Click here to view the individual articles in this issue at http://www.ncte.org/cccc/ccc/issues/v51-2
Greer, Jane. “‘No Smiling Madonna’: Marian Wharton and the Struggle to Construct a Critical Pedagogy for the Working Class, 1914-1917.” CCC 51.2 (1999): 248-271.
This article examines the work of Marian Wharton, a socialist and feminist who helped shape the English curriculum at the People’s College in Fort Scott, Kansas, from 1914 to 1917. While other historical projects on writing instruction have focused on women working at or in alliance with elite eastern colleges, Wharton operated outside the traditional academy at a site where the empowerment of the working class was the explicit goal of writing and language instruction. By exploring tensions in Wharton’s work, I hope to develop a rich, historically-situated conception of how the rhetorical activities of women and other marginalized people are a complex interweaving of alliance and antagonism, of free choice and restricted options, of accomplishment and failure.
ccc51.2 Students MWharton People Language Class WorkingClass Rhetoric History NonAcademic Women Instruction CriticalPedagogy
- Allen, Julia M. “‘Dear Comrade’: Marian Wharton of The People’s College, Fort Scott, Kansas, 1914-1917. Women’s Studies Quarterly 22 (1994): 119-133.
- Altenbaugh, Richard J. Education for Struggle: The American Labor Colleges of the 1920s and 1930s. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1990.
- Connors, Robert J. “Mechanical Correctness as a Focus in Composition Instruction.” CCC 36 (1985): 61-72.
- hooks, bell. Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. New York: Routledge, 1994.
- Kansas City Star. June 20, 1914. (Clip File, Special Collections, Kansas City Public Library.)
- Le Sueur, Meridel. The Crusaders:The Radical Legacy of Marian and Arthur Le Sueur. (1955) St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society P, 1984.
- —. Ripening: Selected Work. 2nd ed. Ed. Elaine Hedges. New York: Feminist P, 1990.
- Lunsford, Andrea A., ed. Reclaiming Rhetorica: Women in the Rhetorical Tradition. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1995.
- Noffsinger, John S. Correspondence Schools, Lyceums, Chautauquas. New York: MacMillan, 1926.
- People’s College News (PCN) 2.5 (Dec. 1915); 2.9 (April 1916); 3.4 (Nov. 1916); 3.6 (Jan. 1917); 3.7 (Feb. 1917); 3.8 (March 1917); 4.1 (Aug. 1917); 4.4 (Nov. 1917); 4.6 (Jan. 1918); 4.11 (June 1918).
- Spring, Joel H. Education and the Rise of the Corporate State. Boston: Beacon, 1972.
- Wharton, Marian. Plain English. Fort Scott, KS: The People’s College, 1917.
Lindquist, Julie. “Class Ethos and the Politics of Inquiry: What the Barroom Can Teach Us about the Classroom.” CCC 51.2 (1999): 225-247.
I want to suggest that an examination of rhetorical practices at the local bar is instructive for two reasons: (1) the barroom is predictably different from the university writing classroom; and (2) the barroom is surprisingly similar to the university writing classroom. A look at how neighborhood bars are qualitatively different from classrooms can teach us about our working-class students’ rhetorical motives, and a recognition of how they are functionally similar can teach us something about our own.
ccc51.2 Students Smokehouse Class Bar Writing Rhetoric MiddleClass Community Ethos WorkingClass Authority Discourse Power Capital
- Anderson, Virginia. “Confrontational Teaching and Rhetorical Practice.”CCC 48 (1997): 197-214.
- Aronowitz, Stanley. “Working-Class Identity and Celluloid Fantasies in the Electronic Age.” Popular Culture: Schooling and Everyday Life. Eds. Henry Giroux and Roger Simon. New York: Bergin, 1989.
- Bell, Michael J. The World from Brown’s Lounge: An Ethnography of Black Middle-Class Play. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1983.
- Bloom, Lynn Z. “Freshman Composition as a Middle-Class Enterprise.” College English 58 (1996): 654-75.
