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College Composition and Communication, Vol. 46, No. 2, May 1995

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Lay, Mary M. “Review Essay: Rhetorical Analysis of Scientific Texts: Three Major Contributions.” Rev. of The Literary Structure of Scientific Argument: Historical Studies by Peter Dear; The Literature of Science: Perspectives on Popular Scientific Writing by Murdo William McRae; Understanding Scientific Prose by Jack Selzer. CCC 46.2 (1995): 292-302.

Graff, Gerald, et al. “Interchanges.” CCC 46.2 (1995): 276-291.

Dixon, Kathleen. “Gendering the ‘Personal.'” CCC 46.2 (1995): 255-275.


“Suspicious of ‘personal’ writing”, Dixon argues for an “identity ethnography”; a self-reflexive account of one’s feelings and thoughts and one’s relationship to others. Through case studies of two of her Dixon examines gendered, colored and classed relations within the “masculine academy.” She proposes possible relations between “expressive writing and accepted forms of academic discourse.”


ccc46.2 Class Writing MiddleClass Women Academe Gender Rock Relationship Feelings Students Culture Personal Emotions

Works Cited

Best, Raphaela. We’ve All Got Scars: What Boys and Girls Learn in Elementary School. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1983.
Britton, James, Tony Burgess, Nancy Martin, Alex McLeod and Harold Rosen. The Development of Writing Abilities (11-18). New York: Macmillan, 1975.
Butler, Judith. Gendering the Body: Beauvoir’s Philosophical Contribution.” Ann Garry and Marilyn Pearsall, Eds. Women, Knowledge and Reality. Boston: Unwin, 1989.253-62.
DeLauretis, Teresa. Technologies of Gender. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1986.
Frey, Olivia. “Beyond Literary Darwinism: Women’s Voices and Critical Discourse,” College English 52 (1990): 507-26.
Gallop, Jane. “Knot a Love Story.” The Yale Journal of Criticism 5 (1992): 209-18.
McRobbie, Angela. “Post-Marxism and Cultural Studies: a Postscript.” Lawrence Grossberg et al., eds. Cultural Studies. New York: Routledge, 1992.719-30.
Medovoi, Leerom, “Mapping the Rebel Image: Postmodernism and the Masculinist Politics of Rock in the U.S.A.” Cultural Critique 20 (1991-92): 153-88.
Moi, Toril. Simone de Beauvoir: The Making of an Intellectual Woman. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1994.
Ross, Valerie, “Too Close to Home: Repressing Biography, Instituting Authority.” William Epstein, ed. Contesting the Subject. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue UP, 1991. 135-65.
Wallace, Michele. “When Black Feminism Faces the Music and the Music is Rap.” Diana George and John Trimbur. Reading Culture. New York: HarperCollins, 1992. 25-28.

Haswell, Janis and Richard H. Haswell. “Gendership and the Miswriting of Students.” CCC 46.2 (1995): 223-254.


The authors look at the way peer critique and teacher critique are affected by the reader’s knowledge of the writer’s sex. The authors examine responses from 64 participants: 16 male and 16 female college writing freshmen and 16 male and 16 female college teachers who read and evaluated the same two students essays. The authors found that the gendering of student writing involves multiple factors. Gender cannot be ignored or negated: “solutions to gender bias lie within the social and psychological reality of gender.”


ccc46.2 Gender Readers Critique Writing Teachers Essays Students Authors Bias Texts Neutrality Stereotypes

