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College Composition and Communication, Vol. 46, No. 4, December 1995

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Fox, Tom. “Review Essay: Proceeding with Caution: Composition in the 90s.” Rev. of Writing Theory and Critical Theory by John Clifford and John Schilb; Pedagogy in the Age of Politics: Writing and Reading (In) the Academy by Patricia A. Sullivan and Donna J. Qualley. CCC 46.4 (1995): 566-578.

Purvis, Teresa M. “Review Essay: The Two-Year Community College: Into the 21st Century.” Rev. of The Invisible Faculty: Improving the Status of Part-Timers in Higher Education by Judith M. Gappa and David W. Leslie; Democracy’s Open Door: The Community College in America’s Future by Marlene Griffith and Ann Connor; Two-Year College English: Essays for a New Century by Mark Reynolds. CCC 46.4 (1995): 557-565.

Purves, Alan C., et al. “Interchanges.” CCC 46.4 (1995): 549-556.

Dawkins, John. “Teaching Punctuation as a Rhetorical Tool.” CCC 46.4 (1995): 533-548.


Claiming that handbooks problematically teach punctuation as grammatically wrong or right, Dawkins outlines how writers can be taught to use a hierarchy of punctuation marks: ones that mark degrees of separation between independent clauses and thereby fashion and enhance meaning.


ccc46.4 Punctuation Rhetoric Comma Clauses IndependentClauses Emphasis Sentence Grammar Writers Rules Meaning Separation Dash Handbooks CommaSplice

Works Cited

Dawkins, John. Rethinking Punctuation. ERIC ED 340 048. 1992.
Levinson, Joan Persily, Punctuation and the Orthographic Sentence. Diss. City U of New York, 1985.
—. “The Linguistic Status of the Orthographic (Text) Sentence.” CUNY Forum 14 (1989): 113-17.
Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvic. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman, 1985.
Summey. George. American Punctuation. New York: Ronald, 1949.

David, Denise, Barbara Gordon and Rita Pollard. “Seeking Common Ground: Guiding Assumptions for Writing Courses.” CCC 46.4 (1995): 522-532.


The authors contend the response to Maxine Hairston’s article, “Diversity, Ideology and Teaching Writing,” marks a critical debate about the purpose of the writing course. They claim the debate needs clear assumptions to demarcate what constitutes a writing course. They claim the assumptions should be: 1) the development of writing ability and metacognitive awareness as the primary objective of the writing course, 2) student’s writing as the privileged text in a writing course, and 3) writing as the subject of a writing course.


ccc46.4 Writing Courses Students Composition Assumptions WritingIntensive Subjects Voices Content Curriculum

Works Cited

Anson, Chris M. “Writing Intensive Courses and the Demise of Composition.” Annual Conference of SUNY Council on Writing. Sanborn, NY, April 1993.
Belenky, Mary Field, Blythe McVicker Clinchy, Nancy Rule Goldberger, and Jill Mattuck Tarule. Women’s Ways of Knowing. New York: Basic. 1986.
Brooke, Robert E. Writing and Sense of Self’ Identity Negotiation in Writing Workshops. Urbana: NCTE, 1991.
Brown, Ann L. “Metacognitive Development in Reading.” Theoretical Issues in Reading Comprehension. Ed. Bertram Bruce, Rand Spiro, and William Brewer. Hillsdale: Erlbaum, 1980. 453-81.
Crowley, Sharon. “A Personal Essay on Freshman English.” Pre/Text (1991): 155-176.
Elbow, Peter. “The War between Reading and Writing-And How to End It.” Rhetoric Review 12 (1993): 5-24.
—. “Questioning Two Assumptions of the Profession.” What is English? Ed. Peter Elbow. Urbana: NCTE, 1990. 179-92.
Flavell, John H. “Metacognition and Cognitive Monitoring: A New Area of Cognitive Developmental Inquiry.” American Psychologist 34 (1979): 906-11.
Flower, Linda. “Talking Thought: The Role of Conscious Processing in Making Meaning.” Thinking, Reasoning, and Writing. Ed. Elaine P. Maimon, Barbara F. Nodine, and Finbarr W. O’Connor. New York: Longman, 1989. 185-212.
France, Alan W. “Assigning Places: Introductory Composition as a Cultural Discourse.” College English 55 (1993): 593-609.
Fulwiler, Toby. “The Quiet and Insistent Revolution: Writing Across the Curriculum.” The Politics of Writing Instruction: Postsecondary. Ed. Richard Bullock and John Trimbur. Portsmouth: Boynton, 1991. 179-87.
Gebhardt. Richard. “Editor’s Column: Theme Issue Feedback and Fallout.” CCC 43 (1992): 295-96.
Hairston, Maxine. ” Diversity, Ideology, and Teaching Writing .” CCC 43 (1992): 179-93.
Lindemann, Erika. “Freshman Composition: No Place For Literature.” College English 55 (1993): 311-16.
Milton, Ohmer. Will That Be on the Final? Springfield: Thomas, 1982.
Milton, Ohmer, Howard R. Pollio, and James A. Eison. Making Sense of College Grades: Why the Grading System Does Not Work and What Can Be Done About It. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1986.
Newkirk. Thomas. “Locating Freshman English.” Nuts & Bolts: A Practical Guide to Teaching College Composition. Ed. Thomas Newkirk. Portsmouth: Boynton, 1993. 1-15.
Russell, David. “Romantics on Writing; Liberal Culture and the Abolition of Composition Courses.” Rhetoric Review 6 (1988): 132-46.
Scardamalia, Marlene, and Carl Bereiter. “Research on Written Composition.” Handbook of Research on Teaching. 3rd ed. Ed. Merlin C. Wittrock. New York: Macmillan, 1986. 778-803.
Stolarek, Elizabeth. “Prose Modeling and Metacognition: The Effect of Modeling on Developing a Metacognitive Stance Toward Writing.” Research in the Teaching of English 28 (1994): 154-74.
Trimbur, John. “Responses to Maxine Hairston’s ‘Diversity, Ideology, and Teaching Writing.'” CCC 44 (1993): 248-49.
White, Edward M. “Shallow Roots or Tap Roots for Writing across the Curriculum?” ADE Bulletin. 98 (Spring 1991): 29-33.
Wood, Robert. “Responses to Maxine Hairston’s ‘Diversity, Ideology, and Teaching Writing.'” CCC 44 (1993): 249-50.