- Bourdieu, Pierre. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste. Trans. R. Nice. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1984.
- Cooper, Marilyn. “Unhappy Consciousness in First-Year English: How to Figure Things Out for Yourself.” Writing as Social Action. Marilyn Cooper and Michael Holzman. Portsmouth: Boynton, 1989. 28-60.
- Covino, William. Forms of Wondering. Portsmouth: Boynton, 1991.
- Eckert, Penelope. Jocks and Burnouts: Social Categories and Identity in the High School. New York: Teachers College P,1989.
- Farmer, Frank. ” Dialogue and Critique: Bakhtin and the Cultural Studies Writing Classroom .” CCC 49 (1998): 186-207.
- Fox, Tom. The Social Uses of Writing. Norwood: Ablex, 1990.
- Gale, Xin Liu. Teachers, Discourses, and Authority in the Postmodern Composition Classroom. New York: State U of New York P, 1996.
- Harris, Joseph. ” The Idea of Community in the Study of Writing .” CCC 40 (1989): 11-22.
- Le Masters, E. E. Blue-Collar Aristocrats: Lifestyles at a Working-Class Tavern. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1975.
- Lindquist, Julie. “‘Bullshit on “What If”!’ An Ethnographic Rhetoric of Political Argument in a Working-Class Bar.”Diss. University of Illinois at Chicago, 1995.
- Mortensen, P., and Gesa Kirsch. “On Authority in the Study of Writing.” CCC 44 (1993): 556-72.
- Ohmann, Richard. “Reflections on Class and Language.” College English 44 (1982): 1-17.
- Rosenweig, Ray. “The Rise of the Saloon.” Rethinking Popular Culture: Contemporary Perspectives in Cultural Studies. Eds. Mukerji and Schudson. Berkeley: U of California P, 1991: 121-56.
- Seitz, David. “Keeping Honest: Working Class Students, Difference, and Rethinking the Critical Agenda in Composition.” Under Construction: Working at the Intersections of Composition Theory, Research, and Practice. Ed. Christine Farris and Chris Anson. Logan: Utah State P, 1998.
- Smith, Jeff. “Students’ Goals, Gatekeeping, and Some Questions of Ethics.” College English 59 (1997): 299-320.
- Spradley, James, and Brenda Mann. The Cocktail Waitress: Women’s Work in a Man’s World. New York: Knopf, 1975.
Ratcliffe, Krista. “Rhetorical Listening: A Trope for Interpretive Invention and a ‘Code of Cross-Cultural Conduct.'” CCC 51.2 (1999): 195-224.
I make the following moves in this article: (1) I briefly trace how rhetorical listening emerged in my thinking; (2) I explore disciplinary and cultural biases that subordinate listening to reading and writing and speaking; (3) I speculate why listening is needed; (4) I offer an extended definition of rhetorical listening as a trope for interpretive invention; (5) I demonstrate how it may be employed as a code of cross-cultural conduct; and (6) I listen to a student’s listening.
ccc51.2 RhetoricalListening Whiteness Discourse Difference Reading Writing Women Logos Others InterpretiveInvention Invention Intent Culture Gender
- Aristotle. On Rhetoric: A Theory of Civic Discourse. Trans. George Kennedy. New York: Oxford UP, 1991.
- Ballif, Michelle. “What Is It That the Audience Wants? Or, Notes Toward Listening with a Transgendered Ear.” CCCC, Phoenix, AZ, March 1997.
- Bhabha, Homi. “On the Irremovable Strangeness of Being Different.” PMLA 113 (1998): 34-39.
- Bleicher, Josef. Contemporary Hermeneutics: Hermeneutics as Method, Philosophy, and Critique. Boston: Routledge, 1980.
- Bruns, Gerald. Hermeneutics Ancient and Modern. New Haven: Yale UP, 1992.
- Burke, Kenneth. A Grammar of Motives. 1945. Berkeley: U of California P, 1969.
- —. A Rhetoric of Motives. 1950. Berkeley: U of California P, 1969.
