Conference on College Composition and Communication Logo

College Composition and Communication, Vol. 47, No. 3, October 1996

Click here to view the individual articles in this issue at

Spellmeyer, Kurt. “Review Essay: Out of the Fashion Industry: From Cultural Studies to the Anthropology of Knowledge.” Rev. of Left Margins: Cultural Studies and Composition Pedagogy by Karen Fitts and Alan W. France; The Emperor’s New Clothes: Literature, Literacy, and the Ideology of Style by Kathryn T. Flannery; The Culture of Reading and the Teaching of English by Kathleen McCormick; Possible Lives: The Promise of Public Education in America by Mike Rose; Fencing with Words: A History of Writing Instruction at Amherst College during the Era of Theodore Baird, 1938-1966 by Robin Varnum. CCC 47.3 (1996): 424-436.

Bell, John, Kenneth Bruffee, Keith Hjortshoj, Michael Hassett and John Dawkins. “Interchanges.” CCC 47.3 (1996): 412-423.

Lunsford, Andrea A. and Susan West. “Intellectual Property and Composition Studies.” CCC 47.3 (1996): 383-411.


Lunsford and West alert writing teachers to changes in intellectual property rights, especially as related to the Internet that could radically affect the work of writing teachers and students do together. Lunsford and West argue that an embrace of notions of individual authorship has led many writing teachers and theorists into an unwitting complicity with views of intellectual ownership that could limit the free exchange of texts and ideas, both online and off. Compositionists should have a “compelling interest in how laws governing ownership of language should be adjusted” in light of new technologies and postmodern challenges to ideas about authorship.


ccc47.3 IntellectualProperty IP Copyright Information Knowledge Teachers Law Writing Composition Rights Ownership Students Author Access

