Hamp-Lyons, Liz. “Review Essay: Uncovering Possibilities for a Constructivist Paradigm for Writing Assessment.” Rev. of Assessing Writing by Brian Huot and Kathleen Blake Yancey; New Directions in Portfolio Assessment: Reflective Practice, Critical Theory, and Large Scale Scoring by Laurel Black, Donald Daiker, Jeffrey Sommers and Gail Stygall; Teaching and Assessing Writing by Edward M. White; Validating Holistic Scoring for Writing Assessment by Michael Williamson and Brian Huot. CCC 46.3 (1995): 446-455.
Myers, Miles and Lil Brannon. “Interchanges: The National Standards Movement and CCCC.” CCC 46.3 (1995): 438-445.
Nelson, Jennie. “Reading Classrooms as Text: Exploring Student Writers’ Interpretive Practices.” CCC 46.3 (1995): 411-429.
Nelson claims new college students are not as ignorant of academic discourse conventions as many assume. She claims that while students may not know certain disciplinary conventions, they have appropriated school culture and are literate about how classrooms work. Through case studies of four students, Nelson advocates that teachers position themselves as “outsiders to our students’ interpretive practices in order to explore the structure of assumptions that guides students’ choices when they write.”
ccc46.3 Students Writing Assignments Teacher Research Classrooms Interpretation Reading Authority Comments
- Anderson, Worth, Cynthia Best, Alycia Black, John Hurst, Brandt Miller, and Susan Miller. ” Cross-Curricular Underlife: A Collaborative Report on Ways with Academic Words .” CCC 41 (1990): 11-36.
- Applebee, Arthur N., et al. Contexts for Learning to Write: Studies of Secondary School Instruction. Norwood. NJ: Ablex. 1984.
- Bartholomae. David. “Inventing the University.” When a Writer Can’t Write. Ed. Mike Rose. New York: Guilford. 1985. 13-65.
- Brown, John Seely, Allan Collins, and Paul Duguid. “Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning.” Educational Researcher 18 (1989): 32-42.
- Como, Lyn. “What it Means to be Literate about Classrooms.” Classrooms and Literacy. Ed. David Bloome. Norwood. NJ: Ablex. 1989.29-52.
- Como, Lyn. and Ellen B. Mandinach. “The Role of Cognitive Engagement in Classroom Learning and Motivation.” Educational Psychologist 18 (1983): 88-108.
- Doyle, Walter. “Academic Work.” Review of Educational Research 53 (1983): 159-99.
- Dyson, Anne Haas. “Learning to Write/Learning to Do School: Emergent Writers’ Interpretations of School Literacy Tasks.” Research in the Teaching of English 18 (1984): 233-64.
- Fish, Stanley. Is There a Text in This Class? Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1980.
- Flower, Linda, Victoria Stein, John Ackerman, Margaret Kantz, Kathleen McCormick, and Wayne Peck. Reading-To-Write: Exploring a Cognitive and Social Process. New York: Oxford UP, 1990
- Flynn, Elizabeth A. ” Composing as a Woman .” CCC 39 (1988): 423-35.
- Harris, Joseph. ” The Idea of Community in the Study of Writing .” CCC 40 (1989): 11-22.
- Haswell, Janis Tedesco and Richard Haswell. “Gendership and the Miswriting of Students.” CCC 46 (1995). 223-54.
- Heath, Shirley Brice. Ways with Words. New York: Cambridge UP, 1983.
- Hull, Glynda, and Mike Rose. ” ‘This Wooden Shack Place’: The Logic of an Unconventional Reading.” CCC 41 (1990): 287-98.
- Kirsch, Gesa. “Students’ Interpretations of Writing Tasks: A Case Study.” Journal of Basic Writing 7.2 (1988): 81-90.
- McCarthy, Lucille Parkinson. “A Stranger in Strange Lands: A College Student Writing Across the Disciplines.” Research in the Teaching of English 21 (1987): 233-65.
- Marshall, James D. “Process and Product: Case Studies of Writing in Two Content Areas.” Contexts for Learning to Write: Studies of Secondary School Instruction. Arthur N. Applebee. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1984. 149-68.