- Butler, Judith. Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of “Sex.” New York: Routledge, 1993.
- Childers, Mary and bell hooks. “A Conversation about Race and Class.” Conflicts in Feminism. Eds. Marianne Hirsch and Evelyn Fox Keller. New York: Routledge, 1990. 60-81.
- Clough, Patricia Ticineto. “Autotelecommunication and Autoethnography: A Reading of Carolyn Ellis’s Final Negotiations. ” The Sociological Quarterly 38 (1997): 97-110.
- Copeland, Shawn. “Inclusion Is Not Enough: Some Reflections on Interdisciplinary Conversations.” Conversations on Learning Conference. Marquette U, Milwaukee, WI, Jan 1998.
- Davis, Diane. “Just Listening: A Hearing for the Unhearable.” CCCC, Phoenix, AZ, March 1997.
- Davy, Kate. “Outing Whiteness: A Feminst/ Lesbian Project.” Hill 204-25.
- Deck, Alice A. “Autoethnography: Zora Neale Hurston, Noni Jabavu, and Cross- Disciplinary Discourse.” Black American Literature Forum 24 (1990): 237-56.
- Derrida, Jacques. “Violence and Metaphysics: An Essay on the Thought of Emmanuel Levinas.” Writing and Difference. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1978. 79-153.
- Dyer, Richard. White. New York: Routledge, 1997.
- Dyson, Michael Eric. Race Rules: Navigating the Color Line. New York: Vintage, 1996.
- Fishkin, Shelley Fisher. “Interrogating ‘Whiteness,’ Complicating ‘Blackness’: Remapping American Culture. American Quarterly 47 (1995): 428-66.
- Fiumara, Gemma Corradi. The Other Side of Language: A Philosophy of Listening. New York: Routledge, 1990.
- Frankenberg, Ruth. The Social Construction of Whiteness: White Women, Race Matters. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1993.
- —. “‘When We Are Capable of Stopping, We Begin to See’: Being White, Seeing Whiteness.” Thompson and Tyagi 3-18.
- Fuss, Diana. Identification Papers. New York: Routledge, 1995.
- Gadamer, Hans-Georg. Truth and Method. Trans. Garrett Barden and John Cummings. New York: Seabury P, 1975.
- Gilbert, Sandra. “Ethnicity-Ethnicities-Literature- Literatures.” PMLA 113 (1998): 19-27.
- Giovanni, Nikki. “Annual Conventions of Everyday Subjects.” Racisim 101. New York: William Morrow, 1994. 83-89.
- Gregory, Marshall. “Comment and Response.” College English 60 (1998): 89-93.
- Grosz, Elizabeth. Jacques Lacan: A Feminist Introduction. New York: Routledge, 1990.
- Heidegger, Martin. “Phenomenology and Fundamental Ontology: The Disclosure of Meaning.” The Hermeneutics Reader. Ed. Kurt Mueller-Vollmer. New York: Continuum, 1985. 214-40.
- —. What Is Called Thinking? Trans. F. D. Wick and J. G. Gray. New York: Harper, 1968.
- Hill, Mike. “Introduction: Vipers in Shangri- La.” Hill 1-18.
- Hill, Mike, ed. Whiteness: A Critical Reader. New York: New York UP, 1997.
- Hooks, bell. “Representations of Whiteness.” Black Looks: Race and Representation. Boston: South End P, 1992.
- Houston, Jeanne Wakatsuki and James D. Houston. Farewell to Manzanar. New York: Bantam, 1973.
- Ignatiev, Noel. How the Irish Became White. New York: Routledge, 1995.
- Jarratt, Susan. Rereading the Sophists: Classical Rhetoric Refigured. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1991.
- Jay, Martin. “The Rise of Hermeneutics and the Crisis of Ocularcentrism.” The Rhetoric of Interpretation and the Interpretation of Rhetoric. Ed. Paul Hernandi. Durham: Duke UP, 1989. 55-74.
- Keating, AnnLouise. “Interrogating ‘Whiteness,’ (De)Constructing Race.” College English 57 (1995): 901-918.
