Click here to view the individual articles in this issue at http://www.ncte.org/cccc/ccc/issues/v55-2
Daniell, Beth. Rev. of Literacy in American Lives by Deborah Brandt. CCC. 55.2 (2003): 356-359.
Gillam, Alice M. Rev. of Imagining Rhetoric: Composing Women of the Early United States by Janet Carey Eldred and Peter Mortensen. CCC. 55.2 (2003): 359-363.
Kirsch, Gesa E. Rev. of I Writing: The Politics and Practice of Teaching First-Person Writing by Karen Surman Paley. CCC. 55.2 (2003): 363-366.
Helmers, Marguerite. Rev. of Writing Together/Writing Apart: Collaboration in Western American Literature by Linda K. Karell. CCC. 55.2 (2003): 366-369.
Schneider, Barbara. Rev. of Emancipatory Movements in Composition: The Rhetoric of Possibility by Andrea Greenbaum. CCC. 55.2 (2003): 369-371.
Bloome, David, Diana George, Nancy Welch, and Charles Bazerman. “Interchanges: CCCC 2003: Reflections on Rhetoric and War.” CCC. 55.2 (2003): 343-355.
Logan, Shirley Wilson. “Changing Missions, Shifting Positions, and Breaking Silences.” CCC. 55.2 (2003): 330-342.
An earlier version of this article was delivered as the Chair’s Address at the Opening General Session of the CCCC Convention in New York, March 2003. I review the current mission and position statements of the organization by calling attention to the ways in which our current social and political climate challenges our ability to meet our goals and support our positions. I weave into my text the “voices” of historical black women who called for response in their own time and even in ours.
ccc55.2 PositionStatements Students Composition Language Writing CCCC Teaching Conditions ChairsAddress
- Berger, John. Introduction [“Where Are We?”]. Between the Eyes: Essays on Photography. By David Levi Straus. Rpt. in Harper’s Magazine (March 2003): 13-17.
- Conference on College Composition and Communication. CCCC Position Statements . November 2002. National Council of Teachers of English. 5 January 2003 </cccc/positions>.
- —. “Students’ Right to Their Own Language” . CCCC Position Statements . November 2002. National Council of Teachers of English. 5 January 2003 </cccc/positions>.
- —. “Writing Assessment: A Position Statement” . CCCC Position Statements . November 2002. National Council of Teachers of English. 5 January 2003 </cccc/positions>.
- Cooper, Anna Julia. A Voice from the South. New York: Oxford, 1988.
- Editorial, “Bilingual Education is a Human and Civil Right” Rethinking Schools: An Urban Education Journal 17.2 (Winter 2003/03): 26.
- Harper, Frances. “We Are All Bound up Together.” A Brighter Coming Day: A Frances Ellen Watkins Harper Reader. Ed. Frances Smith Foster. New York: Feminist P, 1990. 217-19.
- hooks, bell. Teaching to Transgress: Education As the Practice of Freedom. New York: Routledge, 1994.
- Hurston, Zora Neale. “Crazy for This Democracy.” I Love Myself When I Am Laughing . . . And Then Again When I Am Looking Mean and Impressive. A Zora Neale Hurston Reader. Ed. Alice Walker. New York: Feminist P, 1979. 165-68.
- Laney, Lucy C. “The Burden of the Educated Colored Woman.” The Rhetoric of Struggle: Public Address by African American Women . Ed. Robbie Jean Walker. New York: Garland, 1992. 167-74.
- Logan, Shirley Wilson, ed. With Pen and Voice: A Critical Anthology of Nineteenth- Century African-American Women. Carbondale: SIU P, 1995.
- Lorde, Audre. “The Transformation of Silence into Language and Action.” Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches . Freedom, CA: The Crossing P, 1984. 40-44.
- Morrison, Toni. The Nobel Lecture in Literature, 1993. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1994.
- NCTE. “How to Help Your Child Become a Better Writer.” November 2002. National Council of Teachers of English. January 2003 <legacy.ncte.org/positions/how-tohelp.shtml>.
- Queen Hatshepsut. “Speech of the Queen.” Daughters of Africa: An International Anthology of Words and Writings by Women of African Descent from the Ancient Egyptian to the Present . Ed. Margaret Busby. New York: Pantheon Books, 1992. 12-14.
- Schell, Eileen, and Patricia Stock, eds. Moving a Mountain: Transforming the Role of Contingent Faculty in Composition Studies and Higher Education . Urbana: NCTE, 2001.