Zamel, Vivian. “Strangers in Academia: The Experiences of Faculty and ESL Students across the Curriculum.” CCC 46.4 (1995): 506-521.


Zamel examines two divergent faculty responses to ESL as representative examples. He states his goal as wanting teachers to consider institutional contexts and assumptions about student writing. Many university teachers identify knowledge and language as separate entities. Such teachers believe that for students to acquire language, their deficit skills must be emphasized. Grammar must be taught as a necessary precursor to language acquisition. A solution to this problematic belief system is extensive dialogue across the university. Such discussion about problematic conceptions of language acquisition can help students and teachers reposition themselves and create healthy contact zones of contestation.


ccc46.4 Students Faculty Language Work ESL Writing Courses Classrooms Institutions Curriculum

Works Cited

Bartholomae, David. “Inventing the University.” Journal of Basic Writing 5 (Spring 1986): 4-23.
Benesch, Sarah. “ESL, Ideology, and the politics of Pragmatism.” TESOL Quarterly 27 (1993): 705-17.
Chiseri-Strater, Elizabeth. Academic Literacies: The Public and Private Discourse of University Students. Portsmouth: Boynton, 1991.
Clark, Gregory. ” Rescuing the Discourse of Community .” CCC 45 (1994): 61-74.
Fox, Tom. “Basic Writing as Cultural Conflict.” Journal of Education 172 (1990): 65-83.
—. “Standards and Access.” Journal of Basic Writing 12 (Spring 1993): 37-45.
Gay, Pamela. “Rereading Shaughnessy from a Postcolonial Perspective.” Journal of Basic Writing 12 (Fall 1993): 29-40.
Giroux, Henry. “Postmodernism as Border Pedagogy: Redefining the Boundaries of Race and Ethnicity.” Postmodernism, Feminism, and Cultural Politics: Redrawing Educational Boundaries. Ed. Henry Giroux. Albany: State U of New York P, 1991. 217-56.
Graff, Gerald. Beyond the Culture Wars. New York: Norton, 1992.
Horner, Bruce. “Mapping Errors and Expectations for Basic Writing: From ‘Frontier Field’ to ‘Border Country.’ ” English Education 26 (1994): 29-51.
Hull, Glynda, and Mike Rose. ” ‘This Wooden Shack Place’: The Logic of an Unconventional Reading.” CCC 41 (1990): 287-98.
Hull, Glynda, Mike Rose, Kay Losey Fraser, and Marisa Castellano. ” Remediation as Social Construct: Perspectives from an Analysis of Classroom Discourse .” CCC 42 (1991): 299-329.
Laurence, Patricia. “The Vanishing Site of Mina Shaughnessy’s Errors and Expectations.” Journal of Basic Writing 12 (Fall 1993): 18-28.
Lu, Min-Zhan. “Conflict and Struggle in Basic Writing.” College English 54 (1992): 887-913.
Mayher, John S. “Uncommon Sense in the Writing Center.” Journal of Basic Writing 11 (Spring 1992): 47-57.
McKay, Sandra Lee. “Examining L2 Composition Ideology: A Look at Literacy Education.” Journal of Second Language Writing 2 (1993): 65-81.
Neuleib, Janice. ” The Friendly Stranger: Twenty-Five Years as ‘Other.’CCC 43 (1992): 231-43.
Pratt, Mary Louise. “Arts of the Contact Zone.” Profession 91 (1991): 33-40.
Raimes, Ann. “Out of the Woods: Emerging Traditions in the Teaching of Writing.” TESOL Quarterly 25 (1991): 407-30.
Ray, Ruth. “Language and Literacy from the Student Perspective: What We Can Learn from the Long-term Case Study.” The Writing Teacher as Researcher. Ed. Donald A. Daiker and Max Morenberg. Portsmouth: Boynton, 1990. 321-35.
Rose, Mike. Lives on the Boundary: The Struggles and Achievements of America’s Underprepared. New York: Free P, 1989.