- Kristeva, Julia. “Stabat Mater.” The Kristeva Reader. Ed. Toril Moi. New York: Columbia UP, 1986. 160-86.
- LeFevre, Karen. Invention as Social Act. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1987.
- Lerner, Gerda. Why History Matters. New York: Oxford UP, 1997.
- Lorde, Audre. “Age, Race, Class and Sex.” Sister Outsider. Trumanburg: Crossing P, 1984. 114-23.
- —. Excerpt from A Burst of Light: Living with Cancer. Writing Women’s Lives: An Anthologogy of Autobiographical Narratives by Twentieth-Century American Women Writers. Ed. Susan Cahill. New York: Harper 1994. 284-95.
- —. “An Open Letter to Mary Daly.” Sister Outsider. Trumanburg: Crossing P, 1984. 66-71.
- Lunsford, Andrea, ed. Reclaiming Rhetorica: Women in the Rhetorical Tradition. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1995. 3-8.
- Miller, J. Hillis. “Composition and Decomposition: Deconstruction and the Teaching of Writing.” Composition and Literature: Briding the Gap. Ed. Winifred Horner. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1983. 38-56.
- Morrison, Toni. Beloved. New York: Penguin, 1988.
- —. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. New York: Vintage, 1993.
- Murphy, James. Foreword. Lunsford ix-xiv.
- —. “Rhetorical History as a Guide to the Salvation of American Reading and Writing: A Plea for Curricular Courage.” The Rhetorical Tradition and Modern Writing. Ed. James J. Murphy. New York: MLA, 1982. 3-12.
- The New English Bible. New York: Oxford UP, 1976.
- Piercy, Marge. “The Book of Ruth and Naomi.” No More Masks: An Anthology of Twentieth-Century American Women Poets. Ed. Florence Howe. New York: Harper, 1993. 277-78.
- Phelan, James, and Peter Rabinowitz. Understanding Narrative. Columbus: Ohio State UP, 1994.
- Phelan, James. ” Vanity Fair: Listening as a Rhetorician: and a Feminist.” Out of Bounds: Male Writers and Gender. Ed. Laura Claridge and Elizabeth Langland. Amherst: U of Massachusetts P, 1990. 132-47.
- Pradl, Gordon. Literature for Democracy: Reading as a Social Act. Portsmouth: Boynton, 1996.
- Rayner, Alice. “The Audience: Subjectivity, Community, and the Ethics of Listening.” Journal of Dramatic Theory and Criticism 7 (1993): 3-24.
- Rich, Adrienne. “Contradictions.” Your Native Land, Your Life: Poems. New York: Norton, 1986. 81-111.
- —. “The Distance between Language and Violence.” What is Found There. New York: Norton, 1993. 181-89.
- —. “Split at the Root: An Essay on Jewish Identity.” Blood, Bread, and Poetry. New York: Norton, 1986. 100-23.
- Roof, Judith and Robyn Weigman, eds. Who Can Speak?: Authority and Critical Identity. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1995.
- Royster, Jackie Jones. “Borderlands and Common Spaces: Care and Maintenance in Our NeutralZones.” Oregon State U, Corvalis, OR, August 1997.
- Scheunemann, Sara. “Matthew 13: 1-17: ‘He who has ears, let him hear.'” Unpublished essay, Marquette U, 1996.
- Schuman, Amy. “Feminist Ethnography and the Rhetoric of Accommodation.” Oregon State University, Corvalis, OR, August 1997.
- Showalter, Elaine. Speaking of Gender. New York: Routledge, 1989.
- Smith, Lillian. Killers of the Dream. 1949. New York: Norton, 1994.
- Spivak, Gayatri. “Subaltern Studies: Deconstructing Historiography.” In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural Politics. New York: Methuen, 1987. 197-221.
- Talbot, Margaret. “Getting Credit for Being White.” New York Times Magazine, 30 Nov 1997: 116-19.
