Conference on College Composition and Communication Logo

College Composition and Communication, Vol. 54, No. 4, June 2003

Click here to view the individual articles in this issue at

Reynolds, Nedra. Rev. of Gender and Rhetorical Space in American Life, 1866-1910 by Nan Johnson. CCC . 54.4 (2003): 657-659.

Worsham, Lynn. Rev. of Feminism Beyond Modernism by Elizabeth Flynn. CCC. 54.4 (2003): 660-661.

Johnson, Robert R. Rev. of Reshaping Technical Communication: New Directions and Challenges for the Twenty-First Century . Barbara Mirel and Rachel Spilka, eds. CCC. 54.4 (2003): 662-664.

Wilkey, Christopher. Rev. of Community Action and Organizational Change: Image, Narrative, Identity by Brenton Faber. CCC. 54.4 (2003): 664-666.

Warnock, Scott. Rev. of The Writing Program Administrator’s Resource: A Guide to Reflective Institutional Practice . Stuart C. Brown and Theresa Enos, eds. CCC. 54.4 (2003): 666-669.

Fountaine, Tim. Rev. of Everyone Can Write: Essays toward a Hopeful Theory of Writing and Teaching Writing by Peter Elbow. CCC. 54.4 (2003): 669-672.

Hocks, Mary E. “Understanding Visual Rhetoric in Digital Writing Environments.” CCC. 54.4 (2003): 629-656.


This essay illustrates key features of visual rhetoric as they operate in two professional academic hypertexts and student work designed for the World Wide Web. By looking at features like audience stance, transparency, and hybridity, writing teachers can teach visual rhetoric as a transformative process of design. Critiquing and producing writing in digital environments offers a welcome return to rhetorical principles and an important pedagogy of writing as design.


ccc54.4 Students Design Readers Audience Online Web Writing Rhetoric Screen AWysocki Media Interface Hypertext VisualRhetoric DigitalLiteracy