- Shiflet, Stone. Personal interview. 23 November 2002.
- Stewart, Maria W. “Lecture Delivered at the Franklin Hall.” Logan 6-10.
- “Summary of Data from Surveys by the Coalition on the Academic Workforce.” March 2001. American Historical Association <http://www.theaha.org/caw/cawreport.htm>.
- Traub, James. “Forget Diversity.” New York Times Magazine (2 February 2003): 15-16. Truth, Sojourner. “Speech Delivered to the Woman’s Rights Convention.” Logan 26-27.
- “USA Patriot Act As Passed by Congress.” 25 October 2001. Electronic Frontier Foundation. 13 March 2003 <http://www.eff.org/Privacy/Surveillance/Terrorism_militias/20011025_hr3162_usa_patriot_bill.htm>.
- Walker, Alice. “In Search of Our Mothers’ Gardens.” In Search of Our Mothers’ Gardens . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1983. 231-43.
- Wells, Ida B. “Lynch Law in All Its Phases.” Logan 80-99.
- Wonder, Stevie. “Living for the City.” Innervisions. Motown Record Corporation. T3261, 1973.
- Woodson, Robert L. “Beyond the Edmund Pettus Bridge.” Editorial. Washington Post 4 Jan. 2003: A17.
Ross, Christine. “Education Reform and the Limits of Discourse: Rereading Collaborative Revision of a Composition Program’s Textbook.” CCC. 55.2 (2003): 302-329.
This article links failed reform to failed education through a case study of an annual collaborative revision of a program textbook in the Composition Program at the University of California at Irvine. Review of successive editions of the program’s Student Guide to Writing at UCI reveals a progressive retreat from the program’s pedagogical commitments and the reappearance of product-oriented instruction.
ccc55.2 Students Texts Process StudentGuide Writing Assignment Program Discourse Theory Collaboration Revision
- Althusser, Louis. “Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses.” Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays . Trans. Ben Brewster. New York: Monthly Rev. P, 1971. 121-73.
- Applebee, Arthur N. “Problems in Process Approaches: Toward a Reconceptualization of Process Instruction.” The Teaching of Writing: Eighty-Fifth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education Part II . Ed. David Bartholomae and Anthony Petrosky. Chicago: Natl. Soc. for the Study of Educ., 1986. 95-113.
- Bartholomae, David. “Inventing the University.” Cross-Talk in Comp Theory. Ed. Victor Villaneuva. Urbana: NCTE, 1997. 589-619.
- Bauman, Zygmunt. Postmodern Ethics. Cambridge: Blackwell, 1994.
- Berlin, James A. Rhetoric and Reality: Writing Instruction in American Colleges, 1900-1985. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1987.
- Bourdieu, Pierre, and Jean-Claude Passeron. Reproduction in Education, Society, and Culture . Trans. Richard Nice. London: Sage, 1977.
- Bruner, Jerome. Process of Education. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1960.
- Clifford, John. “Subject of Discourse.” Contending with Words: Composition and Rhetoric in a Postmodern Age . Ed. Patricia Harkin and John Schilb. New York: MLA, 1991. 38-51.
- Connors, Robert J. Composition-Rhetoric: Backgrounds, Theory, and Pedagogy. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1997.
- Crowley, Sharon. “Around 1971: Current- Traditional Rhetoric and Process Models of Composing.” Composition in the University: Historical and Political Essays . Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1998. 187- 214.
- —. Methodical Memory: Invention in Current-Traditional Rhetoric. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1990. Cuban, Larry. “A National Curriculum and Tests: Consequences for Schools.” Hidden Consequences of a National Curriculum . Washington, DC: Amer. Educ. Research Assoc., 1995. 47-62.
- Faigley, Lester. Fragments of Rationality: Postmodernity and the Subject of Composition . Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1997.
- Fleischer, Cathy. Composing Teacher- Research: A Prosaic History. Albany: State U of New York P, 1995.
- Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Trans. Alan Sheridan. New York: Vintage, 1979.
- —. Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972- 1977. Ed. and trans. Colin Gordon. New York: Pantheon, 1980.
- Godzich, Wlad. Culture of Literacy. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1994.
- Gramsci, Antonio. Selections from the Prison Notebooks. Ed. and Trans. Quintin Hoare and Goeffrey Nowell Smith. New York: International, 1971.
