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College Composition and Communication, Vol. 54, No. 4, June 2003

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Reynolds, Nedra. Rev. of Gender and Rhetorical Space in American Life, 1866-1910 by Nan Johnson. CCC . 54.4 (2003): 657-659.

Worsham, Lynn. Rev. of Feminism Beyond Modernism by Elizabeth Flynn. CCC. 54.4 (2003): 660-661.

Johnson, Robert R. Rev. of Reshaping Technical Communication: New Directions and Challenges for the Twenty-First Century . Barbara Mirel and Rachel Spilka, eds. CCC. 54.4 (2003): 662-664.

Wilkey, Christopher. Rev. of Community Action and Organizational Change: Image, Narrative, Identity by Brenton Faber. CCC. 54.4 (2003): 664-666.

Warnock, Scott. Rev. of The Writing Program Administrator’s Resource: A Guide to Reflective Institutional Practice . Stuart C. Brown and Theresa Enos, eds. CCC. 54.4 (2003): 666-669.

Fountaine, Tim. Rev. of Everyone Can Write: Essays toward a Hopeful Theory of Writing and Teaching Writing by Peter Elbow. CCC. 54.4 (2003): 669-672.

Hocks, Mary E. “Understanding Visual Rhetoric in Digital Writing Environments.” CCC. 54.4 (2003): 629-656.


This essay illustrates key features of visual rhetoric as they operate in two professional academic hypertexts and student work designed for the World Wide Web. By looking at features like audience stance, transparency, and hybridity, writing teachers can teach visual rhetoric as a transformative process of design. Critiquing and producing writing in digital environments offers a welcome return to rhetorical principles and an important pedagogy of writing as design.


ccc54.4 Students Design Readers Audience Online Web Writing Rhetoric Screen AWysocki Media Interface Hypertext VisualRhetoric DigitalLiteracy