Works Cited

Bass, Randy. “Story and Archive in the Twenty-First Century.” College English 61.6 (1999): 659-70.
Baym, Nancy. “From Practice to Culture on Usenet.” In The Cultures of Computing. Ed. Susan Leigh Star. Oxford: Basil
Blackwell, 1995. 29-52. Berlin, James A. Rhetorics, Poetics, and Cultures: Refiguring College English Studies . Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1996.
Boese, Christine. “The Ballad of the Internet Nutball: Chaining Rhetorical Visons from the Margins to the Mainstream in the Xenaverse.” Diss. online 1998 <>.
Bolter, Jay David. Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing . Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991.
Bolter, Jay David, and Richard Grusin. Remediation: Understanding New Media. Cambridge: MIT P, 1999.
Buchanan, Richard. “Declaration by Design: Rhetoric, Argument, and Demonstration in Design Practice.” In Design Discourse: History, Theory, Criticism. Ed. Victor Margolin. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1989. 91-109.
Childers, Pamela B., Eric Hobson, and Joan A. Mullin. ARTiculating: Teaching Writing in a Visual World. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1998.
Cope, Bill, and Mary Kalantzis, eds. Multiliteracies: Literacy Learning and the Design of Social Futures. New York: Routledge, 2000.
Dondis, Donis A. A Primer of Visual Literacy . Cambridge: MIT P, 1973.
Douglass, Jane Yellowlees. “Will the Most Reflexive Relativist Please Stand Up: Hypertext, Argument, and Relativism.” In Page to Screen: Taking Literacy into the Electronic Era. Ed. Ilana J. Snyder. London: Routledge, 1998. 144-62.
Ehses, Hanno H. J. “Representing MacBeth: A Case Study in Visual Rhetoric.” In Design Discourse: History, Theory, Criticism . Ed. Victor Margolin. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1989. 187-97.
Elbow, Peter. “Collage: Your Cheatin’ Art.” Writing on the Edge 9.1 (Fall/Winter 1997-98): 26-40.
Faigley, Lester. Fragments of Rationality: Postmodernity and the Subject of Composition . Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1992.
Gibson, Michael. “Teaching Critical Analytical Methods in the Digital Typography Classroom.” Visible Language 31.1 (1997): 300-25.
Hass, Christina . Writing Technology: Studies on the Materiality of Literacy . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum, 1996.
Heba, Gary. “HyperRhetoric: Multimedia, Literacy, and the Future of Composition.” Computers and Composition 14.1 (January 1997): 19-44.
Hocks, Mary E. “Toward a Visual Critical Electronic Literacy.” Works and Days. 17.1 & 2 (Spring/Fall 1999): 157-72.
Hocks, Mary E., and Daniele Bascelli. “Building a Multimedia Program across the Curriculum.” In Electronic Communication across the Curriculum . Ed. Richard A. Selfe, Donna Reiss, and Art Young. Urbana, IL: NCTE: 40-56.
Hocks, Mary E., and Michelle Kendrick. “Introduction: Eloquent Images.” In Eloquent Images: Word and Image in the Age of New Media . Cambridge: MIT UP, 2003.
Joyce, Michael. Of Two Minds: Hypertext Pedagogy and Poetics . Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1995.
Kaplan, Nancy. “E-Literacies: Politexts, Hypertexts, and Other Cultural Formations in the Late Age of Print.” 1997 <>.
—. “Literacy and Technology: Beyond the Book.” <>.
Knadler, Stephen. “E-Racing Difference in E-Space: Black Female Subjectivity and the Web-Based Portfolio.” Computers and Composition 18.3 (2001): 235-55.
Kress, Gunther. “‘English’ at the Crossroads: Rethinking Curricula of Communication in the Context of the Turn to the Visual.” Passions, Pedagogies and 21st Century Technologies. Ed. Gail E. Hawisher and Cynthia L. Selfe. Logan: Utah UP, 1999. 66-88.
—. “Multimodality.” Multiliteracies: Literacy Learning and the Design of Social Futures . Ed. Bill Cope and Mary Kalantzis. New York: Routledge, 2000. 182-202.
Landow, George P. Hypertext: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1992.
Lanham, Richard A. The Electronic Word: Democracy, Technology, and the Arts . Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1993.
McDermott, Kristine. “Report on Teaching and Technology Workshop for the Shakespeare Association of America.” Unpublished manuscript. Atlanta, GA: Spelman College, 1998. 1-5.
Mirel, Barbara. “Writing and Database Technology: Extending the Definition of Writing in the Workplace.” Electronic Literacies in the Workplace: Technologies of Writing . Ed. Patricia Sullivan and Jennie Dautermann. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1996. 91-114.
Mirzoeff, Nicholas, ed. The Visual Culture Reader . New York: Routledge, 1998.
Mitchell, William J. The Reconfigured Eye: Visual Truth in the Post-Photographic Era . Cambridge: MIT UP 1992.
Moulthrop, Stuart. “Beyond the Electronic Book: A Critique of Hypertext Rhetoric.” Hypertext ’91 Proceedings. New York: The Association for Computing Machinery. 291-98.
Mullet, Kevin, and Darrell Sano. Designing Visual Interfaces: Communication Oriented Techniques. Mountain View, CA: Sun Microsystems, 1995.
Murray, Janet Horowitz. Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace . Cambridge: MIT UP, 1998.
Porter, James E. Rhetorical Ethics and Internetworked Writing . Greenwich, CT: Ablex, 1998.
Porter, James, and Patricia Sullivan. “Remapping Curricular Geography: Professional Writing in/and English Studies” Journal of Business and Technical Communication 7 (1993): 389-422.
Schriver, Karen A. Dynamics in Document Design: Creating Text for Readers . New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1997.
Selfe, Cynthia L. ” Technology and Literacy: A Story about the Perils of Not Paying Attention .” College Composition and Communication 50.3 (February 1999): 411-36.
Snyder, Ilana, ed. Page to Screen: Taking Literacy into the Electronic Era . London: Routledge, 1998.
Stansberry, Domenic. Labyrinths: The Art of Interactive Writing and Design . Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 1998.
STORYPACEâ„¢. Computer Software. Watertown, MA: Eastgate Systems, Inc. December 2, 2002 <>.
Stroupe, Craig. “Visualizing English: Recognizing the Hybrid Literacy of Visual and Verbal Authorship on the Web.” College English 62.5 (May 2000): 607-32.
Tufte, Edward. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative . Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press, 1997.
Wysocki, Anne Frances. “Impossibly Distinct: On Form/Content and Word/ Image in Two Pieces of Computer-Based Interactive Multimedia.” Computers and Composition 18 (2001) 209-34.
—. “Monitoring Order .” Kairos 3.2 (Fall 1998). Online < kairos/3.2/indx_f.html>.
—. “Seriously Visible.” Eloquent Images: Word and Image in the Age of New Media . Ed. Mary E. Hocks and Michelle Kendrick. Cambridge: MIT UP, 2003.