Works Cited

Anson, Chris M., ed. Writing and Response: Theory, Practice, and Research. Urbana: NCTE.1989.
Barnes, Linda L. “Gender Bias in Teachers’ Written Comments.” Gender in the Classroom: Power and Pedagogy. Ed. Susan L. Gabriel and Isaiah Smithson. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1990. 140-59.
Bem, Sandra L. “Gender Schema Theory and the Romantic Tradition.” Sex and Gender. Ed. Philip Shaver and Clyde Hendrick. Review of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 7. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1987. 251-71.
Booth, Wayne C. The Rhetoric of Fiction. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1961.
Cameron, Deborah. Feminism and Linguistic Theory. New York: Macmillan, 1985.
Chordas, Nina. “Classrooms, Pedagogies, and the Rhetoric of Equality.” CCC 43 (1992): 214-24.
Etaugh, C. B, D. Houtler, and P. Ptasnik, “Evaluating Competence of Women and Men: Effects of Experimenter Gender and Group Gender Composition.” psychology of Women Quarterly 12 (1988): 191-200.
Finke, Laurie. “Knowledge as Bait: Feminism, Voice, and the Pedagogical Unconscious.” College English 55 (1993): 7-27.
Freud, Sigmund. The Complete Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. Trans. and ed. James Strachey. New York: Norton, 1966.
Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. ”’Authenticity: or the Lesson of Little Tree.” New York Times Literary Supplement (24 Nov. 1991): Section 7: 1.
Goldberg, Philip. “Are Women Prejudiced Against Women?” Transaction 5 (April 1968): 28-30.
Graves, Heather Brodie. “Regrinding the Lens of Gender: Problematizing ‘Writing as a Woman.”’ Written Communication 10 (1993): 139-63.
Hartman, Sandra J., Roger W. Griffith, Michael D. Crino, O. Jeff Harris. “Gender Based Influences: The Promotion Recommendation.” Sex Roles 25 (1991): 285-300.
Holbrook, Sue E. “Women’s Work: The Feminization of Composition.” Rhetoric Review 9 (1991): 201-30.
Holland, Dorothy, and Debra Skinner. “Prestige and Intimacy: The Cultural Models Behind Americans’ Talk About Gender Types.” Cultural Models in Language and Thought. Ed. D. Holland and N. Quinn. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987. 78-111.
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Johnson, Donna M., and Duane H. Roen. “Complimenting and Involvement in Peer Reviews: Gender Variation.” Language in Society 21 (1992): 27-57.
Kraemer, Don. “Gender and the Autobiographical Essay: A Critical Extension of Research.” CCC 43 (1992): 323-39.
Kramarae, Cheris. Women and Men Speaking: Frameworks for Analysis. Rowley, MA: Newbury, 1981.
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Lucaites, John Louis, and Celeste Michelle Condit “Reconstructing <Equality>: Culturetypal and Counter-cultural Rhetorics in the Martyred Black Vision.” Communication Monographs 57 (March 1990): 5-24.
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Ortner, Sherry B., and Harriet Whitehead. “Introduction: Accounting for Sexual Meanings.” Sexual Meanings: The Cultural Construction of Gender and Sexuality. Ed. Sherry B. Ortner and Harriet Whitehead. Cambridge: Cambridge Up, 1981. 1-27.
Paludi. Michele A., and William D. Bauer. “Goldberg Revisited: What’s in an Author’s Name?” Sex Roles 9 (1983): 387-90.
Penelope, Julia. Speaking Freely: Unlearning the Lies of the Fathers’ Tongues. New York: Pergamon, 1990.
Roen, Duane H. “Gender and Teacher Response to Student Writing.” Gender Issues in the Teaching of English. Ed. Nancy Mellon McCracken and Bruce C. Appleby. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1993.
Rose, Shirley K. “Developing Literacy/Developing Gender: Constructing College Freshmen.” NCTE, Seattle, 1991.
Rubin, Donnalee. Gender Influences: Reading Student Texts. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP, 1993.
Rubin, Louis D. The Teller in the Tale. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1967.
Ruble, Diane N.. and Thomas L. Ruble. “Sex stereotypes.” In the Eye of the Beholder: Contemporary Issues in Stereotyping. Ed. A. G. Miller. New York: Praeger, 1982. 188-253.
Sennett, Richard. Authority. New York: Knopf, 1980.
Top, Titia J. “Sex Bias in the Evaluation of Performance in the Scientific, Artistic, and Literary Professions: A Review.” Sex Roles 24 (1991): 73-106.
Unger, Rhoda K. “Imperfect Reflections of Reality: Psychology Constructs Gender. Making a Difference: Psychology and the Construction of Gender. Ed. Rachel T. Hare Mustin and Jeanne Maracek. New Haven: Yale UP, 1990. 102-49.

Peck, Wayne Campbell, Linda Flower, and Lorraine Higgins. “Community Literacy.” CCC 46.2 (1995): 199-222.