- Nelson, Jennie. “This Was an Easy Assignment: Examining How Students Interpret Academic Writing Tasks.” Research in the Teaching of English 24 (1990): 362-96.
- Nystrand, Martin, and Adam Gamoran. “Instructional Discourse, Student Engagement, and Literature Achievement.” Research in the Teaching of English 25 (1991): 261-90.
- Penrose, Ann M. “To Write or Not to Write.” Written Communication 9 (1992): 465-500.
- Peterson, Linda H. ” Gender and the Autobiographical Essay .” CCC 42 (1991): 170-83.
- Rose, Mike. Lives on the Boundary: The Struggles and Achievements of America’s Underprepared. New York: Free Press, 1989.
- Walvoord, Barbara E., and Lucille P. McCarthy. Thinking and Writing in College: A Naturalistic Study of Students in Four Disciplines. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1990.
Mirskin, Jerry. “Writing as a Process of Valuing.” CCC 46.3 (1995): 387-410.
Mirskin proposes conceiving writing in terms of how writers value their subjects. Meaning occurs when “statements ‘press’ against shared contexts of attitude and value.” Through writing students signify values: they call out significant responses in their readers. Mirskin differentiates valuing from purpose. Purpose is the effect eh writer tries to achieve and is more concerned with an end product. Valuing is a gesture or activity of writing that calls upon an audience’s responses that reflect attitude. Mirskin suggests ways teachers might prompt valuing through comments and shares examples of his own interactions with students valuing within a text.
ccc46.3 Language Value Meaning Process World Terms Writing Response Attitude Understanding MMead Society MBakhtin Nature
- Abrams. M. H. A Glossary of Literary Terms. 4th ed. New York: Holt. 1981.
- Bakhtin. Mikhail. The Dialogic Imagination. Ed. Michael Holquist. Trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin: U of Texas P, 1981.
- Bakhtin. Mikhail. The Formal Method in Literary Scholarship. Trans. A. J. Wehrle. Cambridge. MA: Harvard UP, 1985.
- Clark, K. and Michael Holquist. Mikhail Bakhtin. Cambridge. MA: Harvard Up, 1984. Mead, George Herbert. Mind, Self, and Society. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1934.
- Vygotsky. Lev. Thought and Language. Trans. Eugenia Hanfmann and Gertrude Vakar. Cambridge. MA: MIT P, 1962.
McLeod, Susan H. “Pygmalion or Golem? Teacher Affect and Efficacy.” CCC 46.3 (1995): 369-386.
McLeod defines the role of affect in teaching writing. She claims teacher’s expectations of students, their empathy, and own sense of self-efficacy greatly shape students’ writing. Parallels are drawn between affective teacher-student relationships and administrative-teacher relationships.
ccc46.3 Teachers Students Efficacy Sense Composition Teaching Writing Expectations Affect Empathy Class Faculty Research Achievement Classrooms
- Ashton, Patricia. “Motivation and the Teacher’s Sense of Efficacy.” Research on Motivation in Education. Vol. 2. Ed. Carole Ames and Russell Ames. New York: Academic, 1985. 141-71.
- Bandura, Albert. “Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change.” Psychological Review 84 (1977): 191-215.
- —. “The Self System in Reciprocal Determinism.” American Psychologist 33 (1978): 344-58.
- Belenky, Mary Field, et al. Women’s Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self Voice, and Mind. New York: Basic, 1986.
- Bloom, Benjamin S. “New Views of the Learner: Implications for Instruction and Curriculum.” Educational Leadership 35 (1978): 563-76.
- Brand, Alice Glarden. The Psychology of Writing: The Affective Experience. New York: Greenwood, 1989.
- —. “Social Cognition, Emotions, and the Psychology of Writing.” Journal of Advanced Composition 11 (1991): 395-407.
- —. ” The Why of Cognition: Emotion and the Writing Process .” CCC 38 (1987): 436-43.
- Brofenbrenner, Uri. “The Experimental Ecology of Education.” Educational Researcher 5 (1976): 5-15.
- Brophy, Jere. “Teachers’ Expectations, Motives, and Goals for Working with Problem Students.” Research on Motivation in Education. Vol. 2. Ed. Carole Ames and Russell Ames. New York: Academic, 1985. 175-214.