Myers, Sharon A. “ReMembering the Sentence.” CCC. 54.4 (2003): 610-628.


This article echoes Robert J. Connors’s call for a reexamination of sentence pedagogies in composition teaching and offers an explanation of the unsolved mystery of why sentence combining improves student writing, using insights provided by work in contemporary research in linguistics and in language processing. Based the same insights, I argue that we invite words and phrases, the true members of sentences, to important positions in writing classes and describe practical methods for doing so.


ccc54.4 Words Sentence Students Grammar GrammarInstruction Language Writing Phrases Vocabulary Linguistics Patterns Verbs Pedagogy SentenceLevelPedagogy RConnors

Works Cited

Aslin, Richard N., Jenny R. Saffran, and Elissa L. Newport. “Statistical Learning in Linguistic and Nonlinguistic Domains.” The Emergence of Language. Ed. Brian MacWhinney. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1999. 359-80.
Bates, Elizabeth, and Judith C. Goodman. “On the Emergence of Grammar from the Lexicon.” The Emergence of Language . Ed. Brian MacWhinney. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1999. 29-79.
Biber, Douglas, Susan Conrad, and Randi Reppen. Corpus Linguistics: Investigating Language Structure and Use . Cambridge UP, 1998.
Biber, Douglas, Stig Johansson, Geoffrey Leech, Susan Conrad, and Edward Finegan. Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English . Essex: Longman, 1999.
Biber, Douglas, and Randi Reppen. “Comparing Native and Learner Perspectives on English Grammar: A Study of Complement Clauses.” Learner English on Computer. Ed. Sylviane Granger. New York: Longman, 1998. 145-58.
Bresnan, Joan, ed. The Mental Representation of Grammatical Relations . Cambridge, MA: MIT P, 1982.
Burkhalter, Nancy. “Assessing Grammar Teaching Methods Using a Metacognitive Framework.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Composition and Communication (48th), Phoenix, AZ, March 12-15, 1997. ERIC ED 411526.
Carter, R., and M. McCarthy. Vocabulary and Language Teaching. Longman, 1988.
Clark, Eve V. “Language Acquisition: The Lexicon and Syntax.” Speech, Language, and Communication. Ed. Joanne L. Miller and Peter D. Eimas. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1995. 303-37.
Cobuild. University of Birmingham, UK: HarperCollins Publishers. 10 June 2002. <>.
 Collins Cobuild on CD-ROM. University of Birmingham: HarperCollins Publishers, 2001.
Connors, Robert J. ” The Erasure of the Sentence .” College Composition and Communication 52.1(2000): 96-128.
Corbett, Edward P. J. “The Theory and Practice of Imitation in Classical Rhetoric.” College Composition and Communication 22 (1971): 243-50.
Crowley, Sharon. “Linguistics and Composition Instruction.” Written Communication 6 (1989): 480-505.
Ellis, Nick C. “Sequencing in SLA: Phonological Memory, Chunking, and Points of Order.” Studies in Second Language Acquisition 18 (1996): 91-126.
Elman, Jeffrey L., Elizabeth A. Bates, Mark H. Johnson, Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Domenico Parisi, and Kim Plunkett. Rethinking Innateness: A Connectionist Perspective on Development. Cambridge, MA: MIT P, 1996.
Erasmus, Desiderius. Collected Works of Erasmus . Vol. 24, Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style . Trans. Betty Knott. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1978.
Gazdar, Gerald, Ewan Klein, Geoffrey Pullum, and Ivan Sag. Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1985.
Goldberg, Adele E. “The Emergence of the Semantics of Argument Structure Constructions.” The Emergence of Language . Ed. Brian MacWhinney. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1999. 197-212.
Granger, Sylviane. “Prefabricated Patterns in EFL Writing.” Phraseology. Ed. A. P. Cowie. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1998. 145-60.