Works Cited

Acuff-Rose Music, Inc. v. Campbell. 972 Federal Reporter (2d. Ser.) 1429-46. US App. Ct. 6th Cir. 1992.
Alfred Bell & Co. v. Catalda Fine Arts, Inc. 191 Federal Reporter (2d Ser.) 99-106. US App. Ct. 2d Cir. 1951.
Aristotle. On Rhetoric: A Theory of Civic Discourse. Trans. George A. Kennedy. New York: Oxford UP, 1991.
Barthes, Roland. “The Death of the Author.” Image, Music, Text. Trans. Stephen Heath. New York: Hill, 1977. 142-48.
Basic Books, Inc. v. Kinko’s Graphics Corp. 758 Federal Supplement 1522-47. US Dist. Ct., S. D. New York. 1991.
Bolter, Jay David. Writing Space: The Computer, Hypertext, and the History of Writing. Hillsdale: Erlbaum, 1991.
Borsook, Paulina. “The Memoirs of a Token: An Aging Berkeley Feminist Examines Wired.” Wired Women: Gender and New Realities in Cyberspace. Ed. Lynn Cherny and Elizabeth Reba Weise. Seattle: Seal, 1996. 24-41.
Boyle, James. Shamans, Software and Spleens: Law and the Construction of the Information Society. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1996.
Brodkey, Linda. “Modernism and the Scene(s) of Writing.” College English 49 (1987): 396-418.
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1990.
Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc. 114 Supreme Court Reporter 1164-82. 1994.
Carey, John, with Joan O’C. Hamilton, Julia Flynn, and Geoffrey Smith. “The Gene Kings.” Business Week 8 May 1995: 72-78.
Cleveland, Harlan. “How Can ‘Intellectual Property’ Be ‘Protected’?” Change May l June 1989: 10.
Cooper, Helene. “White House Seeks Copyright Protection for Text, Software Published On-Line.” Wall StreetJournal6 Sept. 1995: B6.
Derrida, Jacques. Of Grammatology. Trans. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1976.
Dyson, Esther. “Intellectual Value.” Wired 3.07 (July 1995): 136+.
Elisabetsky, Elaine. “Folklore, Tradition, or Know-How?” Cultural Survival Quarterly Summer 1991: 9-13.
Faigley, Lester. Fragments of Rationality: Postmodernity and the Subject of Composition. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1992.
Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service. III Supreme Court Reporter 1282-97. 1991.
Foucault, Michel. “The Discourse on Language.” The Archaeology of Knowledge and The Discourse on Language. Trans. A. M. Sheridan Smith. New York: Harper, 1976. 215-37.
—. “What Is an Author?” Textual Strategies: Perspectives in Post-Structuralist Criticism. Ed. Josue V. Harari. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1979.141-60.
“Genetic Code Copyright.” Harper’s April 1993: 17.
Genome Patent Working Group, Committee on Life Sciences and Health and Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology. “Federally Funded Genome Research: Science and Technology Transfer Issues.” Proceedings of a Public Meeting, May 21, 1992, Washington, D. C.
Gere, Anne Ruggles. ” Kitchen Tables and Rented Rooms: The Extracurriculum of Composition .” CCC 45 (1994): 75-92.
Gilder, George. “Television: Angst and Awe on the Internet.” Forbes ASAP (Supplement on the Information Age) 4 Dee. 1995: 113-32.
Gracen v. Bradford Exchange. 698 Federal Reporter (2d Ser.) 300-09. US App. Ct. 7th Cir. 1983.
Gross et al. v. Seligman et al. 212 Federal Reporter (1st Ser.) 930-32. Cir. App. Ct. 2d Cir. 1914.
Guisewite, Cathy. “Cathy.” Columbus Dispatch 30 October 1995: B4.
Haraway, Donna. Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nation in the World of Modern Sdence. New York: Routledge, 1989.
Hawisher, Gail E., and Cynthia L. Selfe, eds. Critical Perspectives on Computers and Composition. New York: Teachers College P, 1989.
hooks, bell. Talking Back: thinking feminist, thinking black. Boston: South End, 1989.
—. Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. New York: Routledge, 1994.
—. Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics. Boston, South End, 1990.