- Bullock, Richard, and John Trimbur, eds. The Politics of Writing Instruction: Postsecondary. Portsmouth, NY: Boynton, 1991.
- CCCC Committee on Professional Standards, “CCCC Initiatives on the Wyoming Conference Resolution: A Draft Report .” CCC 40 (1989): 61-72.
- —. ” A Progress Report from the CCCC Committee on Professional Standards .” CCC 42 (1991): 330-49.
- Connors, Robert J. “Rhetoric in the Modern University: The Creation of an Underclass.” Bullock and Trimbur, 55-84.
- Cooper, Harris M. “Models of Teacher Expectation Communication.” Teacher Expectancies. Ed. Jerome Dusek. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1985. 135-58.
- Cooper, Harris M., and Thomas L. Good. Pygmalion Grows Up: Studies in the Expectation Communication Process. New York: Longman, 1983.
- Deutch, Francine, and Ronald A. Madle. “Empathy: Historic and Current Conceptualizations, Measurement, and a Cognitive Theoretical Perspective.” Human Development 18 (1975): 267-87.
- Dusek, Jerome, ed. Teacher Expectancies. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1985.
- Eccles, Jacquelynne S., and Allan Wigfield. “Teacher Expectations and Student Motivation.” Dusek, 185-226.
- Eisenberg, Nancy, and Janet Strayer, eds. Empathy and Its Development. New York: Cambridge UP, 1988.
- Elbow, Peter. Embracing Contraries: Explorations in Learning and Teaching. New York: Oxford UP, 1986.
- —. “Ranking, Evaluating, and Liking.” College English 55 (1993): 187-206.
- Flower, Linda. The Construction of Negotiated Meaning: A Social Cognitive Theory of Writing. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1994.
- Flynn, Elizabeth A. “Composition Studies from a Feminist Perspective.” Bullock and Trimbur, 137-54.
- Goldstein, Arnold P., and Gerald Y. Michaels. Empathy: Development. Training. and Consequences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1985.
- Gordon, Thomas. T. E. T: Teacher Effectiveness Training. New York: Wyden, 1974.
- Hall, Vernon C., and Stephen P. Merkel. “Teacher Expectancy Effects and Educational Psychology.” Teacher Expectancies. Ed. Jerome Dusek. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1985. 67-92.
- Holland, John. Making Vocational Choices: A Theory of Careers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973.
- Hornstein, Harvey A., et al. “Influence and Satisfaction in Organizations: A Replication.” Sociology of Education 41 (1968): 380-849.
- Hull, Glynda, and Mike Rose. ” ‘This Wooden Shack Place’: The Logic of an Unconventional Reading.” CCC 41 (1990): 287-98.
- Hull, Glynda, Mike Rose, Kay Losey Fraser, and Marisa Castellano. ” Remediation as Social Construct: Perspectives from an Analysis of Classroom Discourse .” CCC 42 (1991): 299-329.
- Jackson, Philip W. Life in Classrooms. New York: Holt, 1968.
- Katz, Robert L. Empathy: Its Nature and Uses. New York: Free P, 1963.
- Leacock, Eleanor. Teaching and Learning in City Schools: A Comparative Study. New York: Basic, 1969.
- Lewis, Michael. The Culture of Inequality. New York: NAL, 1978.
- McCarthy, Patricia, Scott Meier, and Regina Rinderer. “Self-Efficacy and Writing: A Different View of Self-Evaluation.” CCC 36 (1985): 465-71.
- McLeod, Susan H. “The Affective Domain and the Writing Process: Working Definitions.” Journal of Advanced Composition II (1991): 95-105.
- —. ” Some Thoughts About Feelings: The Affective Domain and the Writing Process .” CCC 38 (1987): 426-35.
- Meichenbaum, Donald H., and Ian Smart. “Use of Direct Expectancy to Modify Academic Performance and Attitudes of College Students.” Journal of Counseling Psychology 18 (1971): 531-35.
- Merrill. Robert, et al. ” Symposium on the 1991 ‘Progress Report from the CCCC Committee on Professional Standards .”’ CCC 43 (1992): 154-75.