- Halpern, Diane. [untitled]. Chronicle of Higher Education. 14 Mar. 1997: B5.
- Hillocks, George, Jr. Teaching Writing As Reflective Practice. New York: Teacher’s College P: 1995.
- Hull, Glynda, and Mike Rose. “‘This Wooden Shack Place’: The Logic of an Unconventional Reading.” CCC 41.3 (1990): 287-98.
- Hull, Glynda, Mike Rose, Kay Losey Fraser, and Marisa Castellan. “Remediation As Social Construct: Perspectives from an Analysis of Classroom Discourse.” CCC 42.3 (1991): 299-329.
- Lu, Min-Zhan. “Conflict and Struggle: The Enemies or Preconditions of Basic Writing?” Representing the “Other”: Basic Writing and the Teaching of Basic Writing . Ed. Bruce Horner and Min-Zhan Lu. Urbana: NCTE, 1999, 30-55.
- —. “From Silence to Words: Writing As Struggle.” College English 49.4 (1987): 437-48.
- Miller, Richard E. As If Learning Mattered: Reforming Higher Education. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1998.
- Miller, Susan. Textual Carnivals: The Politics of Composition. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1991.
- Milroy, James, and Lesley Milroy. Authority in Language: Investigating Language Prescription and Standardization . London: Routledge, 1985.
- Rohman, Gordon D., and Albert O. Wlecke. Pre-Writing: The Construction of Models for Concept Formation in Writing . Project No. 2174. Cooperative Research Program of the Office of Educ. [Washington, DC]: U.S. Dept. of Health, Educ., and Welfare, 1964.
- Student Guide to Writing at UCI. Ed. John Hollowell. Edina: Burgess International, 1993. [Asst. ed. Christina Nemec; assoc. ed. Janet Stevens; contrib. eds.: Gretchen Bohach, Jami Josifek, Robert E. Land, Lori Miller, John Peterson, Vicki Russell.]
- —. Ed. John Hollowell and Vicki Russell. 2nd. ed. Edina: Burgess International, 1994. [Assoc. ed. Janet Stevens; contrib. eds.: Catherine Boeckmann, Gretchen Bohach, Susan Bouse, Anne Callard, Heather Huddleston, Robert E. Land, Kimberly Moekle, Paul Morsink, Christina Nemec, John Peterson, Michael Powers, Ellen Strenski.]
- —. Ed. John Hollowell and Vicki Russell. 3rd. ed. Edina: Burgess International, 1995. [Assoc. ed. Janet Stevens; contrib. eds.: Kitt Allen, Susan Bouse, Eric D. Friedman, Peter Goldman, Karen Holmberg, Eileen Jankowski, Paul Morsink, Mark Mullen, John Peterson, Michael Powers, Jane Osick, John Schwetman, Jacqueline Scoones, Ellen Strenski, James Tarter, Krista Twu.]
- —. Ed. John Hollowell and Vicki Russell. 4th. ed. Edina: Burgess International, 1996. [Assoc. ed. Janet Stevens; contrib. eds.: Eric D. Friedman, Heather Huddleston, Eileen Jankowski, Lee Kress, Scott McClintock, Mark Mullen, Erika Nanes, John Peterson, David Plotkin, Tiffany Richardson, John Schwetman, Ellen Strenski, Krista Twu, Jason Wohlstadter, Priscilla Wollf, Ray Zimmerman.]
- Trimbur, John. “Consensus and Difference in Collaborative Learning.” Cross-Talk in Comp Theory . Ed. Victor Villaneuva. Urbana: NCTE, 1997. 439-56.
- Walvoord, Barbara E., and Lucille Parkinson McCarthy. Thinking and Writing in College . Urbana: NCTE, 1990.
Green, Ann E. “Difficult Stories: Service-Learning, Race, Class, and Whiteness.” CCC. 55.2 (2003): 276-301.
By addressing race and class through the stories we tell about service-learning in the classroom and in our scholarship, I argue that we can more effectively negotiate the divide between the university and the community and work toward social change.
ccc55.2 Students Class Race ServiceLearning Stories Racism Whiteness Privilege Experience Work
- Alcoff, Linda Martin. “What Should White People Do?” Hypatia 13 (1998): 6-25.
- Allison, Dorothy. Skin: Talking about Sex, Class, and Literature. Ithica: Firebrand Books, 1994.
