Sommers, Nancy, and Laura Saltz. “The Novice as Expert: Writing the Freshman Year.” CCC 56.1 (2004): 124-149.
Why do some students prosper as college writers, moving forward with their writing, while others lose interest? In this essay we explore some of the paradoxes of writing development by focusing on the central role the freshman year plays in this development. We argue that students who make the greatest gains as writers throughout college (1) initially accept their status as novices and (2) see in writing a larger purpose than fulfilling an assignment. Based on the evidence of our longitudinal study, we conclude that the story of the freshman year is not one of dramatic changes on paper; it is the story of changes within the writers themselves.
ccc56.1 Writing Students FreshmanYear Papers Assignments Development AcademicWriting Novices
- Bartholomae, David. “Inventing the University.” When a Writer Can’t Write: Studies in Writer’s Block and Other Composing Problems. Ed. Mike Rose. New York: Guilford, 1985.
- Carroll, Lee Ann. Rehearsing New Roles: How College Students Develop as Writers. Carbondale: SIUP, 2002.
- Herrington, Anne J., and Marcia Curtis. Persons in Process: Four Stories of Writing and Personal Development in College. Urbana: NCTE, 2000.
- Light, Richard J. Making the Most of College: Students Speak Their Minds. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2001.
- Sternglass, Marilyn S. Time to Know Them: A Longitudinal Study of Writing and Learning at the College Level. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1997.
Borkowski, David. “‘Not Too Late to Take the Sanitation Test’: Notes of a Non-Gifted Academic from the Working Class .” CCC 56.1 (2004): 94-123.
Working-class academic narratives reveal a number of common themes, like dual estrangement and internalized class conflict. A less popularized motif is the bookish child who is catapulted out of her working-class origins. But some working-class academics, like myself, were not academically ambitious as children. I am a nontraditional working-class academic, and my distance from narratives of “gifted” ascent may actually bring me closer to my students.
ccc56.1 WorkingClass Class Students Books Teachers School Academics Bookish Home Scholarship
- Belanoff, Pat. “Language: Closings and Openings.” Tokarczyk and Fay, pp. 251-75.
- Black, Laurel Johnson. “Stupid Rich Bastards.” Dews and Law, pp. 13-25.
- Brodkey, Linda. “Writing on the Bias.” College English 56.5 (1994): 527-47.
- Bryant, Dorothy. Miss Giardino. (1978) New York: The Feminist P at CUNY, 1997.
- Cappello, Mary. “Useful Knowledge.” Dews and Law, pp. 127-36.
- Charlip, Julie. “A Real Class Act: Searching for Identity in the ‘Classless’ Society.” Dews and Law, pp. 26-40.
- Christopher, Renny. “A Carpenter’s Daughter.” Dews and Law, pp. 137-50.
- Dews, C. L. Barney, and Carolyn Leste Law, eds. This Fine Place So Far from Home: Voices of Academics from the Working-Class. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1995.
- Eagleton, Terry. The Gatekeeper. New York: St. Martin’s P, 2001.
- Ernest, John. “One Hundred Friends and Other Class Issues: Teaching Both In and Out of the Game.” Shepard et al., pp. 23- 36.
- Faulkner, Carol. “Truth and the Working Class in the Working Classroom.” Shepard et al., pp. 37-44.
- Fitts, Karen, and Alan W. France. “Production Values and Composition Instruction: Keeping the Hearth, Keeping the Faith.” Shepard et al. pp. 45-60.
- Frey, Olivia. “Stupid Clown of the Spirit’s Motive: Class Bias in Literary and Composition Studies.” Shepard et al., 61- 78. Garger, Steven. “Bronx Syndrome.” Dews and Law, pp. 41-53.
- Gilyard, Keith. Voices of the Self: A Study of Language Competence. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1991.
- Harvey, David. The Limits to Capital. 1982. London: Verso, 1999.
- Hoggart, Richard. The Uses of Literacy. 1957. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2000.
- hooks, bell. Where We Stand: Class Matters. New York: Routledge, 2000.
- Kingston, Paul W. The Classless Society. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 2000.
- Lang, Dwight. “The Social Construction of a Working-Class Academic.” Dews and Law, pp. 159-76.