- Mitman, Alexis L., and Richard E. Snow. “Logical and Methodological Problems in Teacher Expectancy Research.” Teacher Expectancies. Ed. Jerome Dusek. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1985. 93-131.
- Noddings, Nel. Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education. Berkeley: U of California P, 1984.
- North, Stephen. The Making of Knowledge in Composition: Portrait of an Emerging Field. Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton, 1987.
- Peterson, Penelope L., and Sharon A. Barger. “Attribution Theory and Teacher Expectancy.” Teacher Expectancies. Ed. Jerome Dusek. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1985. 159-84.
- Rogers, Carl. “Empathic: An Unappreciated Way of Being.” The Counseling Psychologist 5 (1975): 2-10.
- —. Freedom to Learn: A Vision of What Education Might Become. Columbus, OH: Merrill, 1969.
- Rose, Mike. Lives on the Boundary. New York: Basic, 1989.
- Rosenthal. Robert. “From Unconscious Experimenter Bias to Teacher Expectancy Effects.” Teacher Expectancies. Ed. Jerome Dusek. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1985. 37-65.
- Rosenthal. Robert, and Kermit L. Fode. “The Effect of Experimenter Bias on the Performance of the Albino Rat.” Behavioral Science 8 (1963): 183-89.
- Rosenthal. Robert, and Lenore Jacobson. Pygmalion in the Classroom. New York: Holt, 1968.
- Russell, Bertrand. Philosophy. New York: Norton, 1927.
- Sarason, Irwin G. “Experimental Approaches to Test Anxiety: Attention and the Uses of Information.” Anxiety: Current Trends in Theory and Research. Ed. Charles D. Spielberger. Vol. 2. New York: Academic, 1972. 381-86.
- Schniedewind, Nancy. “Feminist Values: Guidelines for Teaching Methodology in Women’s Studies.” Friere for the Classroom: A Sourcebook for Liberatory Teaching. Ed. Ira Shor. Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton, 1987. 170-79.
- Shaughnessy, Mina P. “Diving In: An Introduction to Basic Writing.” CCC 27 (1976): 234-39.
- —. Errors and Expectations: A Guide for the Teacher of Basic Writing. New York: Oxford, 1977.
- Slevin, James. “Depoliticizing and Politicizing Composition Studies.” The Politics of Writing Instruction: Postsecondary. Bullock and Trimbur, 1-21.
- Teich, Nathaniel, ed. Rogerian Perspectives: Collaborative Rhetoric for Oral and Written Communication. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1992.
- Thomas, Dene, and Gordon Thomas. “The Use of Rogerian Reflection in Small Group Writing Conferences.” Writing and Response: Theory, Practice, and Research. Ed. Chris M. Anson. Urbana: NCTE, 1989. 114-26.
- Tolman, Edward C. Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men. New York: Appleton, 1932.
- Wehling, Leslie J., and W. W. Charters, Jr. “Dimensions of Teacher Beliefs about the Teaching Process.” American Educational Research Journal 6 (1969): 7-30.
- Weiner, Bernard. An Attributional Theory of Motivation and Emotion. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1986.
- Weston, Elizabeth. “On Part-Time College Teaching.” Thought and Action II (Winter 1986): 149-52.
- Wise, Arthur. Legislated Learning: The Bureaucratization of the American Classroom. Berkeley: U of California P, 1979.
Flynn, Elizabeth A. “Feminism and Scientism.” CCC 46.3 (1995): 353-368.
Flynn argues that recent feminist analyses of gender and power can illuminate how composition studies has struggled for legitimacy and power within the academy. Specifically feminist critiques of scientific epistemologies can reveal how it may “endanger those in marginalized positions.” Flynn provides a brief overview of scientist tendencies within the field as a “defense in the struggle against its chief adversary, literary studies” and discusses ways of gaining authority outside “masculinized identifications” with science.
ccc46.3 Research Composition EmpiricalResearch Sciences Women Power Field Resistance Feminism Scientism Authority Gender Academy LFlower MHairston Identification Methods Writing SocialSciences
- Berman, Ruth. “From Aristotle’s Dualism to Materialist Dialectics: Feminist Transformation of Science and Society.” Gender/Body/Knowledge: Feminist Reconstructions of Being and Knowing. Ed. Alison M. Jagger and Susan R. Bordo. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1989. 224-55.