—. “The Language of Exclusion: Writing Instruction at the University.” College English 47 (1985): 341-59.
Shaughnessy, Mina. “Diving In: An Introduction to Basic Writing.” CCC27 (1976): 234-39.
—. Errors and Expectations. New York: Oxford UP, 1977.
Spack, Ruth. Blair Resources for Teaching Writing: English as a Second Language. New York: Prentice, 1994.
Trimbur, John. “‘Really Useful Knowledge’ in the Writing Classroom.” Journal of Education 172 (1990): 21-23.
Villanueva, Victor. Bootstraps: From an American Academic of Color. Urbana: NCTE, 1993.
Walvoord, Barbara E., and Lucille B. McCarthy. Thinking and Writing in College: A Naturalistic Study of Students in Four Disciplines. Urbana: NCTE, 1990.
Zamel. Vivian. “Questioning Academic Discourse.” College ESL 3 (1993): 28-39.

Hjortshoj, Keith. “The Marginality of the Left-Hand Castes (A Parable for Writing Teachers).” CCC 46.4 (1995): 491-505.


Hjortshoj chronicles how writing programs have been consigned marginal status among university departments. Hjortshoj claims language should be central in a liberal arts curriculum The English Department should not necessarily house writing. In an extended metaphor, he compares possibilities for writing amidst university departments to a left-handed caste in India. The left-handed caste developed an alternative economy of status. Like the caste, an interdisciplinary writing program could create a collective center for various programs to converse about language acquisition and interactive learning.


ccc46.4 Writing Status Teachers Kammalans Language Castes Work English HigherEducation Scholars Knowledge Field Departments Disciplines Institutions

Works Cited

Basham, A. L. The Wonder That Was India. New York: Grove, 1959.
Berlin, James. Rhetoric and Reality. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1987.
Blair, Catherine Pastore. “Only One of the Voices: Dialogic Writing Across the Curriculum.” College English 50 (1988): 383-89.
Bruffee, Kenneth. “Social Construction, Language, and the Authority of Knowledge: A Bibliographical Essay.” College English 48 (1986): 773-90.
CCCC.Statement of Principles and Standards for the Postsecondary Teaching of Writing .” CCC 40 (1989): 329-36.
Connors, Robert J. “Rhetoric in the Modern University: The Creation of an Underclass.” The Politics of Writing Instruction: Postsecondary. Ed. Richard Bullock and John Trimbur. Portsmouth: Boynton, 1991. 55-84.
Douglas, Mary. Purity and Danger. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1966.
Dumont, Louis. Homo Hierarchicus. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1966.
Eck, Diana L. Banaras: City of Light. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1982.
Elbow, Peter. “The Question of Writing.” What is English? Ed. Peter Elbow. New York: MLA, 1990.
Ghurye, G. S. Caste and Race in India. London: Kegan Paul. 1932.
Slevin, James. “Depoliticizing and Politicizing Composition Studies.” The Politics of Writing Instruction: Postsecondary. Ed. Richard Bullock and John Trimbur. Portsmouth: Boynton, 1991. 1-22.
Srinivas, M. N. “The Social System of a Mysore Village.” Village India. Ed. McKim Marriott. Chicago: U of Chicago Press, 1955.
—. Social Change in Modern India. Berkeley: U of California Press, 1971.
Thapar, Romila. A History of India. Vol. 1. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1966.
Thurston, Edgar. Castes and Tribes of Southern India. Madras: Government Press, 1909. Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America. Vol. 2. New York: Vintage, 1945.

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