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College Composition and Communication, Vol. 45, No. 3, October 1994

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McLeod, Alisea C. Williams. “Review Essay: ‘Race,’ Writing, and the Politics of Public Disclosure.” Rev. of Eating on the Street by David Schaafsma; Bootstraps: From an American Academic of Color by Victor Villanueva; Living Dangerously: Multiculturalism and the Politics of Difference by Henry Giroux. CCC 45.3 (1994): 389-400.

Kirsch, Gesa, et al. “Interchanges.” CCC 45.3 (1994): 381-388.

Kirscht, Judy, Rhonda Levine and John Reiff. “Evolving Paradigms: WAC and the Rhetoric of Inquiry.” CCC 45.3 (1994): 369-380.


The authors explore the theoretical and pedagogical implications of what they claim as a major conflict in the field of writing, particularly WAC, between a belief in teaching voice versus a believe in teaching discourse conventions in specific fields. The authors contend that the conflict is based on a false dichotomy and that the practice of a “rhetoric of inquiry” would synthesize differences.


ccc45.3 Students Writing Composition Inquiry Discipline Knowledge WAC Process Conventions Data Questions Study Teaching Field Faculty Methods

Works Cited

Basseches. Michael. “Intellectual Development: the Development of Dialectical Thinking.” Thinking, Reasoning, and Writing. Ed. Elaine Maimon, Barbara Nodine, and Finbarr O’Conner. White Plains. NY: Longman 1989. 23-45.
Bazerman, Charles. “Codifying the Social Scientific Style: The APA Publication Manual as a Behaviorist Rhetoric.” The Rhetoric of the Human Sciences: Language and Argument in Scholarship and Public Affairs. Ed. John Nelson, Allan Megill, and Donald McCloskey. Madison: Wisconsin UP. 1987. 125-44.
—. “The Second Stage in Writing Across the Curriculum.” College English 53 (1991): 209-12.
Berlin, James A. and Inkster, Robert P. “Current-Traditional Rhetoric: Paradigm and Practice.” Freshman English News 8 (Winter 1980): 1-4. 13-14.
Berthoff, Ann E. “Killer Dichotomies: Reading In/Reading Out.” Farther Along: Transforming Dichotomies in Rhetoric and Composition. Ed. Kate Ronald and Hephzibah Roskelly. Portsmouth: Boynton. 1990: 12-24.
Britton, James. Tony Burgess. Nancy Martin, Alex McLeod. and Harold Rosen. The Development of Writing Abilities (11-18). London: Macmillan, 1975.
Coe, Richard M. “An Apology for Form: or, Who Took the Form out of the Process?” College English 49 (1987) 13-28.
Cooper, Marilyn. “The Ecology of Writing.” College English, 48 (1986): 364-75.
D’Angelo, Frank. A Conceptual Theory of Rhetoric. Cambridge: Winthrop. 1975.
Elbow, Peter. Writing Without Teachers. Oxford UP, 1973.
Emig, Janet. “Writing as a Mode of Learning.” CCC 28 (1977): 122-28.
Faigley, Lester. “Competing Theories of Process: A Critique and a Proposal.” College English 48 (1986): 527-42.
Fulwiler, Toby. “Journals Across the Disciplines.” English Journal 69.4 (1980): 14-19.
Hairston, Maxine. “The Winds of Change: Thomas Kuhn and the Revolution in the Teaching of Writing.” CCC 33 (1982): 76-88.
Hamilton, David. “Interdisciplinary Writing.” College English 41 (1980): 780-96.
Macrorie, Ken. Telling Writing. New Rochelle: Hayden, 1970.
Maimon, Elaine, Gerald Belcher. Gail Hearn, Barbara Nodine, and Finbarr O’Connor. Writing in the Arts and Sciences. Cambridge: Winthrop, 1981.
McDonald, Susan Peck. “Problem Definition in Academic Writing.” College English 49 (1987): 315-31.
Moffett, James. Teaching the Universe of Discourse. Boston: Houghton, 1968.
Murray, Donald. “Teach Writing As Process. Not Product.” Rhetoric and Composition. Ed. Richard L. Graves. New Rochelle: Hayden, 1976:79-82.
Myer, Greg. “The Social Construction of Two Biologists’ Proposals.” Written Communication 2 (1985): 219-45.
Myer, Greg. “Writing Research and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge: a Review of Three New Books.” College English 48 (1986): 595-608.
Nelson. John S., Allan Megill, and Donald N. McCloskey, eds. The Rhetoric of the Human Sciences: Language and Argument in Scholarship and Public Affairs. Madison: Wisconsin UP, 1987.
Russell, David R. Writing in the Academic Disciplines. 1870-1990: A Curricular History. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1991.
Shaughnessy, Mina P. Errors and Expectations. Oxford UP, 1977.