- Braddock, Richard, Richard Lloyd-Jones, and Lowell Schoer. Research in Written Composition. Urbana: NCTE, 1963.
- Bridwell, Lillian and Richard Beach. New Directions in Composition Research. New York: Guilford, 1984.
- Bullock, Richard and John Trimbur. Ed. The Politics of Writing Instruction: Postsecondary. Portsmouth: Boynton, 1991.
- Butler, Judith. Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of “Sex.” New York: Routledge, 1993.
- Connors, Robert J. “Composition Studies and Science.” College English 45 (1983): 1-20.
- Cooper, Charles and Lee Odell, eds. Research on Composing: Points of Departure. Urbana: NCTE, 1978.
- Fetterley, Judith. The Resisting Reader: A Feminist Approach to American Fiction. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1978.
- Flax, Jane. “The End of Innocence.” Feminists Theorize the Political. Ed. Judith Butler and Joan W. Scott. New York: Routledge, 1992. 445-63.
- Flower, Linda. ” Cognition, Context, and Theory Building .” CCC 40 (1989): 282-311.
- Gilbert, Sandra M., and Susan Gubar. The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination. New Haven: Yale UP, 1979.
- Giroux, Henry A. Theory and Resistance in Education: A Pedagogy for the Opposition. New York: Bergin, 1983.
- Graham, Margaret Baker and Patricia Goubil-Gambrell. “Hearing Voices in English Studies.” Journal of Advanced Composition 15 (1995): 103-19.
- Harding, Sandra. The Science Question in Feminism. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1986.
- Hairston, Maxine. “The Winds of Change: Thomas Kuhn and the Revolution in the Teaching of Writing.” CCC 33 (1982): 7688.
- —. “Diversity, Ideology, and Teaching Writing.” CCC 43 (1992): 179-93.
- Hillocks, George E., Jr. Research on Written Composition: New Directions for Teaching. Urbana: Eric Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, 1986.
- Holbrook, Sue Ellen. “Women’s Work: The Feminizing of Composition.” Rhetoric Review 9 (1991): 201-29.
- hooks, bell. Talking Back: Thinking Feminist, Thinking Black. Boston: South End, 1989.
- —. Yearning: Race, Gender; and Cultural Politics. Boston: South End, 1990.
- Irigaray, Luce. “Writing as a Woman.” Je Tu Nous: Toward a Culture of Difference. New York: Routledge, 1993. 51-59.
- Jayaratne, Toby, and Abigail J. Stewart. “Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in the Social Sciences: Current Feminist Issues and Practical Strategies.” Beyond Methodology: Feminist Scholarship as Lived Research. Ed. Mary Margaret Fonow and Judith A. Cook. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1991. 85-106.
- Jardine, Alice, and Paul Smith. Men in Feminism. New York: Routledge, 1987.
- Keller, Evelyn Fox. Reflections on Gender and Science. New Haven: Yale UP, 1985.
- Kirsch, Gesa E. and Joy S. Ritchie. ” Beyond the Personal: Theorizing a Politics of Location in Composition Research .” CCC 46 (1995): 7-29.
- Kristeva, Julia. “About Chinese Women.” The Kristeva Reader. Ed. Toril Mol. New York: Columbia UP, 1986. 138-59.
- Laclau, Ernesto, and Chantal Mouffe. Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Toward a Radical Democratic Politics. London: Verso, 1985.
- Lauer, Janice M., and J. William Asher. Composition Research: Empirical Designs. New York: Oxford UP, 1988.
- Miller, Susan. ‘Textual Carnivals: The Politics of Composition. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1991.
- Modleski, Tania. Feminism Without Women: Culture and Criticism in a “Postfeminist” Age. New York: Routledge, 1991.
- North, Stephen M. The Making of Knowledge in Composition: Portrait of an Emerging Field. Upper Montclair: Boynton, 1987.
- Quandah1. Ellen. “The Anthropological Sleep of Composition.” Journal of Advanced Composition 14 (1994): 413-29.
- Rossiter, Margaret W. Women Scientists in America: Struggles and Strategies to 1940. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1982.