Works Cited

Bass, Randy. “Story and Archive in the Twenty-First Century.” College English 61.6 (1999): 659-70.
Baym, Nancy. “From Practice to Culture on Usenet.” In The Cultures of Computing. Ed. Susan Leigh Star. Oxford: Basil
Blackwell, 1995. 29-52. Berlin, James A. Rhetorics, Poetics, and Cultures: Refiguring College English Studies . Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1996.
Boese, Christine. “The Ballad of the Internet Nutball: Chaining Rhetorical Visons from the Margins to the Mainstream in the Xenaverse.” Diss. online 1998 <>.
Bolter, Jay David. Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing . Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1991.
Bolter, Jay David, and Richard Grusin. Remediation: Understanding New Media. Cambridge: MIT P, 1999.
Buchanan, Richard. “Declaration by Design: Rhetoric, Argument, and Demonstration in Design Practice.” In Design Discourse: History, Theory, Criticism. Ed. Victor Margolin. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1989. 91-109.
Childers, Pamela B., Eric Hobson, and Joan A. Mullin. ARTiculating: Teaching Writing in a Visual World. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1998.
Cope, Bill, and Mary Kalantzis, eds. Multiliteracies: Literacy Learning and the Design of Social Futures. New York: Routledge, 2000.
Dondis, Donis A. A Primer of Visual Literacy . Cambridge: MIT P, 1973.
Douglass, Jane Yellowlees. “Will the Most Reflexive Relativist Please Stand Up: Hypertext, Argument, and Relativism.” In Page to Screen: Taking Literacy into the Electronic Era. Ed. Ilana J. Snyder. London: Routledge, 1998. 144-62.
Ehses, Hanno H. J. “Representing MacBeth: A Case Study in Visual Rhetoric.” In Design Discourse: History, Theory, Criticism . Ed. Victor Margolin. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1989. 187-97.
Elbow, Peter. “Collage: Your Cheatin’ Art.” Writing on the Edge 9.1 (Fall/Winter 1997-98): 26-40.
Faigley, Lester. Fragments of Rationality: Postmodernity and the Subject of Composition . Pittsburgh, PA: U of Pittsburgh P, 1992.
Gibson, Michael. “Teaching Critical Analytical Methods in the Digital Typography Classroom.” Visible Language 31.1 (1997): 300-25.
Hass, Christina . Writing Technology: Studies on the Materiality of Literacy . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum, 1996.
Heba, Gary. “HyperRhetoric: Multimedia, Literacy, and the Future of Composition.” Computers and Composition 14.1 (January 1997): 19-44.
Hocks, Mary E. “Toward a Visual Critical Electronic Literacy.” Works and Days. 17.1 & 2 (Spring/Fall 1999): 157-72.
Hocks, Mary E., and Daniele Bascelli. “Building a Multimedia Program across the Curriculum.” In Electronic Communication across the Curriculum . Ed. Richard A. Selfe, Donna Reiss, and Art Young. Urbana, IL: NCTE: 40-56.
Hocks, Mary E., and Michelle Kendrick. “Introduction: Eloquent Images.” In Eloquent Images: Word and Image in the Age of New Media . Cambridge: MIT UP, 2003.
Joyce, Michael. Of Two Minds: Hypertext Pedagogy and Poetics . Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1995.
Kaplan, Nancy. “E-Literacies: Politexts, Hypertexts, and Other Cultural Formations in the Late Age of Print.” 1997 <>.
—. “Literacy and Technology: Beyond the Book.” <>.
Knadler, Stephen. “E-Racing Difference in E-Space: Black Female Subjectivity and the Web-Based Portfolio.” Computers and Composition 18.3 (2001): 235-55.
Kress, Gunther. “‘English’ at the Crossroads: Rethinking Curricula of Communication in the Context of the Turn to the Visual.” Passions, Pedagogies and 21st Century Technologies. Ed. Gail E. Hawisher and Cynthia L. Selfe. Logan: Utah UP, 1999. 66-88.
—. “Multimodality.” Multiliteracies: Literacy Learning and the Design of Social Futures . Ed. Bill Cope and Mary Kalantzis. New York: Routledge, 2000. 182-202.
Landow, George P. Hypertext: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1992.
Lanham, Richard A. The Electronic Word: Democracy, Technology, and the Arts . Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1993.
McDermott, Kristine. “Report on Teaching and Technology Workshop for the Shakespeare Association of America.” Unpublished manuscript. Atlanta, GA: Spelman College, 1998. 1-5.
Mirel, Barbara. “Writing and Database Technology: Extending the Definition of Writing in the Workplace.” Electronic Literacies in the Workplace: Technologies of Writing . Ed. Patricia Sullivan and Jennie Dautermann. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1996. 91-114.
Mirzoeff, Nicholas, ed. The Visual Culture Reader . New York: Routledge, 1998.
Mitchell, William J. The Reconfigured Eye: Visual Truth in the Post-Photographic Era . Cambridge: MIT UP 1992.
Moulthrop, Stuart. “Beyond the Electronic Book: A Critique of Hypertext Rhetoric.” Hypertext ’91 Proceedings. New York: The Association for Computing Machinery. 291-98.
Mullet, Kevin, and Darrell Sano. Designing Visual Interfaces: Communication Oriented Techniques. Mountain View, CA: Sun Microsystems, 1995.
Murray, Janet Horowitz. Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace . Cambridge: MIT UP, 1998.
Porter, James E. Rhetorical Ethics and Internetworked Writing . Greenwich, CT: Ablex, 1998.
Porter, James, and Patricia Sullivan. “Remapping Curricular Geography: Professional Writing in/and English Studies” Journal of Business and Technical Communication 7 (1993): 389-422.
Schriver, Karen A. Dynamics in Document Design: Creating Text for Readers . New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1997.
Selfe, Cynthia L. ” Technology and Literacy: A Story about the Perils of Not Paying Attention .” College Composition and Communication 50.3 (February 1999): 411-36.
Snyder, Ilana, ed. Page to Screen: Taking Literacy into the Electronic Era . London: Routledge, 1998.
Stansberry, Domenic. Labyrinths: The Art of Interactive Writing and Design . Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 1998.
STORYPACEâ„¢. Computer Software. Watertown, MA: Eastgate Systems, Inc. December 2, 2002 <>.
Stroupe, Craig. “Visualizing English: Recognizing the Hybrid Literacy of Visual and Verbal Authorship on the Web.” College English 62.5 (May 2000): 607-32.
Tufte, Edward. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative . Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press, 1997.
Wysocki, Anne Frances. “Impossibly Distinct: On Form/Content and Word/ Image in Two Pieces of Computer-Based Interactive Multimedia.” Computers and Composition 18 (2001) 209-34.
—. “Monitoring Order .” Kairos 3.2 (Fall 1998). Online < kairos/3.2/indx_f.html>.
—. “Seriously Visible.” Eloquent Images: Word and Image in the Age of New Media . Ed. Mary E. Hocks and Michelle Kendrick. Cambridge: MIT UP, 2003.