Ewald, Helen Rothschild and David L. Wallace. “Exploring Agency in Classroom Discourse or, Should David Have Told His Story?” CCC 45.3 (1994): 342-368.


The authors state a tension exists in the composition field between those who advocate student-centered pedagogy those who advocate the importance of knowledge transfer from teacher to student. They examine an excerpt from classroom discourse and the interpretations of the teacher and four students of the discourse. Claiming that both teacher and students are constructed agents in the classroom, the authors state that both construct meaning even as they are constructed by classroom discourse and its power dynamics.


ccc45.3 Students Classrooms Story Agency Discourse Class Teachers Action Discussion Interpretation AffirmativeAction Authority Women Topics ClassroomDiscourse

Works Cited

Bartholomae, David. “Inventing the University.” In When a Writer Can’t Write. Ed. Mike Rose. New York: Guilford 1986. 134-65.
Bellack, Arno A., Herbert M. Kliebard, Ronald T. Hyman, and Frank L. Smith. The Language of the Classroom. New York: Teachers College Press, 1966.
Bizzell, Patricia. Academic Discourse and Critical Consciousness. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1992.
—. “Beyond Anti-foundationalism to Rhetorical Authority: Problems Defining ‘Cultural Literacy.”’ College English 54 (1990): 661-75.
Bloom, Lynn Z. “Teaching College English as a Woman.” College English 54 (1992): 818-825.
Boggs, William O. “Comment on ‘Pedagogy of the Distressed.”’ College English 54 (1992): 477-80.
Bridwell-Bowles, Lillian, “Discourse and Diversity: Experimental Writing within the Academy.” CCC43 (1992): 349-68.
Carrol, Michael. “A Comment on ‘Pedagogy of the Distressed.”’ College English 53 (1991): 599-601.
Caughie, Pamela. ”’Not Entirely Strange, . . . Not Entirely Friendly’: Passing and Pedagogy.” College English 54 (1992): 775-793.
Cazden, Courtney. Classroom Discourse: The Language of Teaching and Learning. Portsmouth, NH: Heineman, 1988.
Davidson, Donald. “A Nice Derangement of Epitaphs.” Truth and Interpretations: Perspectives on the Philosophy of Donald Davidson. Ed. Ernest Le Pore. New York: Blackwell, 1986.
Donahue, Patricia and Ellen Quandahl, eds. Reclaiming Pedagogy: The Rhetoric of The Classroom. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1989.
Eichhorn, Jill, Sara Farris, Karen Hayes, Adriana Hernandez, Susan C. Jarratt, Karen Powers-Stubbs, and Marian M. Sciachitano. ” A Symposium on Feminist Experiences in the Composition Classroom .” CCC 43 (1992): 297-322.
Ewald, Helen Rothschild. “Comment on ‘Pedagogy of the Distressed.'” College English 54 (1992): 354-56.
Flanders, Ned A. Analyzing Teacher Behavior. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1970.
Flynn, Elizabeth A. “Composing as a Woman.” CCC 39 (1988): 423-35.
Frey, Olivia. “Beyond Literary Darwinism: Women’s Voices and Critical Discourse.” College English 52 (1990): 507-526.
Gumperz, John Joseph. Interactional Sociolinguistics in the Study of Schooling. The Social Construction of Literacy. Ed. Jenny Cook-Gumperz. New York: Cambridge UP, 1986. 45-68.
Hillocks, George. Research on Written Composition: New Directions for Teaching. Urbana, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, 1986.
Hull, Glynda, Mike Rose, Kay Losey Fraser, and Marisa Castellano. ” Remediation as a Social Construct: Perspectives from an Analysis of Classroom Discourse .” CCC 42 (1991): 299-329.
Jarratt, Susan C. “Feminism and Composition: The Case for Conflict.” Contending with Words: Composition in a Postmodern Era. Ed. Patricia Harkin and John Schlib. New York: MLA, 1991. 105-25.
Kent, Thomas. “Formalism, Social Construction, and the Problem of Interpretive Authority.” professional Communication: The Social Perspective. Eds. Nancy Roundy Blyler and Charlotte Thralls. Newbury Park: Sage. 79-91.
—. “On the Very Idea of a Discourse Community.” CCC 42 (1991): 425-445.
Kuhn, Mark S. “A Discourse Analysis of Discussions in the College Classroom.” Diss. Harvard U, 1984.
Lamb, Catherine E. “Beyond Argument in Feminist Composition.” CCC 42 (1991): 11-24.
Lemke, J. L. “Classroom and Communication of Science.” Final Report of NSF/ RISE, April, 1982. ERIC ED 222 346.
Martin, Robert M. “Comment on ‘Pedagogy of the Distressed.”’ College English 54 (1992): 356-58.
McGann, Patrick. “Comment on ‘Pedagogy of the Distressed.'” College English 54 (1992): 358-60.
Mehan, Hugh. Learning Lessons: Social Organization in the Classroom. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1979.
Nystrand, Martin, and Adam Gamoran. “Instructional Discourse, Student Engagement, and Literature Achievement. Research in the Teaching of English 25 (1991): 261-290.
Peterson, Linda H. “Gender and the Autobiographical Essay.” CCC 42 (1991): 170-183.
Seabury, Marcia Bundy. “Another Comment on ‘Pedagogy of the Distressed.'” College English 53 (1991): 714-717.
Sinclair, J. McH., and R. M. Coulthard. Towards an Analysis of Discourse: The English Used by Teachers and Pupils. London: Oxford UP, 1975.
Sipiora, Phillip and Janet Atwill. “Rhetoric and Cultural Explanation: A Discussion with Gayatri Charkravoty Spivak.” Journal of Advanced Composition 10.2 (1990): 293-304.
Tompkins, Jane. “Pedagogy of the Distressed.” College English 52 (1990): 653-660.
Weiler, Kathleen. Women Teaching for Change: Gender, Class, and Power. South Hadley, MA: Bergin, 1988.