- Langston, Donna. “Who Am I Now? The Politics of Class Identity.” Tokarczyk and Fay, pp. 60-72.
- Leslie, Naton. “You Were Raised Better Than That.” Dews and Law, pp. 66-74.
- Martin, George T., Jr. “In the Shadow of My Old Kentucky Home.” Dews and Law, pp. 75-86.
- O’Dair, Sharon. “Class Matters.” Dews and Law, pp. 200-08.
- Overall, Christine. “Nowhere at Home: Toward a Phenomenology of Working-Class Consciousness.” Dews and Law, pp. 209-20.
- Peckham, Irvin. “Complicity in Class Codes: The Exclusionary Function of Education.” Dews and Law, pp. 263-76.
- Pegueros, Rosa Maria. “Todos Vuelven: From Potrero Hill to UCLA.” Dews and Law, pp. 87-105.
- Rodriguez, Richard. Hunger of Memory: The Education of Richard Rodriguez. New York, Bantam Books, 1983.
- Rose, Mike. Lives on the Boundary: A Moving Account of the Struggles and Achievements of America’s Educationally Unprepared. New York: Penguin Books, 1990. Russell, Willy. Educating Rita. London: Methuen, 1985.
- Ryan, Jake, and Charles Sackrey, eds. Strangers in Paradise: Academics from the Working Class. 1984. Lanham, MD: UP of America, 1996.
- Shepard, Alan, John McMillan, and Gary Tate, eds. Coming to Class: Pedagogy and the Social Class of Teachers. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1998.
- Sowinska, Suzanne. “Yer Own Motha Wouldna Reckanized Ya: Surviving an Apprenticeship in the ‘Knowledge Factory.'” Tokarczyk and Fay, pp. 148-61.
- Sullivan, Patricia A. “Passing: A Family Dissemblance.” Shepard et al., pp. 231- 51.
- Tate, Gary. “Halfway Back Home.” Shepard et al., pp. 252-61.
- Tokarczyk, Michelle, and Elizabeth Fay, eds. Working-Class Women in the Academy: Laborers in the Knowledge Factory. Amherst, MA: U of Massachusetts P, 1993.
- Villanueva, Victor, Jr. Bootstraps: From an American Academic of Color. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1993.
- Warren, Gloria D. “Another Day’s Journey: An African-American in Higher Education.” Dews and Law, pp. 106-23.
- Zandy, Janet. Introduction. Calling Home: Working-Class Women’s Writing, An Anthology. Ed. Zandy. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1990.
- —. “The Job, the Job: The Risks of Work and the Uses of Texts.” Shepard et al., pp. 291-308.
- Zweig, Michael. The Working-Class Majority: America’s Best Kept Secret. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 2000.
Soliday, Mary. “Reading Student Writing with Anthropologists: Stance and Judgment in College Writing.” CCC 56.1 (2004): 72-93.
This article describes how readers from a graduate program in anthropology evaluated student writing in a general education course. Readers voiced the concerns of their discipline when they focused on the stance writers assumed and how they made value judgments.
ccc56.1 Reading Culture Students Papers Anthropology Evidence Stance Bias
- Anson, Chris. “Response Styles and Ways of Knowing.” Writing and Response: Theory, Practice, and Research. Ed. Chris Anson. Urbana: NCTE, 1989. 332-66.
- Barritt, Loren, Patricia Stock, and Francelia Clark. “Researching Practice: Evaluating Assessment Essays.” College Composition and Communication 37.3 (1986): 315-27.
- Bartholomae, David. “Inventing the University.” Perspectives on Literacy. Ed. Eugene Kintgen, Barry Kroll, and Mike Rose. Carbondale: SIUP, 1988. 273-85.
- Belenky, Mary, Blythe Clinchy, Nancy Goldberger, and Jill Tarule. Women’s Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice, and Mind. New York: Basic Books, 1986.
- Bizzell, Patricia. Academic Discourse and Critical Consciousness. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1992.
- Brannon, Lil, and C. H. Knoblauch. “On Students’ Rights to Their Own Texts: A Model of Teacher Response.” College Composition and Communication 33.2 (1982): 157-66.