- Bacon, Nora. “Building a Swan’s Nest for Instruction in Rhetoric.” College Composition and Communication 51.4 (2000): 560-609.
- Bailey, Alison. “Locating Traitorous Identities: Toward a View of Privilege- Cognizant White Character.” Hypatia 13 (1998): 27-41.
- Bridwell-Bowles, Lillian. “Film Clips and the Master’s Tools.” Narration As Knowledge: Tales of the Teaching Life. Ed. Joe Trimmer. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann- Boynton/Cook, 1997. 142-51.
- Brodkey, Linda. “Writing on the Bias.” Writing Permitted in Designated Areas Only. Minneapolis: U Minnesota P, 1996. 30-51.
- Carter, Robert T. “Is White a Race? Expressions of White Racial Identity.” Fine et al. 198-209.
- Cochran-Smith, Marilyn, and Susan L. Lytle. Inside/Outside: Teacher Research and Knowledge. New York: Teacher’s College P, 1993.
- Cushman, Ellen. “The Public Intellectual, Service-Learning, and Activist Research.” College English 61 (1999): 328-36.
- —. “Sustainable Service Learning Programs.” College Composition and Communication 54.1 (2002): 40-65.
- Ellsworth, Elizabeth. “Double Binds of Whiteness.” Fine et al. 259-69.
- —. “Why Doesn’t This Feel Empowering? Working through the Repressive Myths of Critical Pedagogy.” The Education Feminist Reader. New York: Routledge, 1994. 300-27.
- Fine, Michelle. “Passions, Politics, and Power: Feminist Research Possibilities.” Disruptive Voices: The Possibilities of Feminist Research. Ed. Fine. Ann Arbor: U Michigan P, 1992. 205-31.
- Fine, Michelle, Lois Weis, Linda C. Powell, L. Mun Wong, eds. Off White: Readings on Race, Power and Society. New York: Routledge, 1997.
- Flower, Linda. “Intercultural Inquiry and the Transformation of Service.” College English 65.2 (2002): 181-201.
- —. “Partners in Inquiry: A Logic for Community Outreach.” Writing the Community: Concepts and Models for Service-Learning in Composition . Ed. Linda Adler-Kassner, Robert Crooks, and Ann Watters. Urbana: NCTE, 1997. 95-117.
- Fox, Thomas. “Race and Gender in Collaborative Learning.” Writing With: New Directions in Collaborative Teaching, Learning, and Research. Ed. Sally Barr Reagan, Thomas Fox, and David Bleich. Albany: SUNY P, 1994. 111-21.
- Frankenberg, Ruth. White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness . Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1993.
- Frye, Marilyn. “On Being White: Thinking toward a Feminist Understanding of Race and Race Supremacy.” The Politics of Reality: Essays in Feminist Theory. Trumansburg: Crossing P, 1983. 110-27.
- hooks, bell. Killing Rage: Ending Racism. New York: Owlet, 1996.
- —. Teaching to Transgress: Education As the Practice of Freedom. New York: Routledge, 1994.
- Kadi, Joanna. Thinking Class: Sketches from a Cultural Worker. Boston: South End P, 1996.
- Lugones, Maria C., and Elizabeth V. Spelman. “Have We Got a Theory for You! Feminist Theory, Cultural Imperialism, and the Demand for ‘The Woman’s Voice.'” Women’s Studies International Forum 6 (1983): 573-81.
- McIntosh, Peggy. “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack.” Contemporary Moral Issues in a Diverse Society. Ed. Julie McDonald. New York: Wadsworth, 1998. 52-62.
- McIntyre, Alice. “Antiracist Pedagogy in the University: The Ethical Challenges of Making Whiteness Public.” Practicing Feminist Ethics in Psychology . Ed. Mary M. Brabeck. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2000. 55-74.
- —. Making Meaning of Whiteness: Exploring Racial Identity with White Teachers. Albany: SUNY P, 1997.
- Mortenson, Thomas G. “Poverty, Race, and the Failure of Public Policy: The Crisis of Access in Higher Education.” Academe 86.6 (2000): 38-43. On-line version <http://www.aaup.org/publications/Academe/>.
- Pharr, Suzanne. In the Time of the Right: Reflections on Liberation. Berkeley, CA: Chardon P, 1996.
- Ratcliffe, Krista. ” Rhetorical Listening: A Trope for Interpretive Invention and a ‘Code of Cross-Cultural Conduct .'” College Composition and Communication 51.2 (1999): 195-224.