Myers, Sharon A. “ReMembering the Sentence.” CCC. 54.4 (2003): 610-628.


This article echoes Robert J. Connors’s call for a reexamination of sentence pedagogies in composition teaching and offers an explanation of the unsolved mystery of why sentence combining improves student writing, using insights provided by work in contemporary research in linguistics and in language processing. Based the same insights, I argue that we invite words and phrases, the true members of sentences, to important positions in writing classes and describe practical methods for doing so.


ccc54.4 Words Sentence Students Grammar GrammarInstruction Language Writing Phrases Vocabulary Linguistics Patterns Verbs Pedagogy SentenceLevelPedagogy RConnors

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Williams, Bronwyn T. “Speak for Yourself? Power and Hybridity in the Cross-Cultural Classroom.” CCC. 54.4 (2003): 586-609.


In this article I use the lens of postcolonial theory to reflect on my uses of a varied series of writing pedagogies in cross-cultural classrooms at an international college. Such reflection helps reveal how relations of power between teacher and students and underlying ideological assumptions about knowledge and discourse often resulted in hybrid responses of mimicry, frustration, incomprehension, and resistance. A pedagogy constructed against the backdrop of postcolonial theory might provide both students and their teacher in such a cross-cultural setting with a more complex and useful way of understanding issues of power, discourse, identity, and the role of writing.


ccc54.4 Students Culture Power Discourse Classroom Authority Teacher DominantCulture Postcolonial CrossCultural Knowledge Resistance Hybridity Ideology

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Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. “Can the Subaltern Speak?” Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. Ed. Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1988.
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Herndl, Carl G. and Danny A. Bauer. “Speaking Matters: Liberation Theology, Rhetorical Performance, and Social Action.” CCC. 54.4 (2003): 558-585.


This article examines the rhetorical practice of liberation theology and how it has altered social relations of power in Latin America. Using the confrontational rhetoric of liberation theology as an example, we develop a rhetorical model that grounds postmodern theories of rhetorical performance in material relations to explain how marginalized or subaltern groups can effect social change.


ccc54.4 LiberationTheology Power Subaltern Discourse Performance Identity SocialAction GSpivak Communities LatinAmerica Material

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Roberts-Miller, Trish. “Discursive Conflict in Communities and Classrooms.” CCC. 54.4 (2003): 536-557.


Communitarianism and compositionists’ use of the concept of “communities of discourse,” while intended to promote inclusive discourse, can easily fall prey to the myth of progressivism, ignoring the relative costs of discursive conflict or the pressures of consensus and conformity.


ccc54.4 Community Discourse Argument Students PublicSphere Communitarian Democracy Difference Agreement Agonistic Conflict Irenic Progressivism

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