- Broad, Bob. “Pulling Your Hair Out: Crises of Standardization in Communal Writing Assessment.” Research in the Teaching of English 35.2 (2000): 213-60.
- Brodkey, Linda. “On the Subjects of Class and Gender in ‘The Literacy Letters.'” College English 51.2 (1989): 125-41.
- — . “Writing on the Bias.” College English 56.5 (1994): 527-47.
- Carroll, Lee Ann. “Fifty Students Writing: A Faculty Perspective of Cross-Disciplinary Portfolio Assessment.” Conference on College Composition and Communication, Milwaukee, WI, March 1996.
- Connors, Robert, and Andrea Lunsford. “Teachers’ Rhetorical Comments on Student Papers.” College Composition and Communication 44.2 (1993): 200-23.
- Durst, Russel K. Collision Course: Conflict, Negotiation, and Learning in College Composition. Urbana: NCTE, 1999.
- Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books, 1973.
- Greene, Stuart. “The Question of Authenticity: Teaching Writing in a First-Year College History of Science Class.” Research in the Teaching of English 35.4 (2001): 525-69.
- Hansen, Kristine. “Rhetoric and Epistemology in the Social Sciences: A Contrast of Two Representative Texts.”Advances in Writing Research, Vol. 2: Writing in Academic Disciplines. Ed. David Jolliffe. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1988. 167-210.
- Herrington, Anne. “Composing One’s Self in a Discipline: Students’ and Teachers’ Negotiations.” Constructing Rhetorical Education. Ed. Marie Secor and Davida Charney. Carbondale: SIUP, 1992, 91-115.
- —. “Teaching, Writing, and Learning: A Naturalistic Study of Writing in an Undergraduate Literature Course.” Advances in Writing Research, Vol. 2: Writing in Academic Disciplines. Ed. David Jolliffe. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1988. 133-66.
- MacDonald, Susan Peck. “The Analysis of Academic Discourse(s).” Discourse Studies in Composition. Ed. Ellen Barton and Gail Stygall. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton P, 2002. 115-33.
- Murray, Patricia. “Teachers as Readers, Readers as Teachers.” Encountering Student Texts: Interpretive Issues in Reading Student Writing. Ed. Bruce Lawson, Susan S. Ryan, and W. Ross Winterowd. Urbana: NCTE, 1989. 73-85.
- Perry, William. Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in the College Years: A Scheme. Intro. by L. Lee Knefelkamp. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999.
- Roseberry, William. Anthropologies and Histories: Essays in Culture, History, and Political Economy. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1989.
- Smith, Summer. “The Genre of the End Comment: Conventions in Teacher Responses to Student Writing.” College Composition and Communication 48.2 (1997): 249-68.
- Soliday, Mary, and Barbara Gleason. “From Remediation to Enrichment: Evaluating a Mainstreaming Project.” Journal of Basic Writing 16.1 (1997): 64-78.
- Sommers, Nancy. “Responding to Student Writing.” College Composition and Communication 33.2 (1982): 148-56.
- Stygall, Gail. “Resisting Privilege: Basic Writing and Foucault’s Author Function.” College Composition and Communication 45.3 (1994): 320-41.
- Walvoord, Barbara, and Lucille P. McCarthy. Thinking and Writing in College: A Naturalistic Study of Students in Four Disciplines. Urbana: NCTE, 1990.
Goleman, Judith. “An ‘Immensely Simplified Task’: Form in Modern Composition-Rhetoric.” CCC 56.1 (2004): 51-71.
Using historical and contemporary documents, including student texts, this article examines why and how both novice and experienced writing teachers, including the author, continue to struggle with tacit allegiances to traditional forms while trying to facilitate dialectical writing in their classrooms.
ccc56.1 Language Writing Composition SAhmed Unity Rhetoric Coherence Discourse Students Identity Dialectic Reading Literacy
- Anzaldu”a, Gloria. Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza. San Francisco, CA: Spinsters/Aunt Lute, 1987.
- Auster, Paul. “Portrait of an Invisible Man.” Ways of Reading. Ed. David Bartholomae and Anthony Petrosky. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin’s, 1999.