- Rich, Adrienne. “The Distance between Language and Violence.” What Is Found There. New York: Norton, 1993. 181-89.
- Rosenberger, Cynthia. “Beyond Empathy: Developing Critical Consciousness through Service Learning.” Integrating Service Learning and Multicultural Education in Colleges and Universities . Ed. Carolyn R. O’Grady. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2000. 23-43.
- Roskelly, Hephzibah. “Rising and Converging: Race and Class in the South.” Coming to Class: Pedagogy and the Social Class of Teachers . Ed. Alan Shepard, John McMillan, and Gary Tate. Portsmouth: Boynton/Cook, 1998. 198-208.
- —. “Telling Tales in School: A Redneck Daughter in the Academy.” Working Class Women in the Academy: Laborers in the Knowledge Factory. Ed. Michelle M. Tokarczyk and Elizabeth Fay. Amherst: U of Massachusetts P, 1993. 292-307.
- Royster, Jacqueline Jones. “When the First Voice You Hear Is Not Your Own.” College Composition and Communication 47.1 (1996): 29-40.
- Segrest, Mab. Memoir of a Race Traitor. Boston: South End P, 1994. Sleeter, Christine. “White Racism.” Multicultural Education 1 (1994): 5-8.
- Wade, Rahima C. “From a Distance: Service- Learning and Social Justice.” Integrating Service Learning and Multicultural Education in Colleges and Universities . Ed. Carolyn R. O’Grady. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2000. 93-111.
Crick, Nathan. “Composition As Experience: John Dewey on Creative Expression and the Origins of ‘Mind.'” CCC. 55.2 (2003): 254-275.
Although the Bartholomae/Elbow debate is often framed as a modern conflict between the advocates of “academic” and “personal” writing, it is more appropriately viewed as the most recent manifestation of the historical clash between expressivism and constructivism. However, both sides of this conflict, which split over whether to see writing as a product of the mind or of an external discourse, rest upon a dualist assumption that the primary task of language is to provide linguistic representations of a transcendental ego. This essay first draws from the work of Richard Rorty and John Dewey in order to critique the dualist legacy of the expressivist/constructivist debate and then explicates Dewey’s views on mind, language, and experience in order to reconstruct a pragmatic philosophy of communication and a progressive composition pedagogy.
ccc55.2 JDewey Mind Experience Discourse Language PElbow Communication Students Philosophy Writing DBartholomae Art Expressivism Composition Constructivism
- Bartholomae, David. “Inventing the University.” Literacy: A Critical Sourcebook. New York: Bedford, St. Martin’s, 2001. 511-524.
- —. “Writing with Teachers: A Conversation with Peter Elbow.” CCC 46.1 (1995): 62-71.
- Bialostosky, Don H. “Romantic Resonances.” CCC 46.1 (1995): 92-96.
- Bishop, Wendy. ” Places to Stand: The Reflective Writer-Teacher-Writer in Composition .” CCC 51.1. (1999): 9-31.
- Dewey, John. Art As Experience. New York: Perigree Books, 1934.
- —. Democracy and Education. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1916.
- —. Experience and Nature (2nd Ed). New York: Dover Publications, 1929.
- —. Lectures in the Philosophy of Education: 1899. New York: Random House, 1966.
- —. Philosophy and Civilization. New York: Minton, Balch & Co., 1931.
- —. The Public and Its Problems. Athens: Ohio UP, 1927.
- Elbow, Peter. “Closing My Eyes As I Speak: An Argument for Ignoring Audience.” Everyone Can Write. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000. 93-112.
- —. “What Is Voice in Writing?” Everyone Can Write. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000. 184-221.
- Emig, Janet. “The Tacit Tradition: The Inevitability of a Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Writing Research.” Reinventing the Rhetorical Tradition. Ed. Aviva Freedman and Ian Pringle. Ottawa: CCTE, 1980. 9-17.
- Fishman, Stephen M. ” Explicating Our Tacit Tradition: John Dewey and Composition Studies .” CCC 44.3 (1993): 315-30.
- Fishman, Stephen M., and Lucille Parkinson McCarthy. “Is Expressivism Dead? Reconsidering Its Romantic Roots and Its Relation to Social Constructivism.” College English 54.6 (1992): 647-61.
- —. ” Teaching for Student Change: A Deweyan Alternative to Radical Pedagogy .” CCC 47.3 (1996): 342-66.