Howard, Rebecca Moore. “Plagiarisms, Authorships, and the Academic Death Penalty.” College English 57 (1995): 788-806.
—. “A Plagiarism Pentimento.” Journal of Teaching Writing 11.3 (1993): 37-49.
—. Standing in the Shadow of Giants: Plagiarism and Authorship in Composition Pedagogy. Norwood: Ablex, Forthcoming.
Jaszi, Peter. “On the Author Effect: Contemporary Copyright and Collective Creativity.” Woodmansee and Jaszi, Construction29-56.
—. “Toward a Theory of Copyright: The Metamorphoses of ‘Authorship.'” Duke Law Journal (1991): 455-502.
Jaszi, Peter, and Martha Woodmansee. “The Ethical Reaches of Authorship.” South Atlantic Quarterly, forthcoming.
Kaplan, Benjamin. An Unhurried View of Copyright. New York: Columbia UP, 1967.
Karjala, Dennis. E-mail correspondence 10 Nov. 1995.
King, Steven R. “The Source of Our Cures.” Cultural Survival Quarterly Summer 1991: 19-22.
Kirsch, Gesa. Women Writing the Academy: Audience, Authority, and Transformation. Carbondale, Southern Illinois UP, 1993.
Landow, George P. Hypertext: The Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1992.
Lanham, Richard. The Electronic Word: Democracy, Technology, and the Arts. Chicago, U of Chicago P, 1993.
LeFevre, Karen Burke. “The Tell-Tale ‘Heart’: Determining ‘Fair Use’ of Unpublished Texts.” Law and Contemporary Problems 55.2 (1992): 153-83.
Lemonick, Michael D. “Seeds of Conflict.” Time 25 Sept. 1995: 50.
Levy, Stephen. “The Year of the Internet.” Newsweek 25 Dee. 1995/1 Jan. 1996: 21-30.
Lunsford, Andrea A., and Robert Connors. The St. Martin’s Handbook. 3rd ed. New York: St. Martin’s, 1995.
Lunsford, Andrea A., and Lisa Ede. Singular Texts/Plural Authors: Perspectives on Collaborative Writing. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1990.
—. “Why Write…Together?” Rhetoric Review 1 (1983): 150-58.
Lunsford, Andrea, with Rebecca Rickly, Michael J. Salvo, and Susan West. “What Matters Who Writes? What Matters Who Responds? Issues of Ownership in the Writing Classroom.” Kairos: A Journal for Teachers of Writing in Webbed Environments 1.1 (Spring 1996). On-line.
McGill, Meredith L. “The Matter of the Text: Commerce, Print Culture, and the Authority of the State in American Copyright Law.” American Literary History, forthcoming. .
McGowan, Janet. “Who Is the Inventor?” Cultural Survival Quarterly Summer 1991: 20.
McMillen, Liz. ”’L’ Affaire Derrida’ Pits Theorist Who Founded Deconstruction Against Editor of Book on Heidegger’s Role in Nazi Era.” Chronicle of Higher Education 17 February 1993: A8.
Miller, Nancy K. Getting Personal: Feminist Occasions and Other Autobiographical Acts. New York: Routledge, 1991.
—. The Poetics of Gender. New York: Columbia UP, 1986.
Mohanty, Chandra Talpade. “On Race and Voice: Challenges for Liberal Education in the 1990s.” Between Borders: Pedagogy and the Politics of Cultural Studies. Ed. Henry A. Giroux and Peter McLaren. New York: Routledge, 1996. 145-66.
Moss, Beverly J. “Creating a Community: Literacy Events in African-American Churches.” Literacy Across Communities. Ed. Beverly J. Moss. Cresskill: Hampton, 1994.147-78.
National Information Infrastructure (NIl) Copyright Protection Act of 1995. Proposed as S. 1284 (28 Sept. 1995) and H.R. 2441 (29 Sept. 1995).
Oakley, Robert. Testimony at Senate Judiciary Committee Hearings on NIl Copyright Protection Act (S. 1284), 7 May 1996. Available on-line at DFC website (http://www.arLnet/dfc/) .
Patterson, L. Ray, and Stanley W. Lindberg. The Nature of Copyright: A Law of Users’ Rights. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1991.
Perelman, Chaim, and Lynn Olbrechts -Tyteca. The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation. Trans. John Wilkinson and Purcell Weaver. Notre Dame: U of Notre Dame P, 1968.
Princeton UP v. Michigan Document Services. 855 Federal Supplement 905-913. US Dist. Ct., B.D. MI., S. Div. 1994.