Halliday, M.A.K. An Introduction to Functional Grammar . London: Edward Arnold, 1985.
Heck, Susan K. “Writing Standard English IS Acquiring a Second Language.” Language Alive in the Classroom . Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999. 115-20.
King, Jonathan. “New Genetic Technology: Prospects and Hazards.” Technology Review, 1980. Primis Online , McGraw- Hill, 2001. <>.
Langacker, Ronald. Foundations of Cognitive Grammar. Vol. 1: Theoretical Prerequisites . Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1987.
Lewis, Michael. Implementing the Lexical Approach: Putting Theory into Practice .
Hove, England: Language Teaching Publications, 1997.
—. The Lexical Approach: The State of ELT and a Way Forward . Hove, England: Language Teaching Publications, 1993.
—, ed. Teaching Collocation: Further Developments in the Lexical Approach . Hove, England: Language Teaching Publications, 2000.
Little, David. “Words and Their Properties: Arguments for a Lexical Approach to Pedagogical Grammar.” Perspectives on Pedagogical Grammar . Ed. Terence Odlin. Cambridge UP, 1994. 99-122.
LTP Dictionary of Selected Collocations . Ed. Jimmie Hill and Michael Lewis. Hove, England: Language Teaching Publications, 1997.
Mel’cuk, Igor. “Collocations and Lexical Functions.” Phraseology. Ed. A. P. Cowie. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1998. 23-53.
Miller, Edmund. Exercises in Style . Normal: Illinois State UP, 1980.
Moon, Rosamund. “Frequencies and Forms of Phrasal Lexemes in English.” Phraseology. Ed. A. P. Cowie. Oxford: Clarendon P, 1998. 79-100.
Morgan, James L., Richard P. Meier, and Elissa L. Newport. “Structural Packaging in the Input to Language Learning: Contributions of Prosodic and Morphological Marking of Phrases to the Acquisition of Language.” Cognitive Psychology (1987) 19: 498-550.
Morgan, James L., and Elissa L. Newport. “The Role of Constituent Structure in the Induction of an Artificial Language. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior (1981) 20: 67-85.
Nattinger, James R., and Jeanette S. DeCarrico. Lexical Phrases and Language Teaching. Oxford UP, 1992.
Oakley, Todd. “Copious Reasoning: The Student Writer As an Astute Observer of Language.” Language Alive in the Classroom . Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999. 129-38.
O’Hare, Frank. Sentencecraft: A Course in Sentence-Combining . Lexington: Ginn, 1975.
Paradis, Michel. “Neurolinguistic Aspects of Implicit and Explicit Memory: Implications for Bilingualism and SLA.” Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages. Ed. Nick C. Ellis. San Diego, CA. Academic P, 1994. 393-419.
Perlmutter, David, and Carol Rosen, eds. Studies in Relational Grammar 2. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1984.
Purser, Diana. “A Descriptive Study of Grammar in a Nutshell and Its Effects on the Writing Skills of 9th Grade Students.” Thesis. U of Oklahoma, 1992.
Rumelhart, D. E., and J. L. McClelland. “On Learning the Past Tenses of English Verbs.” Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition . Ed. Rumelhart and McClelland. Cambridge, MA: MIT P, 1986.
Safran, Claire. “Hidden Lessons: Do Little Boys Get a Better Education Than Little Girls?” Parade, 1983. Primis Online, McGraw-Hill, 2001. <>.
Sejnowski, T. J., and C. R. Rosenberg. NETtalk: A Parallel Network That Learns to Read Aloud (Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Tech. Rep. JHU/ EECS-86/01). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins U,1987.
Strong, William. Sentence Combining: A Composing Book, 2nd ed. New York: Random House, 1983.
Tribble, Chris, and Glyn Jones. Concordances in the Classroom: A Resource Guide for Teachers. Houston: Athelstan Publications, 1997.
Tschirner, Erwin. “From Grammar to Lexicon.” The Coming Age of the Profession. Ed. Jane Harper, Madeleine Lively, and Mary Williams. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle, 1998. 113-28.