- Jarrett, Susan. “Feminism and Composition: A Case for Conflict.” Contending with Words: Composition and Rhetoric in a Postmodern Age . Ed. Patricia Harkin and
- John Schilb. New York: MLA, 1991. 105-23.
- Jones, Donald. “Beyond the Postmodern Impasse of Agency: The Resounding Relevance of John Dewey’s Tacit Tradition.” JAC 16.1 (1996): 81-102.
- Kameen, Paul. “Studying Professionally: Pedagogical Relationships at the Graduate Level.” College English 57.4 (1995): 448-60.
- Newkirk, Tom. More Than Stories. Portsmouth: Heinemann, 1989.
- Peirce, Charles Sanders. The Philosophy of Peirce: Selected Writings. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1950.
- Phelps, Louise W. Composition As a Human Science. New York: Oxford UP, 1988.
- Rorty, Richard. Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1989.
- —. Philosophy and Social Hope. London: Penguin Books, 1999.
- —. Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1976.
- Rosenblatt, Louise M. The Reader, the Text, the Poem: The Transactional Theory of the Literary Work. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1978.
- Russell, David R. “Vygotsky, Dewey, and Externalism: Beyond the Student/ Discipline Dichotomy.” JAC 13.1 (1993): 173-97.
- Smith, Robert E., III. “Hymes, Rorty, and the Social-Rhetorical Construction of Meaning.” College English 54.2 (1992): 138-58.
- —. “Reconsidering Richard Rorty.” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 19.4 (1989): 349-64.
Gold, David. “‘Nothing Educates Us Like a Shock’: The Integrated Rhetoric of Melvin B. Tolson.” CCC. 55.2 (2003): 226-253.
This essay examines the pedagogical practices of the poet, civil rights activist, and teacher Melvin B. Tolson who taught at Wiley College from 1923 to 1947. Tolson’s complex classroom style, which mixed elements of classical, African American, and current-traditional rhetoric, produced a pedagogy that was at once conservative, progressive, and radical, inspiring his students to academic achievement and social action. Tolson demonstrates that it is possible to instruct students in the norms of the academy without sacrificing their home voices or identities.
ccc55.2 MTolson Students Rhetoric AfricanAmerican Classroom College Teaching WileyCollege Language
- Abrahams, Roger D. Talking Black . Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 1976.
- Anderson, James D. The Education of Blacks in the South, 1860-1935 . Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1988.
- Aptheker, Herbert, ed. The Education of Black People: Ten Critiques, 1906-1960. By W.E.B. Du Bois. New York: Monthly Review P, 2001.
- Arendt, Hannah. “What Is Authority?” Between Past and Future: Eight Exercises in Political Thought. New York: Viking, 1968. 91-141.
- Bacon, Jacqueline. The Humblest May Stand Forth: Rhetoric, Empowerment, and Abolition . Columbia: U of South Carolina P, 2002.
- Balester, Valerie M. Cultural Divide: A Study of African-American College-Level Writers . Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1993.
- Beil, Gail K. “Sowing the Seeds of the Civil Rights Movement: Dr. J. Leonard Farmer and Wiley College, Marshall, Texas, As Case Studies of the Educational Influence on the Modern Civil Rights Leaders.” M.A. thesis. Stephen F. Austin State U, 1999.
- Berlin, James A. Rhetoric and Reality: Writing Instruction in American Colleges, 1900-1985 . Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1987.
- —. Writing Instruction in Nineteenth- Century American Colleges . Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1984.
- Bï¿½rubï¿½, Michael. Marginal Forces/Cultural Centers: Tolson, Pynchon, and the Politics of the Canon . Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1992.
- Bickham, Jack M. Letter to Ruth Tolson. 9 September 1966. Tolson Papers. Biggers, John. Letter to Tolson. 14 March 1963. Tolson Papers.
- Boswell, Hamilton. Interview with the author. 11 May 2001. Bowers, William. “All We Read Is Freaks.” Oxford American (2003): 40-54.
- Cansler, Ronald Lee. “‘The White and Not- White Dichotomy’ of Melvin B. Tolson’s Poetry.” Negro American Literature Forum 7.4 (1973): 115-18.
- Charney, Davida, John H. Newman, and Mike Palmquist. “‘I’m Just No Good at Writing’: Epistemological Style and Attitudes toward Writing.” Written Communication 12.3 (1995): 298-329.