The authors propose a “re-invention of the settlement house tradition. They review the historical context of their community/university collaborative center and examine a set of guiding principles as a model for a theory of literacy. They claim that community literacy “occurs wherever there are bridging discourses invented and enacted by writers trying to solve a community problem.”


ccc46.2 Community Literacy Discourse People Settlement Teenagers Writers House Difference Action School Conversation Collaborative Intercultural Teachers School Power

Works Cited

Alinsky, Saul. Rules for Radicals. New York: Random, 1930.
Banks, James. “The Canon Debate, Knowledge Construction, and Multicultural Education.” Educational Researcher 22 (June-July 1993): 4-14.
Dewey, John. John Dewey on Education. Ed. Reginald Archambault. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1964
Erickson, Frederick. “School Literacy, Reasoning, and Civility: An Anthropologist’s Perspective.” Perspectives on Literacy. Eds. Eugene R. Kintgen, Barry M. Kroll, and Mike Rose. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1988. 205-26.
Flower, Linda. The Construction of Negotiated Meaning: A Social Cognitive Theory of Writing. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1994.
—. “Collaborative Planning and Community Literacy: A Window on the Logic of Learning.” The Contributions of Instructional Innovation to Understanding Learning. Eds. Robert Glaser and Leona Schauble. Hillsdale: Erlbaum, forthcoming.
—. “Literate Action.” Composition in the 21st Century, Crisis and Change. Ed. Donald A. Daiker, Edward M. White, and Lynn Z. Bloom. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, forthcoming.
Flower, Linda. ” Cognition, Context, and Theory Building .” CCC 40 (1989): 282-311.
Flower, Linda, David L. Wallace, Linda Norris, and Rebecca E. Burnett. Making Thinking Visible: Writing, Collaborative Planning, and Classroom Inquiry. Urbana: NCTE, 1994.
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Heath, Shirley Brice, and Milbrey W. McLaughlin. Identity and Inner-City Youth: Beyond Ethnicity and Gender. New York: Teachers College P, 1993. 36-68.
Higgins, Lorraine. Argument as Construction: A Framework and Method. Diss. Carnegie Mellon U, 1992.
Higgins, Lorraine, Linda Flower, and Julia Deems. “Collaboration for Community Action: Landlords and Tenants.” Collaboration in Professional and Technical Communication: Research Perspectives. Ed. Rebecca E. Burnett and Ann Hill Duin. Hillsdale: Erlbaum, forthcoming.
Higgins, Lorraine, Maureen A. Mathison, and Linda Flower. The Rival Hypothesis Stance: Thinking and Writing about Open Questions. Technical Report. Pittsburgh, PA: Mellon Literacy in Science Center, Carnegie Mellon U, 1992.
Kraus, Harry P. The Settlement House in New York City, 1886-1914. New York: Arno Press, 1980.
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Peck, Wayne Campbell. Community Advocacy: Composing for Action. Diss. Carnegie Mellon U, 1991.
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Trolander, Judith Ann. Professionalism and Social Change: From the Settlement House Movement to Neighborhood Centers, 1886 to the Present. New York: Columbia UP. 1987.

Muchiri, Mary N., et al. “Importing Composition: Teaching and Researching Academic Writing beyond North America.” CCC 46.2 (1995): 175-198.


The authors discuss how composition is largely a North American field and how academic writing is defined outside North America. The authors consider perspectives based upon their own lectureship in Kenya, Tanzania, Zaire (as of 2007, the Democratic Republic of the Congo) and the Great Britain. They advise composition researchers to acknowledge larger claims as tied to the context of the United States


ccc46.2 BraddockAward Students Composition University Language English Research AcademicWriting WorldEnglish Zaire Kenya Africa Teachers Knowledge CompositionResearch Culture

Works Cited

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Barton, David. Literacy: An Introduction to the Ecology of Written Language. Oxford: Blackwell, 1994.
Bazerman, Charles. The Informed Writer. 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton, 1985.
—. Shaping Written Knowledge: The Genre and Activity of the Experimental Article in Science. Madison, WI: U of Wisconsin P, 1988.
Bizzell, Patricia. “College Composition: Initiation into the Academic Discourse Community.” Curriculum Inquiry 12 (1982): 191-207.
Bizzell, Patricia. Academic Discourse and Critical Consciousness. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1992.
Tom Bloor and Meriel Bloor. “English in Post-colonial Africa.” Language and Power Ed. Romy Clark, et al. London: BAAL and CILT, 1991.
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Cantor, Norman F. Inventing the Middle Ages: The Lives, Works, and Ideas o{ the Great Mediaevalists of the Twentieth Century. New York: Morrow, 1991.
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Muchiri, Mary N. “The Effect of Institutional and National Cultures on Examinations: The University in Kenya.” Society and the Language Classroom. Ed. Hywell Coleman. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, forthcoming.
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