- Bakhtin, M.M. The Dialogic Imagination. Austin: U of Texas P, 1981.
- Bartholomae, David. “Inventing the University.” Cross-Talk in Comp Theory. Ed. Victor Villanueva, Jr. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1997. 589-619.
- Bartholomae, David, and Anthony Petrosky, eds. Ways of Reading. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin’s, 1999.
- Berlin, James. Writing Instruction in Nineteenth Century American Colleges. Carbondale, IL: SIUP, 1984.
- Brereton, John, ed. The Origins of Composition Studies in the American College, 1875-1925: A Documentary History. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1995.
- Connors, Robert. Composition-Rhetoric: Backgrounds, Theory, and Pedagogy. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1997.
- Douglas, Wallace. “Barrett Wendell.” Traditions of Inquiry. Ed. John Brereton. New York: Oxford UP, 1985. 3-25.
- Ede, Lisa, ed. On Writing Research: The Braddock Essays 1975-1998. Boston: Bedford/St.Martin’s, 1999.
- Hall, Stuart. “On Postmodernism and Articulation: An Interview with Stuart Hall.” Ed. Lawrence Grossberg. Journal of Communication Inquiry 10.2 (1986): 45-60.
- Kameen, Paul. “Studying Professionally: Pedagogical Relationships at the Graduate Level.” College English 57.4 (1995): 448-60.
- Lewis, I. M. “Literacy and Cultural Identity in the Horn of Africa: The Somali Case.” Cross-Cultural Approaches to Literacy. Ed. Brian Street. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1993. 143-55.
- Newkirk, Thomas. “Barrett Wendell’s Theory of Discourse.” Rhetoric Review 10.1 (1991): 20-30.
- Scott, Franklin William, and Jacob Zeitlin. College Readings in English Prose. New York: Macmillan, 1914.
- Scott, Fred Newton, and J. V. Denney. Paragraph-Writing. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1893.
- Stewart, Donald C. “Fred Newton Scott.” Traditions of Inquiry. Ed. John Brereton. New York: Oxford UP, 1985. 26-49.
- Supriya, K. E. “Judgment and the Problem of Agency/Accountability: A Postcolonial Critique of Poststructuralist Theory.” Judgment Calls: Rhetoric, Politics, and Indeterminacy. Ed. John M. Sloop and James P. McDaniel. Boulder, CO: Westview P, 1998. 42-62.
- Welch, Nancy. Getting Restless: Rethinking Revision in Writing Instruction. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann-Boynton/Cook, 1997.
- —. “Resisting the Faith: Conversion, Resistance, and the Training of Teachers.” College English 55.4 (1993): 387-401.
- Wendell, Barrett. English Composition, Eight Lectures Given at the Lowell Institute. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1891.
- Wideman, John Edgar. “Our Time.” Ways of Reading. Ed. David Bartholomae and Anthony Petrosky. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 1999.
Lu, Min-Zhan. “An Essay on the Work of Composition: Composing English against the Order of Fast Capitalism.” CCC 56.1 (2004): 16-50.
This is an attempt to define what being a responsible and responsive user of English might mean in a world ordered by global capital, a world where all forms of intra- and international exchanges in all areas of life are increasingly under pressure to involve English. Turning to recent work in linguistics and education, I pose a set of alternative assumptions that might help us develop more responsible and responsive approaches to the relation between English and its users (both those labeled Native-Speaking, White or Middle Class, and those Othered by these labels), the language needs and purposes of individual users of English, and the relation between the work we do and the work done by users of English across the world. I argue that these assumptions can help us compose English against the grain of all systems and relations of injustice.
ccc56.1 English Work Discourse Life DiscursiveResources World Language China WorldEnglish FastCapitalism Composition Linguistics Education
- Anthony, Ted. “Chinese Pick Names with Pizzazz: Young Looking for English Names Find Inspiration in Food, Soccer Players, History.” Milwaukee Journal Sentinel 27 Oct. 2002, final ed.:24A.
- Baldwin, James. “If Black English Isn’t a Language, Then Tell Me, What Is?” In Depth: Essayists for Our Time, 2nd ed. Ed. Carl Klaus, Chris Anderson, and Rebecca Faery. New York: Harcourt, 1993. 87-89.