Williams, Bronwyn T. “Speak for Yourself? Power and Hybridity in the Cross-Cultural Classroom.” CCC. 54.4 (2003): 586-609.


In this article I use the lens of postcolonial theory to reflect on my uses of a varied series of writing pedagogies in cross-cultural classrooms at an international college. Such reflection helps reveal how relations of power between teacher and students and underlying ideological assumptions about knowledge and discourse often resulted in hybrid responses of mimicry, frustration, incomprehension, and resistance. A pedagogy constructed against the backdrop of postcolonial theory might provide both students and their teacher in such a cross-cultural setting with a more complex and useful way of understanding issues of power, discourse, identity, and the role of writing.


ccc54.4 Students Culture Power Discourse Classroom Authority Teacher DominantCulture Postcolonial CrossCultural Knowledge Resistance Hybridity Ideology

Works Cited

Appadurai, Arjun. “Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy.” Colonial Discourse and Post- Colonial Theory . Ed. Patrick Williams and Laura Chrisman. New York: Columbia UP, 1994. 324-39.
Bhabha, Homi K. “Culture’s In-Between.” Questions of Cultural Identity. Ed. Stuart Hall and Paul du Gay. London: Sage, 1996. 53-60.
—. Interview with Gary A. Olson and Lynn Worsham. Race, Rhetoric, and the Postcolonial. Ed. Olson and Worsham. Albany, NY: State U of New York P, 1999. 3-42.
—. “Of Mimicry and Man: The Ambivalence of Colonial Discourse.” The Location of Culture. London: Routledge, 1994. 85-92.
—. “Sly Civility.” The Location of Culture . London: Routledge, 1994. 71-80. Bloom, Lynn Z. “Freshman Composition As a Middle-Class Enterprise.” College English 58 (1996): 654-75.
Fox, Helen. Listening to the World: Cultural Issues in Academic Writing . Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1994.
Gavaskar, Vandana S. “‘I Don’t Identify with the Text’: Exploring the Boundaries of Personal/Cultural in a Postcolonial Pedagogy.” JAC: A Journal of Composition Theory 18.1 (1998): 137-52.
Hall, Stuart. “New Ethnicities.” Black British Cultural Studies. Ed. Houston A. Baker, Manthia Diawara, and Ruth H. Lindeborg. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1996. 163-72.
Newkirk, Thomas. The Performance of Self in Student Writing . Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1997.
Olson, Gary A. “Encountering the Other: Postcolonial Theory and Composition Scholarship.” JAC: A Journal of Composition Theory 18.1 (1998): 45-56.
Pratt, Mary Louise. “Arts of the Contact Zone.” Profession 91. New York: MLA 1991. 33-40.
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. “Can the Subaltern Speak?” Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. Ed. Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1988.
—. Outside in the Teaching Machine . London: Routledge, 1993.
Villanueva, Victor, Jr. Bootstraps: From an American Academic of Color . Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1993.

Herndl, Carl G. and Danny A. Bauer. “Speaking Matters: Liberation Theology, Rhetorical Performance, and Social Action.” CCC. 54.4 (2003): 558-585.


This article examines the rhetorical practice of liberation theology and how it has altered social relations of power in Latin America. Using the confrontational rhetoric of liberation theology as an example, we develop a rhetorical model that grounds postmodern theories of rhetorical performance in material relations to explain how marginalized or subaltern groups can effect social change.


ccc54.4 LiberationTheology Power Subaltern Discourse Performance Identity SocialAction GSpivak Communities LatinAmerica Material