- Clark, Gregory, and S. Michael Halloran, eds. Oratorical Culture in Nineteenth- Century America: Transformations in the Theory and Practice of Rhetoric . Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1993.
- Connors, Robert J. Composition-Rhetoric: Backgrounds, Theory, and Pedagogy . Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1997.
- —. “Women’s Reclamation of Rhetoric in Nineteenth-Century America.” Feminine Principles and Women’s Experience in American Composition and Rhetoric . Ed. Louise Wetherbee Phelps and Janet Emig. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1995. 67-90.
- Cox, Oliver C. Caste, Class, & Race: A Study in Social Dynamics . Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1948.
- Crowley, Sharon. Composition in the University: Historical and Polemical Essays . Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1998.
- Eagleton, Terry. Literary Theory: An Introduction . Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1983.
- Fabio, Sarah Webster. “Who Speaks Negro?” Negro Digest 16.2 (1966): 54-58.
- Farmer, James. Lay Bare the Heart: An Autobiography of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Arbor House, 1985.
- Farnsworth, Robert M. Melvin B. Tolson, 1898-1966: Plain Talk and Poetic Prophecy . Columbia: U of Missouri P, 1984.
- Fisher, Ada Lois Sipuel (with Danney Goble). A Matter of Black and White: The Autobiography of Ada Lois Sipuel Fisher . Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 1996.
- Flasch, Joy. Melvin B. Tolson . New York: Twayne, 1972.
- —. “Melvin Beaunoris Tolson: the Man.” Paper delivered during Black Heritage Week, Oklahoma State U. April 1967. Tolson Papers.
- Gillette, Michael L. “Heman Marion Sweatt: Civil Rights Plaintiff.” Black Leaders: Texans for Their Times. Ed. Alwyn Barr and Robert A. Calvert. Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1981. 157-88.
- Gilyard, Keith, and Elaine Richardson. “Students’ Right to Possibility: Basic Writing and African American Rhetoric.” Insurrections: Approaches to Resistance in Composition Studies. Ed. Andrea Greenbaum. Albany: State U of New York P, 2001. 37-51.
- Gotera, Vincente F. “‘Lines of Tempered Steel’: An Interview with Yusef Komunyakaa.” Callaloo 13.2 (1990): 215-29.
- Graff, Gerald. Professing Literature: An Institutional History . Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1987.
- Halloran, S. Michael. “From Rhetoric to Composition: The Teaching of Writing in America to 1900.” A Short History of Writing Instruction from Ancient Greece to Twentieth-Century America. Ed. James J. Murphy. Davis, CA: Hermagoras P, 1990. 151-182.
- —. “Rhetoric in the American College Curriculum: The Decline of Public Discourse.” Pre/Text 3.3 (1982): 245-69. Rpt. in Pre/Text: The First Decade. Ed. Victor J. Vitanza. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1993. 93-115.
- Hare, Nathaniel. Letter to Tolson. 12 May 1958. Tolson Papers. Heights, Henry. Letter to Tolson. 9 September 1944. Tolson Papers.
- Heintze, Michael R. Private Black Colleges in Texas, 1865-1954 . College Station: Texas A&M UP, 1985.
- Jarrett, Hobart. Letter to Robert Farnsworth. 15 March 1982. Tolson Papers.
- Kates, Susan. Activist Rhetorics and American Higher Education, 1885-1937 . Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2001.
- —. “The Embodied Rhetoric of Hallie Quinn Brown.” College English 59.1 (1997): 59-71.
- Kelley, William Melvin. Letter to Tolson. May 1966. Tolson Papers. Lewis, Bertram. Letter to Tolson. 29 March 1950. Tolson Papers.
- Lincoln University. Catalogue . 1922-23. . “Transcript of Melvin Tolson.” 1923. Logan, Shirley Wilson. “We Are Coming”: The Persuasive Discourse of Nineteenth- Century Black Women . Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1999.
- McHenry, Elizabeth. “‘Dreaded Eloquence’: The Origins and Rise of African American Literary Societies and Libraries.” Harvard Library Bulletin 6.2 (1995): 32-56.
- —. “Forgotten Readers: African- American Literary Societies and the American Scene.” Print Culture in a Diverse America. Ed. James P. Danky and Wayne A. Wiegand. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1998. 149-72.
- Mullen, Edward J., ed. The Harlem Group of Negro Writers . By Melvin B. Tolson. Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 2001.
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