Princeton UP v. Michigan Document Services. 74 Federal Reporter (3d Ser.) 1512. US App. Ct. 6th Cir. 1996. (Feb. 12, 1996, now vacated, available on-line at (http://!6circuit!feb96! 96a0046p.06.html).
Probyn, Elspeth. Sexing the Self’ Gendered Positions in Cultural Studies. London: Routledge, 1993.
Royster, Jacqueline Jones. “Alternative Models of Intellectual Property.” Caucus on Intellectual Property. CCCC, Washington, DC, 22 March 1995.
—. ” When the First Voice You Hear Is Not Your Own .” CCC 47 (1996): 29-40.
Rubenstein, Steve. “Preschools Told to Pay for Video Viewings.” San Francisco Chronicle Sept. 1995: AI.
Samuelson, Pamela. “Writing As a Technology.” Conference on Cultural Agency! Cultural Authority: Politics and Poetics of Intellectual Property in the Post-Colonial Era, Bellagio, Italy, March 1993.
Selfe, Cynthia L., and Richard J. Selfe, Jr. “The Politics of the Interface: Power and Its Exercise in Electronic Contact Zones.” CCC 45 (1994): 480-504.
Schwartz, Helen J., Christine Y. Fitzpatrick, and Brian Huot. “The Computer Medium in Writing for Discovery.” Computers and Composition. 11 (1994): 137-49.
Sheehan, Thomas. “A Normal Nazi.” The New York Review of Books 14 Jan. 1993: 30-35.
Sloane, Sarah Jane. “Interactive Fiction, Virtual Realities, and the Reading-Writing Relationship.” Diss. Ohio State U, 1991.
Smith, Barbara Herrnstein. Contingencies of Value: Alternative Perspectives for Critical Theory. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1988.
Stedghill, Ron. “First, Do No Harm. Then, Get a Patent.” Business Week 24 July 1995: 86-88.
Stowe v. Thomas. Federal Cases 201-08. 1853.
Stowe, David W. “Just Do It.” Lingua Franca Nov-Dec 1995: 32-42.
Sussman, Vic. “Copyright Wrong?” U.S. News & World Report 18 Sept. 1995: 99.
Sutton, Brian. “Undergraduates Writing Research Papers: Twenty-Four Case Studies.” Diss. Ohio State U, 1992.
Tasini, Jonathan. “Publishers Seeking Gold Give Writers the Shaft.” Los Angeles Times 27 Nov. 1995: B5.
Tuman, Myron. Literacy Online: The Promise (and Peril) of Reading and Writing with Computers. Pittsburgh: U Pittsburgh P, 1992.
Turkle, Sherry. “Who Am We?” Wired 4.01 (Jan. 1996): 148+.
US Constitution, Art. 1, sec. 8, d. 8. United States. Dept. Of Commerce Patent and Trademark Office. Intellectual Property and the National Information Infrastructure, A Preliminary Draft of the Report of the Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights. July 1995 (“Green Paper”).
—. Intellectual Property and the National Information Infrastructure, The Report of the Working Group on Intellectual Property Rights. Sept. 1995 (“White Paper”).
Williams, Patricia J. “Alchemical Notes: Reconstructing Ideals from Deconstructed Rights.” Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 22 (1987): 401-33.
—. The Alchemy of Race and Rights. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1991.
Witherspoon, Abigail. “This Pen for Hire.” Harper’s June 1995: 49-57.
Woodmansee, Martha. “The Genius and the Copyright: Economic and Legal Conditions of the Emergence of the’ Author.'” Eighteenth Century Studies 17 (1984): 425-48.
—. “The Interest in Disinterestedness: Karl Phillip Moretz and the Emergence of the Theory of Aesthetic Autonomy in Eighteenth-Century Germany.” Modern Language Quarterly 45 (Mar. 1984): 22-47.
Woodmansee, Martha, and Peter Jaszi. “The Law of Texts: Copyright in the Academy.” College English 57 (1995): 769-87.
Woodmansee, Martha, and Peter Jaszi, eds. The Construction of Authorship: Textual Appropriation in Law and Literature. Durham: Duke UP, 1994.
Young, Edward. “Conjectures on Original Composition. In a Letter to the Author of Sir Charles Grandison.” The Complete Works. Poetry and Prose. Vol. 2. Ed. James Nichols. Hildesheim: Georgalms, 1968.
Ziegler, Jack. Cartoon. The New Yorker. 27 Nov. 1995: 62.