- Shumway, David R. “Science, Theory, and the Politics of Empirical Studies in the English Department.” Writing Theory and Critical Theory. Ed. John Clifford and John Schilb. New York: MLA, 1994. 148-58.
- Sommers, Nancy. ” Between the Drafts .” CCC 43 (1992): 23-31.
- Weiler, Kathleen. Women Teaching for Change: Gender, Class and Power. New York: Bergin, 1988.
Simmons, Sue Carter. “Constructing Writers: Barrett Wendell’s Pedagogy at Harvard.” CCC 46.3 (1995): 327-352.
Simmons examines the pedagogy of Barrett Wendell, composition teacher at Harvard University in the late 19th century. She challenges historical views that tie him inextricably to current-traditional rhetoric. She cites his use of student peer editing, his conferences with students, and his allowance of students to choose their own subjects as evidence of a more nuanced pedagogy, one that complicates the relationship between current-traditional rhetoric and process pedagogies.
ccc46.3 BWendell Pedagogy Harvard Writing Students Themes English Teachers Composition Rhetoric EnglishA History
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- Adams, Katherine H. and John L. Adams. “The Paradox Within: Origins of the Current-Traditional Paradigm.” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 17 (1987): 421-32.
- Anderson, Larz. Larz Anderson: Letters and Journals of a Diplomat. Ed. Isabel Anderson. New York: Fleming Revell, 1940.
- —. Themes from English 12. 18851887. Curriculum Collection. Harvard U Archives, Pusey Library, Cambridge, MA.
- Bail, Hamilton Vaughn. “Harvard Fiction: Some Critical and Bibliographical Notes.” Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 68.2 (1958): 211-347.
- Baldwin, William Woodward. “The Founding of the Harvard Monthly.” Harvard Monthly 21 (1895): 1-4.
- Bartholomae, David. “Inventing the University.” When a Writer Can’t Write. Ed. Mike Rose. New York: Guilford, 1985. 143-65.
- Behrman, S. N. “After Forty Years.” College in a Yard. Ed. Brooks Atkinson. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1958. 27-32.
- Berlin, James. Writing Instruction in Nineteenth-Century American Colleges. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1984.
- Briggs, LeBaron Russell. To College Teachers of English Composition. Boston: Houghton, 1928.
- Briggs, LeBaron Russell, S. B. S. Clymer, Barrett Wendell, Josiah Royce, and Lewis E. Gates. Draft Letter to the Overseers. 29 May 1885. Barrett Wendell Papers. Houghton Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
- Britton, James, Tony Burgess, Nancy Martin, Alex McLeod, and Harold Rosen. The Development of Writing Abilities, 11-18. London: Macmillan, 1975.
- Bunker, Clarence. Lecture Notes for English 12. Curriculum Collection. Harvard U Archives, Pusey Library, Cambridge, MA.
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- Cohen, Paul. “Barrett Wendell: A Study of Harvard Culture.” Diss. Northwestern U, 1974.
- Copeland, C. T., and H. M. Rideout. Freshman English and Theme-Correcting in Harvard College. New York: Silver, Burdett, 1901.
- Crowley, Sharon. The Methodical Memory: Invention in Current- Traditional Rhetoric. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1990.
- —. “A Personal Essay on Freshman English.” Pre/Text 12 (1991): 156-76.
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- Hill, A. S. The Principles of Rhetoric and Their Application. New York: Harper, 1878; American, 1895.
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- McAfee, French. Themes from English 12. Harvard University Archives, Pusey Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
- Miller, Susan. Textual Carnivals: The Politics of Composition. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1991.
- Newkirk, Thomas. “Barrett Wendell’s Theory of Discourse.” Rhetoric Review 19 (1991): 20-30.
- Petraglia, Joseph. “Spinning Like a Kite: Pseudotransactionality in Writing Research.” Journal of Advanced Composition 15 (1995): 19-33.
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- Rampersad, Arnold. The Art and Imagination of W E. B. DuBois. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1976.
- Russell, David. Writing in the Academic Disciplines, 1870-1990. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1991.
- Self, Robert T. Barrett Wendell. Boston: Hall, 1975.
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