- Tannen, Deborah. You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation. New York: Ballantine, 1990.
- Thompson, Becky and Sangeeta Tyagi, eds. Names We Call Home: Autobiography on Racial Identity. New York: Routledge, 1996.
- Thompson, Becky. “Time Traveling and Border Crossing: Reflections on White Identity.” Thompson and Tyagi 93-110.
- Vitanza, Victor. Negation, Subjectivity, and the History of Rhetoric. Albany: State U of New York P, 1997.
- Watson, Julia. “Unruly Bodies: Autoethnography and Authorization in Nafissatou Dallo’s De Tilene au Plauteau (A Dakar Childhood).” Research in African Literatures 28 (1997): 34-56.
- Weber, Rachel. “Dehumanization Suffered Yesterday and Today.” Unpublished essay, Marquette U, 1997.
- —. Email, 5 Nov 1997.
- Williams, David Cratis. “Under the Sign of (An)Nihilation.”The Legacy of Kenneth Burke. Ed. Herbert Simons. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1989. 196-223.
Lu, Min-Zhan. “Redefining the Literate Self: The Politics of Critical Affirmation.” CCC 51.2 (1999): 172-194.
In writing this paper, I have maintained that the actual act of writing is an important means for reflecting and revising the paradox of one’s privileges. It helps to put one’s self: especially one’s private and day to day thoughts, feelings, and bodily reactions: on the line for personal and public scrutiny. It can initiate exchanges in which colleagues: bystanders and persons in action: could become coinvestigators of not only the problems needing to be posed but also how to go about addressing them. I have emphasized my sense that in spite of the rich insights emerging in the field on how to help our students practice fluency in critical affirmation, we cannot fully benefit from such insights in our teaching if we don’t also use these insights to rework the self in our own “scholarly” activities
ccc51.2 CWest RMiller Experience Oppression JRoyster Writing Racism Self Others Class Voice Privilege Culture Power Literacy
- Aegerter, Lindsay Pentolfe. “Michelle Cliff and the Paradox of Privilege.” College English 59 (1997): 898-915.
- AnzaldÃºa, Gloria, ed. Making Face, Making Soul: Haciendo Caras. San Francisco: aunt lute, 1990.
- Allen, Paula Gunn. “Some Like Indians Endure.” AnzaldÃºa 298-301.
- Ball, Arnetha, and Ted Lardner. ” Dispositions Toward Language: Teacher Constructs of Knowledge and the Ann Arbor Black English Case .” CCC 48 (1997): 469-85.
- Bourdieu, Pierre. Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. Trans. Richard Nice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1984.
- Chan, Sucheng. “You’re Short, Besides!” AnzaldÃºa 62-68.
- Chiang, Pamela, Milyoung Cho, Elaine H. Kim, Meizhu Lui, and Helen Zia. “On Asian America, Feminism, and Agenda-Making: A Roundtable Discussion.” Shah 57-70.
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- Levin, Richard. “Silence Is Consent, or Curse Ye Meroz!” College English 59 (1997): 171-90.
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- Miller, Richard E. “The Nervous System.” College English 58 (1996): 265-86.
- —. Response. College English 59 (1997): 221-24.
- Parker, Pat. “For the white person who wants to know how to be my friend.” AnzaldÃºa 297.
- Royster, Jacqueline Jones. “When the First Voice You Hear is Not Your Own.” CCC 47 (1996): 29-40.
- Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. “Axiomatic.” The Cultural Studies Reader. Ed. Simon During. New York: Routledge,1993. 243-68.
- Shah, Sonia, ed. Dragon Ladies: Asian American Feminists Breathe Fire. Boston: South End, 1997.
- Sze, Julie. “Expanding Environmental Justice: Asian American Feminists’ Contribution.” Shah 90-99.
- Waugh, Patricia. “Stalemates?: Feminists, Postmodernists and Unfinished Issues in Modern Aesthetics.” Modern Literary Theory: A Reader. Ed. Philip Rice and Patricia Waugh. London: Arnold, 1996. 322-48.
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