dec. 1988): 395-409.
- Cox, Beverly, and Elizabeth Sulzby. “Children’s Use of Reference in Told, Dictated, and Handwritten Stories.” Research in the Teaching of English 18 (Dec. 1984): 345-66.
- Crowhurst, Marion. “Cohesion in Argument and Narration at Three Grade Levels.” Research in the Teaching of English 21 (May 1987): 185-201.
- Doheny-Farina, Stephen. “Writing in an Emerging Organization: An Ethnographic Study.” Written Communication 2 (April 1986): 158-85.
- Dyson, Ann. “Negotiating among Multiple Worlds: The Space/Time Dimensions of Young Children’s Composing.” Research in the Teaching of English 22 (Dec. 1988): 355-90.
- —. “Transitions and Tensions: Interrelationships between the Drawing, Talking, and Dictating of Young Children.” Research in the Teaching of English 20 (Dec. 1986): 379-409.
- Ede, Lisa, and Andrea Lunsford. “Audience Addressed/Audience Invoked: The Role of Audience in Composition Theory and Pedagogy.” CCC 35 (May 1984): 155-71.
- Elbow, Peter, and Patricia Belanoff. “State University of New York, Stony Brook: Portfolio Based Evaluation Program.” New Directions in College Writing Programs. Ed. Paul Connolly and Theresa Vilardi. New York: MLA, 1986. 95-105.
- Elliott, Audrey. “Throwing the Well-Wrought Urn: The Relationship between Concepts and Evaluation Moves in Revision Processes of Three Writers of Fictional Narratives.” DAI 49 (1988): 1393A.
- Emig, Janet. The Composing Processes of Twelfth Graders. Urbana: NCTE, 1971.
- Faigley, Lester, and Stephen Witte. “Analyzing Revision.” CCC32 (Dee. 1981): 400-14.
- Fitzgerald, Jill. “Research on Revision in Writing.” Review of Educational Research 57 (Winter 1987): 481-506.
- Florio, Susan, and Christopher Clark. “The Functions of Writing in an Elementary Classroom.” Research in the Teaching of English 16 (Feb. 1982): 115-30.
- Flower, Linda. “Writer-Based Prose: A Cognitive Basis for Problems in Writing.” College English 41 (Jan. 1979): 19-37.
- Flower, Linda, and John R. Hayes. “A Cognitive Process Theory of Writing.” CCC 32 (Dec. 1981): 365-87.
- Goodlad, John. A Place Called School. New York: McGraw, 1984.
- Graves, Donald. Balance the Basics: Let Them Write. New York: Ford Foundation, 1978.
- —. “An Examination of the Writing Processes of Seven-Year-Old Children.” Research in the Teaching of English 9 (Oct. 1975): 227-41.
- Halliday, M. A. K., and Ruquiya Hasan. Cohesion in English. London: Longman, 1976.
- Haswell, Richard. Change in Undergraduate and Post-Graduate Writing Performance. ERIC, 1986. ED 269 780.
- —. “Critique: Length of Text and the Measurement of Cohesion.” Research in the Teaching of English 22 (Dee. 1988): 428-33.
- Heath, Shirley Brice. Ways with Words: Language, Life, and Work in Communities and Classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1983.
- Henning, Grant, and Fred Davidson. Scalar Analysis of Composition Ratings. ERIC, 1987. ED 287 285.
- Herrington, Anne. “The First Twenty Years of Research in the Teaching of English and the Growth of a Research Community in Composition Studies.” Research in the Teaching of English 23 (May 1989): 117-37.
- —. “Writing in Academic Settings: A Study of the Contexts for Writing in Two College Chemical Engineering Courses.” Research in the Teaching of English 19 (Dee. 1985): 331-61.
- Hillocks, George. Research on Written Composition. Urbana: National Conference of Research on English, 1986.
- Hoskins, Suzanne. “The Use of Top-Level Structure by Entering Freshmen.” DAI 44 (1983): 3025A.
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