McAndrew, Donald A. “Ecofeminism and the Teaching of Literacy.” CCC 47.3 (1996): 367-382.


McAndrew suggests that ecology invites the connection between the practices and aims of feminists and writing teachers because both necessitate a critique society that suggests a restructuring of it in harmony with the natural environment. From the knowledge of class, gender and race oppression emerges a “love for nature”, a “praxis of hope” that can inform feminists, writing teachers and students toward a care for one’s ecocommunity: a cooperative fight against all forms of social oppression, and a “creative enhancement of nature.” McAndrew defines six major claims of ecofeminism and concludes with reflections about how ecofeminism could affect thinking about literacy and writing pedagogy.


ccc47.3 Nature Ecofeminism Literacy World Writing Science Women Classrooms Language Research Teaching Spiritual Culture

Works Cited

Atwell, Nancie. In the Middle: Writing. Reading, and Learning with Adolescents. Portsmouth: Boynton, 1987.
Bateson, Gregory. Steps to an Ecology of the Mind. New York: Ballantine, 1972.
Berlin, James A. “Composition and Cultural Studies.”Hurlbert and Blitz 47-55.
Berry, Thomas. The Dream of the Earth. San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1988.
Berthoff, Ann E. ” Introductory Remarks: Spiritual Sites of Composing .” CCC 45 (1994): 237-38.
Birkeland, Janis. “Ecofeminism: Linking Theory with Practice:’ Gaard 13-59.
Bowers, C. A. The Cultural Dimensions of Educational Computing: Understanding the Non Neutrality of Technology. New York: Teachers College P, 1988.
Calkins, Lucy. The Art of Teaching Writing. Portsmouth: Heinemann, 1986.
Christ, Carol P. “Rethinking Theology and Nature.” Diamond and Orenstein. 58-69.
Daniell, Beth. “Composing (as) Power.” CCC 45 (1994): 238-46.
Denzin, Norman K. “The Many Faces of Emotionality: Reading Persona.” Investigating Subjectivity: Research on Lived Experience. Ed. Carolyn Ellis and Michael G. Flaherty. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1992. 17-30.
Diamond, Irene, and Gloria Ferman Ornestein, eds. Reweaving the World: The Emergence of Ecofeminism. San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1990.
Dinnerstein, Dorothy. The Mermaid and the Minotaur: Sexual Arrangements and Human Malaise. New York, Harper, 1977.
—. “Survival on Earth: the Meaning of Feminism.” Plant 192-200.
Emig. Janet. The Composing Process of Twelfth Graders. Urbana: NCTE, 1971.
Flynn, Elizabeth A. “Composition Studies from a Feminist Perspective.” The Politics of Writing Instruction: Postsecondary. Ed. Richard Bullock and John Trimbur. Portsmouth: Boynton, 1991. 137-54.
Freire, Paulo. The Politics of Education: Culture, Power, and Liberation. Trans. Donald Macedo. South Hadley: Bergin, 1985.
Gaard, Greta, ed. Ecofeminism: Women, Animals and Nature. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1993.
Goodman, Ken. What’s Whole in Whole Language. Portsmouth: Heinemann, 1986.
Graves, Donald H. Writing: Teachers and Children at Work. Portsmouth: Heinemann, 1983.
Gray, Elizabeth Dodson. Green Paradise Lost. Wellesley: Round Table, 1979. Griffin, Susan. “Split Culture.” Plant 7-17.
Hamilton, Cynthia. “Women, Home, and Community: The Struggle in an Urban Environment.” Diamond and Orenstein 215-22.