Stygall, Gail. “Resisting Privilege: Basic Writing and Foucault’s Author Function.” CCC 45.3 (1994): 320-341.


Stygall begins by chronicling various definitions of basic writing by different scholars and yet cedes its obvious use as a signifier of many valuations of students. Then by examining the correspondence between graduate students and undergraduate students from three universities, Stygall argues that the institutional practice of basic writing is constructed and prescribed by a type of Foucault’s author function and that teaching practices such as one teacher for each classroom, large numbers of students per class, and the separation of students by age and grade level keep the author function dominant.


ccc45.3 Students Writing Graduate Authors BasicWriters GraduateStudents Practices AuthorFunction MFoucault Teachers Teaching Education DiscursivePractices Class Privilege

Works Cited

Armstrong, Cheryl. “Reexamining Basic Writing: Lessons from Harvard’s Basic Writers.” Journal of Basic Writing 7.2 (1988): 68-80.
Brannon, Lit and C. H. Knoblauch. “On Students’ Rights to Their Own Texts: A Model of Teacher Response.” CCC 33 (1982): 157-166.
Brodkey, Linda. “On the Subjects of Class and Gender in the ‘Literacy Letters.”’ College English 51 (1989): 125-141.
Daiker, Donald. “Learning to Praise.” Writing and Response: Theory, Practice, and Research. Ed. Chris Anson. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1989. 103-113.
Farrell, Thomas. “IQ and Standard English.” CCC 34 (1983): 470–484.
Foucault, Michel. “Powers and Strategies.” Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews & Other Writings, 1972-1977. Ed. Colin Gordon. Trans. by Colin Gordon, Leo Marshall, John Mepham, and Kate Soper. New York: Pantheon, 1980. 134-145.
—.”What Is an Author?” The Foucault Reader. Ed. Paul Rabinow. Trans. by Joseu V. Harari. New York: Pantheon, 1984. 10 1120.
Graff, Gerald. Professing Literature: An Institutional History. Chicago: University of Chicago P, 1987.
Lunsford, Andrea. “Cognitive Development and the Basic Writer.” A Sourcebook for Basic Writing Teachers. Ed. Theresa Enos. Manchester, MO: McGraw, 1987. 449-459.
Miller, Susan. Textual Carnivals: The Politics of Composition. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP, 1991.
Murphy, Ann. “Transference and Resistance in the Basic Writing Classroom: Problematics and Praxis.” CCC 40 (1989): 175-187.
Ohmann, Richard. English in America. New York: Oxford, 1976.
Recchio, Thomas E. “A Bakhtinian Reading of Student Writing.” CCC 42 (1991): 446-454.
Shaughnessey, Mina. Errors and Expectations. New York: Oxford UP, 1983.
Shumway, David. Michel Foucault. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia P, 1989.
Sommers, Nancy. “Revision Strategies of Student Writers and Experienced Adult Writers.” A Sourcebook for Basic Writing Teachers. Ed. Theresa Enos. Manchester, MO: McGraw, 1987. 535-544.
Stygall, Gail. “Politics and Proof in Basic Writing.” Journal of Basic Writing 7.2 (1988): 28-41.
Williams, Joseph. “The Phenomenology of Error.” CCC 32 (1981): 152-168.