Works Cited

Belli, Humberto. Breaking Faith: The Sandinista Revolution and Its Impact on Freedom and Christian Faith in Nicaragua . Garden City, MI: Puebla Institute, 1985.
Berryman, Philip. Liberation Theology: The Essential Facts about the Revolutionary Movement in Latin America and Beyond . New York: Pantheon, 1987.
Boff, Leonardo. Ecclesiogenesis: The Base Communities Reinvent the Church . Trans. Robert R. Barr. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1986.
—. Faith on the Edge: Religion and Marginalized Existence . Trans. Robert R. Barr. New York: Harper and Row, 1989.
—. Way of the Cross: Way of Justice . Trans. John Drury. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1982.
Boff, Leonardo, and Clodovis Boff. Introducing Liberation Theology. Trans. Paul Burns. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1989.
Bourdieu, Pierre. Language and Symbolic Power . Trans. Gino Raymond and John B. Thompson. Ed. John B. Thompson. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1991.
—. Outline of a Theory of Practice . Trans. Richard Nice. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1977.
Brown, Robert McAfee. Theology in a New Key: Responding to Liberation Themes . Philadelphia: Westminster, 1978.
Buchanan, Pat. “Republican Candidate for President.” Speech to the Manchester Institute of Arts and Sciences, Manchester, NH. 20 March 1995. Vital Speeches of the Day 15 May 1995: 461-63.
Burgos-Debray, Elisabeth, ed. I, Rigoberta Menchú: An Indian Woman in Guatemala. Trans. Ann Wright. London: Verso, 1983.
Butler, Judith. Excitable Speech: A Politics of the Performative . New York: Routledge, 1997.
—. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity . New York: London, 1990.
Comblin, Jose. Retrieving the Human: A Christian Anthropology . Trans. Robert R. Barr. Maryknoll NY: Orbis, 1990.
Flamer, Richard. Personal Interview. 5 July 2001. Des Moines Catholic Worker House.
Foucault, Michel. The Archaeology of Knowledge and the Discourse on Language . Trans. A. M. Sheridan Smith. New York: Pantheon, 1972.
Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed . Trans. Myra Bergman Ramos. New York: Continuum, 1989.
Grossberg, Lawrence. we gotta get out of this place: popular conservatism and postmodern culture . New York: Routledge, 1992.
Guti�rrez, Gustavo. The Power of the Poor in History . Trans. Robert R. Barr. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1983.
—. A Theology of Liberation: History, Politics, and Salvation . Trans. and ed. Sister Caridad Inda and John Eagleson. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1973.
hooks, bell. “Talking Back.” Out There: Marginalization and Contemporary Cultures. Ed. Russell Ferguson, Martha Gever, Trinh T. Minh-ha, and Cornell West. Cambridge, MA: New Museum of Contemporary Art and MIT P, 1990. 337-40.
Laclau, Ernesto. Politics and Ideology in Marxist Theory: Capitalism, Fascism, Populism . London: New Left Books, 1977.
Laclau, Ernesto, and Chantal Mouffe. Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Toward a Radical Democratic Politics. London: Verso, 1985.
Lernoux, Penny. Cry of the People: The Struggle for Human Rights in Latin America: The Catholic Church in Conflict with U.S. Policy . New York: Penguin, 1982.
Martin, Jerry L., and Anne D. Neal. “Defending Civilization: How Our Universities Are Failing America and What Can Be Done about It.” Washington, DC: American Council of Trustees and Alumni, February 2002.
Metz, Johannes. Theology of the World . New York: Crossroads Publishing, 1969.
Ochoa, George. “What Courage Means.” Letter to the Editor. The New Yorker 8 October 2001: 5
Pottenger, John R. “Liberation Theology: Its Methodological Foundation for Violence.” The Morality of Terrorism: Religious and Secular Justifications . Ed. David C. Rapoport and Yonah Alexander. New York: Pergamon, 1982. 99-123.
Rorty, Richard. Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity . New York: Cambridge UP, 1989.
Sanchez, Rosaura. “Discourses of Gender, Ethnicity, and Class in Chicano Literature.” Rpt. in Feminisms: An Anthology of Literary Theory and Criticism . 2nd ed. Ed. Robyn R. Warhol and Diane Price Herndl. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1997, 1009-22.
Sobrino, Jon. Jesus in Latin America . Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1987.
Sontag, Susan. “The Talk of the Town: Comment.” The New Yorker 24 September 2001: 32.
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. “Can the Subaltern Speak?” Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. Ed. Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg. Champaign- Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1988. 271-313.
—. A Critique of Postcolonial Reason: Toward a History of the Vanishing Present . Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1999.
Wells, Susan. Sweet Reason: Rhetoric and the Discourses of Modernity . Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1996.
Zizeck, Slavoj. The Sublime Object of Ideology . London: Verso, 1989.

Roberts-Miller, Trish. “Discursive Conflict in Communities and Classrooms.” CCC. 54.4 (2003): 536-557.


Communitarianism and compositionists’ use of the concept of “communities of discourse,” while intended to promote inclusive discourse, can easily fall prey to the myth of progressivism, ignoring the relative costs of discursive conflict or the pressures of consensus and conformity.


ccc54.4 Community Discourse Argument Students PublicSphere Communitarian Democracy Difference Agreement Agonistic Conflict Irenic Progressivism