Harding, Sandra. Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1991.
Heller, Chaia. “For the Love of Nature: Ecology and the Cult of the Romantic.” Gaard 219-42.
Hurlbert, C. Mark, and Michael Blitz, eds. Composition and Resistance. Portsmouth: Boynton, 1991.
—. “Resisting Composure.” Hurlbert and Blitz 1-8.
Keller, Catherine. “Women Against Wasting the World: Notes on Eschatology and Ecology.” Diamond and Orenstein 249-63.
Kheel, Marti. “Ecofeminism and Deep Ecology: Reflections on Identity and Difference.” Diamond and Orenstein 128-37.
King, Ynestra. “The Ecology of Feminism and the Feminism of Ecology.” Plant 201-11.
—. “Healing the Wounds: Feminism, Ecology, and the Nature/Culture Dualism.” Diamond and Orenstein 106-21.
—. “What is Ecofeminism?” The Nation 12 Dec. 1987: 702, 730-31.
Knoblauch, C. H. “Critical Teaching and Dominant Culture.” Hurlbert and Blitz 12-21.
Lamb, Catherine E. ” Beyond Argument in Feminist Composition .” CCC 42 (1991): 11 -24.
Lovelock, James. The Ages of Gaia: Biography of Our Living Earth. New York: Norton, 1988.
Macy, Joanna. “Awaking to the Ecological Self.” Plant 201-11.
Merchant, Carolyn. The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology and the Scientific Revolution. San Francisco: Harper, 1980.
—. Radical Ecology: The Search for Livable World. New York: Routledge, 1992.
Moffett, James. “Censorship and Spiritual Education.” The Right to Literacy. Ed. Andrea Lundsford, Helene Moglen, and James Slevin. New York: MLA, 1990. 113-19.
—. The Universal Schoolhouse: Spiritual Awakening through Education. San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 1994.
Murphy, Patrick D. “Sex Typing the planet: Gaia Imagery and the Problem of Subverting Patriarchy.” Environmental Ethics 10 (1988): 155-68.
Plant, Judith, ed. Healing the Wounds: The Promise of Ecofeminism. Philadelphia: New Society, 1989.
Rohman, D. Gordon. “Pre-Writing: The Stage of Discovery in the Writing Process.” CCC 16 (1965): 106-12.
Ruether, Rosemary Radford. New Woman/ New Earth: Sexist Ideologies and Human Liberation. New York: Seabury, 1975.
Salleh, Ariel Kay. “Deeper than Deep Ecology: The Eco-Feminist Connection.” Environmental Ethics 6 (1984): 339-345.
—. “Epistemology and the Metaphors of production: An Eco-Feminist Reading of Critical Theory.” Studies in the Humanities. 15 (1988), 130-39.
Shepherd, Linda Jean. Lifting the Veil: The Feminine Face of Science. Boston: Shambhala, 1993.
Spretnak, Charlene. “Diversity in Ecofeminism.” The Nation. 2 April 1988: 446, 476.
—.”Ecofeminism: Our Roots and Flowering.” Diamond and Orenstein 3-14.
Swimme, Brian. “How to Heal Lobotomy.” Diamond and Orenstein 15-22.
Ulmer, Gregory. Teletheory. New York: Routledge, 1989.
Wajcman, Judy. Feminism Confronts Technology. University Park: Pennsylvania State UP, 1991.
Warren, Karen. “Feminism and Ecology: Making Connections.” Environmental Ethics 9 (1987): 3-20.
Young, Iris Marion. Rev. of “Feminism and Ecology Issue” of Heresies: Feminist Journal of Art and Politics (1981). Environmental Ethics 5 (1983): 173-79.
Zimmerman, Michael E. “Deep Ecology and Ecofeminism: The Emerging Dialogue.” Diamond and Orenstein 138-54.

Fishman, Stephen M. and Lucille Parkinson McCarthy. “Teaching for Student Change: A Deweyan Alternative to Radical Pedagogy.” CCC 47.3 (1996): 342-366.