Herzberg, Bruce. “Community Service and Critical Teaching.” CCC 45.3 (1994): 307-319.


Herzberg argues that questions about social structures, ideology and social justice need to be intentionally addressed in community service learning classes. He critiques first how students often regard social problems as chiefly personal and thus dismiss systemic explanations for problems such as homelessness. Such community service learning results in charity not social change. Herzberg reviews his curriculum at the business school where he works and concludes with a summation of his goal: students as better citizens who practice rhetorical and practical social transformation.


ccc45.3 Students Service Shelter Class Schools Literacy Community Teaching Education Experience ServiceLearning MRose

Works Cited

Bizzell, Patricia. Academic Discourse and Critical Consciousness. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1993. 277-95.
Cotton, Debbie, and Timothy K. Stanton. “Joining Campus and Community through Service Learning.” Community Service as Values Education. Ed. Cecilia 1. Delve et al. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990.
Crooks, Robert. “Service Learning and Cultural Critique: Towards a Model for Activist Expository Writing Courses.” Conference on College Composition and Communication, San Diego, CA, March 1993.
Friedman, Phil. “A Secular Foundation for Ethics: Business Ethics and the Business School.” EDP Auditor Journal 2 (1989): 9-11.
Gablenick, Faith, Jean MacGregor, Robert S. Matthews, and Barbara Leigh Smith, eds. Learning Communities Creating Connections Among Students, Faculty, and Disciplines. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990.
Greco, Norma. “Critical Literacy and Community Service: Reading and Writing the World.” English Journal 81 (1992): 83-85.
Greer, Colin. The Great School Legend: A Revisionist Interpretation of American Public Education. New York: Basic, 1972.
Hairston, Maxine. “Diversity, Ideology, and Teaching Writing.” CCC 43 (1992): 179-93.
Herzberg Bruce. “Composition and the Politics of the Curriculum.” The Politics of Writing Instruction: Postsecondary. Ed. Richard Bullock and John Trimbur. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton, 1991. 97-118.
Kintgen, Eugene R., Barry M. Kroll, and Mike Rose, eds. Perspectives on Literacy. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1988.
Knoblauch, C. H. “Critical Teaching and Dominant Culture.” Composition and Resistance. Ed. C. Mark Hurlbert and Michael Blitz. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton, 1991. 12-21.
Knoblauch, C. H., and Lil Brannon. Critical Teaching and the Idea of Literacy. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton, 1993.
Kozol, Jonathan. Savage Inequalities. New York: Crown, 1991.
Let 100 Flowers Bloom: Community Service Writing Curriculum Materials Developed by the Stanford Freshman English Program. Stanford U, n.d.
Rose, Mike. Lives on the Boundary. New York: Free, 1989.
Spellmeyer, Kurt. “Knowledge Against ‘Knowledge.”’ Composition and Resistance. Ed. C. Mark Hurlbert and Michael Blitz. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton, 1991. 70-80.
Stroud, Susan. “A Report from the Director.” Campus Compact Fall 1992: 3-4.
Zlotkowski, Edward. “Address to the Faculty of Niagara University.” Niagara, NY, April 1993.

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