- Barton, David, and Mary Hamilton. Local Literacies: Reading and Writing in One Community. London: Routledge, 1998.
- Barton, David, Mary Hamilton, and Roz Ivanic, eds. Situated Literacies: Reading and Writing in Context. London: Routledge, 2000.
- “Beijing Launches Campaign against Bad English-Language Signs.” CBS News.Com, 6 Dec. 2002 4 Apr. 2004.
- Bourdieu, Pierre. Language and Symbolic Power. Ed. John B. Thompson. Trans. Gino Raymond and Matthew Adamson. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1991. Ë†
- Canagarajah, A. Suresh. Resisting Linguistic Imperialism in English Teaching. Oxford UP, 1999.
- A Chinese-English Dictionary. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research P, 1995.
- Cope, Bill, and Mary Kalantzis. “Designs for Social Futures.” Cope and Kalantzis 203- 34.
- — . “Introduction: Multiliteracies: The Beginnings of an Idea.” Cope and Kalantzis 3-8.
- —, ed. Multiliteracies: Literacy Learning and the Design of Social Futures. London: Routledge, 2000.
- “Digging Deep, Shifting Gears in New Year.” Milwaukee Journal Sentinel 6 Jan. 2003: 4E.
- Fairclough, Norman. “Multiliteracies and Language: Orders of Discourse and Intertextuality.” Cope and Kalantzis 162-81.
- Far East Chinese English Dictionary. Taibie, Taiwan: Far East, 1995.
- Gates, Bill. The Road Ahead. New York: Viking, 1995.
- Gee, James Paul. “New People in New Worlds: Networks, the New Capitalism and Schools.” Cope and Kalantzis 43-68.
- Gee, James, Glynda Hull, and Colin Lankshear. The New Work Order: Behind the Language of the New Capitalism Boulder, CO: Westview, 1987.
- Habermas, JuÌˆrgen. Theory of Communicative Action, 1. Trans. T. McCarthy. Boston: Beacon, 1984.
- Hall, Stuart. “Cultural Studies and Its Theoretical Legacy.” Cultural Studies Reader. Ed. Lawrence Grossberg, Cary Nelson, and Paula Treichler. New York: Routledge, 1992.
- Harklau, Linda, Kay M. Losey, and Meryl Siegal, eds. Generation 1.5 Meets College Composition: Issues in the Teaching of Writing to U.S.-Educated Learners of ESL. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1999.
- Ivanic, Roz. Writing and Identity: The Discoursal Construction of Identity in Academic Writing. Amsterdam: Johns Benjamins, 1998.
- Kachru, Braj B. “Introduction: The Other Side of English and the 1990s.” The Other Tongue: English across Cultures, 2nd ed. Ed. Braj B. Kachru. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1992. 1-18.
- Kalantzis, Mary, and Bill Cope. “Changing the Role of Schools.” Cope and Kalantzis 121-48.
- Kress, Gunther. Before Writing: Rethinking the Paths to Literacy. London: Routledge, 1997.
- Kress, Gunther, and Theo Van Leeuwen. Multimodal Discourse: The Modes and Media of Contemporary Communication. London: Arnold, 2001.
- Leung, Constant, Roxy Harris, and Ben Rampton. “The Idealised Native Speaker, Reified Ethnicities, and Classroom Realities.” TESOL Quarterly 31 (1997): 543-75.
- Lyons, Scott Richard. “Rhetorical Sovereignty: What Do American Indians Want from Writing?” College Composition and Communication 51.3 (2000): 447-68.
- Morrison, Toni. Lecture and Speech of Acceptance, upon the Award of the Nobel Prize for Literature, Delivered in Stockholm on the Seventh of December, Nineteen Hundred and Ninety-Three. New York: Knopf, 1994.
- New London Group. “A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures.” Cope and Kalantzis 9-38.
- West, Cornel. Race Matters. Boston: Beacon, 1993.
- Woolf, Virginia. “Professions for Women.” The Death of the Moth and Other Essays. New York: Harcourt, 1942. 235-42. Ë†