The authors defend a Deweyan model of student-teacher interaction against radical pedagogy that upsets through “dispute and diversity” rather than establish “politeness and common ground.” They claim Deweyan pedagogy emphasizes cooperation and still encourages students to take up divergent ideas. School learning emulates problem-solution learning that takes place in natural settings. The teacher replaces lectures with student activities and educates students indirectly by presenting them with dilemmas “they find interesting and relevant to their own lives” but not politically predetermined. To illustrate, the authors share details of interactions in Fishman’s Intro to Philosophy Class.


ccc47.3 SFishman Students Class JDewey Change Americans Confrontation Position NativeAmerican Classroom Experience

Works Cited

Barber, Benjamin R. “Liberal Democracy and the Costs of Consent.” Liberalism and the Moral Life. Ed. Nancy L. Rosenblum. Boston: Harvard UP, 1989.54-68.
Berlin, Isaiah. Four Essays on Liberty. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1982.
Berlin, James. “Rhetoric and Ideology in the Writing Class.” College English 50 (1988): 477-94.
Bizzell, Patricia. Academic Discourse and Critical Consciousness. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1992.
Brodkey, Linda. “Making a Federal Case Out of Difference: The Politics of Pedagogy, Publicity, and Postponement.” Writing Theory and Critical Theory. Ed. John Clifford and John Schilb. New York: MLA, 1994. 236-61.
Dewey, John. “Authority and Social Change.” The Later Works, 1925-1953. Vol. 11, 1935-1937. Ed. JoAnn Boydston. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1991. 130-45.
—. “The Child and the Curriculum.” 1902. The School and Society; The Child and the Curriculum. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1990. 181-209.
—. “Construction and Criticism.” The Later Works, 1925-1953. Vol. 5, 1929­1930. Ed. JoAnn Boydston. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1988. 127-43.
—. Democracy and Education. 1916. New York: Free Press, 1967.
—. “Ethical Principles Underlying Education.” 1897. John Dewey On Education. Selected Writings. Ed. Reginald D. Archambault. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1964. 108-38.
—. Ethics. The Later Works, 1925-1953. Vol. 7,1932. Ed. Jo Ann Boydston. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1988.
—. Experience and Education. 1938. New York: Macmillan, 1975.
—. Experience and Nature. 1st ed. 1925, 2nd ed. 1929. LaSalle: Open Court, 1989.
—.”From Absolutism to Experimentalism.” The Later Works. 1925-1953. Vol. 5, 1929-1930. Ed. Jo Ann Boydston. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1988. 147-60.
—. How We Think: A Restatement of the Relation of Reflective Thinking to the Educative Process. Lexington, MA: Heath, 1933/1960.
—. “The Need for a Philosophy of Education.” 1934. John Dewey On Education, Selected Writings. Ed. Reginald D. Archambault. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1964. 1-14.
—. The Public and Its Problems. 1927. Athens: Swallow, 1988.
—. Reconstruction in Philosophy. 1920. Boston: Beacon, 1962.
Edwards, Paul. and Arthur Pap, eds. A Modern Introduction to Philosophy: Readings from Classical and Contemporary Sources. 3rd ed. New York: Free P, 1973.
Elbow, Peter. Writing Without Teachers. Oxford UP, 1973.
Emig, Janet. “The Tacit Tradition: The Inevitability of a Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Writing Research.” The Web of Meaning: Essays on Writing. Teaching, Learning and Thinking. Upper Montclair: Boynton, 1983. 145-56.
Faris, Sara. ” ‘What’s in it for Me?’ Two Students’ Responses to a Feminist Pedagogy .” CCC 43 (1992): 304-07.
Fishman, Stephen M. “Explicating Our Tacit Tradition: John Dewey and Composition Studies.” CCC 44 (1993): 315-30.
Fishman, Stephen M., and Lucille P. McCarthy. “Is Expressivism Dead? Reconsidering Its Romantic Roots and Its Relation to Social Constructionism.” College English 54 (1992): 647-61.
—. “Community in the Expressivist Classroom: Juggling Liberal and Communitarian Visions.” College English 57 (1995): 62-81.
Frazer, Nancy, and Nicola Lacey. The Politics of Community: A Feminist Critique of the Liberal-Communitarian Debate. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1993.
Giroux, Henry A. Postmodernism, Feminism. and Cultural Politics: Redrawing Educational Boundaries. Albany: State U of New York, 1991.
Harris, Joseph. “Negotiating the Contact Zone.” Journal of Basic Writing 14 (1995): 27-42.
Hayes, Karen. ” Creating Space for Difference in the Composition Class .” CCC 43 (1992): 300-304.
hooks, bell. Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. New York: Routledge. 1994.
Jarratt, Susan. “Feminism and Composition: The Case for Conflict.” Contending with Words: Composition in a Postmodern Era. Ed. Patricia Harkin and John Schilb. New York: MLA, 1991. 105-25.
Jones, Donald. “Beyond the Postmodern Impasse of Agency: The Resounding Relevance of John Dewey’s Tacit Tradition.” Journal of Advanced Composition 16 (1996): 81-102.
Kymlicka, Will. Liberalism, Community, and Culture. Oxford: Clarendon, 1989.
Lewis, Magda. Without a Word: Teaching Beyond Women’s Silence. New York: Teachers College P, 1993.
Luke, Carmen, and Jennifer Gore, eds. Feminisms and Critical Pedagogy. New York: Routledge, 1992.
McCarthy, Lucille P., and Stephen M. Fishman. “Boundary Conversations: Conflicting Ways of Knowing in Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Research.” Research in the Teaching of English 25 (1991): 419-68.
Miller, Richard E. “Fault Lines in the Contact Zone.” College English 56 (1994): 389-408.
Murray, Donald. Learning by Teaching: Selected Articles on Writing and Teaching. Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook, 1982.
Newkirk, Thomas. More than Stories. Portsmouth: Heinemann, 1989.
Noddings, Nel. Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education. Berkeley: U of California P, 1984.
Orner, Mimi. “Interrupting the Calls for Student Voice in ‘Liberatory’ Education: A Feminist Poststructuralist Perspective.” Feminisms and Critical Pedagogy. Ed. Carmen Luke and Jennifer Gore. New York: Routledge, 1992.74-89.
Phelps, Louise W. Composition as a Human Science. New York; Oxford UP, 1988.
Pratt, Mary Louise. “Arts of the Contact Zone.” Profession 91. New York: MLA, (1991): 33-40.
Russell, David R. “Vygotsky, Dewey, and Externalism: Beyond the Student/ Discipline Dichotomy.” JAC 13 (1993): 173-97.
Shklar, Judith N. “The Liberalism of Fear.” Liberalism and the Moral Life. Ed. Nancy L. Rosenblum. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1989. 21-38.
Sciachitano, Marian. “Introduction: Feminist Sophistics Pedagogy Group.” CCC 43 (1992): 297-300.
Shor, Ira. Empowering Education: Critical Teaching for Social Change. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1992.
Trimbur, John. “Consensus and Difference in Collaborative Learning.” College English 51 (1989): 602-16.
Weiler, Kathleen. Women Teaching for Change: Gender, Class and Power. South Hadley: Bergen, 1988.