Works Cited

Beaufort, Anne. “Operationalizing the Concept of Discourse Community: A Case Study of One Site of Composing.” Research in the Teaching of English 31 (Dec 1997): 486-529.
Beiner, Ronald. What’s the Matter with Liberalism ? Berkeley: U of California P, 1992.
Bruffee, Kenneth. “Collaborative Learning and the ‘Conversation of Mankind.'” Cross Talk in Comp Theory: A Reader. Ed. Victor Villanueva, Jr. Urbana: NCTE, 1997. 393-414.
Carpenter, C. C. J., Joseph A. Durick, Milton L. Grafman, Paul Hardin, Noland B. Harmon, George M. Murray, Edward V. Ramage, Earl Stallings. “Public Statement by Eight Alabama Clergymen.” Audiences and Intentions. Ed. Arthur Quinn and Nancy Mason Bradbury. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1997. 49-50.
Chafe, William. Civilities and Civil Rights: Greensboro, North Carolina, and the Black Struggle for Freedom . Oxford: Oxford UP, 1980.
Clark, Gregory. ” Rescuing the Discourse of Community .” College Composition and Communication 45 (1994): 61-74.
Cooper, Marilyn. “The Ecology of Writing.” The Harcourt Brace Sourcebook for Teachers of Writing. Ed. Patricia Roberts. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace, 1998. 105-16.
Dahl, Robert A. Democracy and Its Critics . New Haven: Yale UP, 1989.
—. On Democracy. New Haven: Yale UP, 1998.
Etzioni, Amitai, ed. The Essential Communitarian Reader. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998.
—. Introduction. Ezioni ix-xxiv.
—. “A Moral Awakening without Puritanism.” Etzioni 41-46.
Etzioni, Amitai, et al. “Responsive Communitarian Platform.” Etzioni xxv-xxxix.
Goodin, Robert E. “Permissible Paternalism: In Defense of the Nanny State.” Etzioni 115-23.
Habermas, Jürgen. “Three Normative Models of Democracy.” The Inclusion of the Other: Studies in Political Theory . Ed. Ciaran Cronin and Pablo De Greiff. Cambridge: MIT P, 1998. 239-52.
Harris, Joseph. “Negotiating the Contact Zone.” Journal of Basic Writing 14.1 (Spring 1995): 27-42.
—. A Teaching Subject: Composition Since 1966 . New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1997.
Held, David. Models of Democracy . Stanford: Stanford UP, 1996.
Jarratt, Susan C. “Feminism and Composition: The Case for Conflict.” Contending with Words: Composition and Rhetoric in a Postmodern Age. Ed. Patricia Harkin and John Schilb. New York: MLA, 1991. 105-23.
Kastely, James L. From Plato to Postmodernism: Rethinking the Rhetorical Tradition. New Haven: Yale UP, 1997.
Kent, Thomas. “On the Very Idea of a Discourse Community.” College Composition and Communication 42 (1991): 425-45.
Killingsworth, M. Jimmie. “Discourse Communities: Local and Global.” Rhetoric Review 11 (Fall 1992): 110-22.
Kleiman, Mark. “Drug Abuse Control Policy: Libertarian, Authoritarian, Liberal, and Communitarian Perspectives.” Etzioni 217-25.
MacIntyre, Alasdair. After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory. 2nd ed. Notre Dame: Notre Dame UP, 1984.
Miller, William Lee. Arguing about Slavery: John Quincy Adams and the Great Battle in the United States Congress . New York: Vintage Books, 1995.
Myers, Greg. “Reality, Consensus, and Reform in the Rhetoric of Composition Teaching.” Cross Talk in Comp Theory: A Reader . Ed. Victor Villanueva, Jr. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1997. 439-56.
Nie, Norman H., Jane Junn, Kenneth Stehlik- Barry. Education and Democratic Citizenship in America. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1996.
Sandel, Michael. Democracy’s Discontent: America in Search of a Public Philosophy . Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1996.
—. Liberalism and the Limits of Justice . 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998.
Schriner, Delores K., and William C. Rice. “Computer Conferencing and Collaborative Learning: A Discourse Community at Work.” College Composition and Communication 40 (Dec 1989): 472-78.
Selznick, Philip. “Foundations of Communitarian Liberalism.” Etzioni 61-72.
Siegel, Fred. “The Loss of Public Space.” Etzioni 187-98.
Taylor, Charles. Philosophy and the Human Sciences . Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1985. Trimbur, John. “Consensus and Difference in Collaborative Learning.” College English 51 (1989): 602-16.

Renew Your Membership

Join CCCC today!
Learn more about the SWR book series.
Connect with CCCC
CCCC on Facebook
CCCC on LinkedIn
CCCC on Twitter
CCCC on Tumblr
OWI Principles Statement
Join the OWI discussion


Copyright © 1998 - 2024 National Council of Teachers of English. All rights reserved in all media.

1111 W. Kenyon Road, Urbana, Illinois 61801-1096 Phone: 217-328-3870 or 877-369-6283

Looking for information? Browse our FAQs, tour our sitemap and store sitemap, or contact NCTE

Read our Privacy Policy Statement and Links Policy. Use of this site signifies your agreement to the Terms of Use