Wells, Susan. “Rogue Cops and Health Care: What Do We Want from Public Writing?” CCC 47.3 (1996): 325-341.


Attempts at public writing in the college composition classroom suffer from radical decontextualization, claims Wells. Fro example, a student letter to the editor on gun control inscribes a “position in a vacuum” since the public sphere does not value a student’s position on such an issue in such a forum. Citing Habermas’ notion of a public sphere and Weg and Kluge’s complication of that sphere as contradictory and needing reconstruction, Wells argues that students must forge a rhetoric that links discourse and action, optimally by addressing national issues from the perspective of how their academic disciplines engage those issues.


ccc47.3 Public PublicSphere Writing Students BClinton HealthCare Discourse JHabermas Citizen Debate PublicWriting

Works Cited

Aronowitz, Stanley. “Is a Democracy Possible? The Decline of the Public in the American Debate.” Robbins 75-92.
Bowden, Mark, and Mark Fazlollah. “With ’91 Case, Scandal Unfolded.” The Philadelphia Inquirer 10 Sept. 1995: A1.
Blankenship, Jane and Janette Muir. “The Transformation of Actor to Scene: Some Strategic Grounds of the Reagan Legacy.” Weiler and Pearce. 11-43.
Bochin, Hal. Richard Nixon: Rhetorical Strategist. Westport: Greenwood, 1990.
Brodkey, Linda. “Writing on the Bias,” College English 56, (1994): 527-47.
Calhoun, Craig, ed. Habermas and the Public Sphere. Cambridge: MIT P, 1992.
Carter, Robin. “President Reagan at the London Guildhall: A British Interpretation.” Weiler and Pearce 72-92.
Clinton, William. “Address to a Joint Session of the Congress on Health Care Reform,” Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents: Administration of William Clinton, 29:38 (27 Sept. 1993) 1836-46.
—. “Transcript of President’s Address to Congress on Health Care,” New York Times September 23, 1993: A24-25.
Dixon, Kathleen. ” Gendering the ‘Personal.’CCC 46 (1995): 255-75.
Eley, Geoff. “Nations, Publics, and Political Cultures: Placing Habermas in the Nineteenth Century.” Calhoun 289-339.
Faigley, Lester. Fragments of Rationality: Postmodernity and the Subject of Composition. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1992.
Farrell, Thomas. Norms of Rhetorical Culture. New Haven: Yale UP, 1993.
Farrell, Thomas J. “Symposium on Basic Writing.” College English 55 (1993): 889-92.
Fitts, Karen, and Alan France, eds. Left Margins: Cultural Studies and Composition Pedagogy. Albany: State U of New York P, 1995.
Fraser, Nancy. “Rethinking the Public Sphere,” Calhoun 109-42.
—. Unruly Practices: Power, Discourse and Gender in Contemporary Social Theory. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1989.
Giroux, Henry. “Who Writes in a Cultural Studies Class? or, Where is the Pedagogy?” Fitts and France 3-16.
Habermas, Jurgen. “Concluding Remarks.” Calhoun 109-42.
—. Legitimation Crisis. Trans. Thomas McCarthy. Boston: Beacon, 1973.
—. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge: MIT P, 1989.
—. The Theory of Communicative Action. Trans. Thomas McCarthy. Boston: Beacon, 1981.
Halloran, Michael. “Rhetoric in the American College Curriculum: The Decline of Public Discourse.” Pre/Text 3 (1982): 245­69.
Hansen, Miriam. “Unstable Mixtures, Dilated Spheres: Negt and Kluge’s The Public Sphere and Experience, Twenty Years Later. ” Public Culture 5 (1993): 179-212.
Holub, Robert. Jurgen Habermas: Critic in the Public Sphere. New York: Routledge, 1991.
Jacobs, Lawrence R., Robert Y. Shapiro, and Eli C. Schulman, “The Polls-Poll Trends: Medical Care in the United States-an Update,” Public Opinion Quarterly 57 (1993): 394-427.
Jameson, Fredric. “On Negt and Kluge.” Robbins 42-74.
Jamieson, Kathleen Hall. Eloquence in an Electronic Age: the Transformation of political Speechmaking. New York: Oxford UP, 1988.
—. Dirty Politics: Deception. Distraction, and Democracy. New York: Oxford UP, 1992.
Kennedy, Alan. “Politics, Writing, Writing Instruction, Public Space, and the English Language.” Fitts and France 17-36.
Medhurst, Martin. Dwight D. Eisenhower: Strategic Communicator. Westport: Greenwood, 1993.
Minter, Deborah Williams, Anne Ruggles Gere, and Deborah Keller-Cohen. “Learning Literacies.” College English 57 (1995): 669-87.
Negt, Oskar and Alexander Kluge. The Public Sphere and Experience: Toward an Analysis of the Bourgeois and the Proletarian Public Sphere. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1993.
Ohmann, Richard. English in America: A Radical view of the Profession. New York: Oxford UP, 1976.
Popken, Randall. “Acquiring Academic Genres in Context: A Research Journal in a Freshman Writing Program,” Penn State Conference on Rhetoric and Composition, University Park, PA, July 1994.
Ritter, Kurt and David Henry. Ronald Reagan: The Great Communicator. Westport: Greenwood, 1992.
Robbins, Bruce, ed. The Phantom Public Sphere. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1993.
Ryan, Halfod. Harry S. Truman: Presidential Rhetoric. Westport: Greenwood, 1993.
Ryan, Mary. “Gender and Public Access: Women’s Politics in Nineteenth Century America.” Calhoun 259-88.
Schiappa, Edward. “Intellectuals and the Place of Cultural Critique,” Rhetoric, Cultural Studies, and Literacy. Ed. John Frederick Reynolds. Hillsdale: Erlbaum, 1995.
Sebberson, David. “Composition, Philosophy, and Rhetoric: The ‘Problem of Power:” JAC 13 (1993): 199-216.
Smith, Jeff. ” Against ‘Illegeracy’: Toward a New Pedagogy of Civic Understanding .” CCC 45 (1994): 200-19.
Stockton, Sharon. “‘Blacks vs. Browns’: Questioning the White Ground.” College English 57 (1995): 182-95.
Wells, Susan. Sweet Reason: Intersubjective Rhetoric and the Discourses of Modernity. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1996.
Weiler, Michael and W. Barnett Pearce, ed. Public Discourse in America. Tuscaloosa: U Alabama P, 1992.
—. “Ceremonial Discourse: The Rhetorical Ecology of the Reagan Administration.” Weiler and Pearce 11-43.

Renew Your Membership

Join CCCC today!
Learn more about the SWR book series.
Connect with CCCC
CCCC on Facebook
CCCC on LinkedIn
CCCC on Twitter
CCCC on Tumblr
OWI Principles Statement
Join the OWI discussion


Copyright © 1998-2018 National Council of Teachers of English. All rights reserved in all media.

1111 W. Kenyon Road, Urbana, Illinois 61801-1096 Phone: 217-328-3870 or 877-369-6283

Looking for information? Browse our FAQs, tour our sitemap and store sitemap, or contact NCTE

Read our Privacy Policy Statement and Links Policy. Use of this site signifies your agreement to the Terms of Use