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College Composition and Communication, Vol. 41, No. 3, October 1990

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Kemp, Fred. Rev. of Creating a Computer-Supported Writing Facility: A Blueprint for Action by Cynthia L. Selfe; Computer Writing Environments: Theory, Research, and Design by Bruce Britton and Shawn M. Glynn. CCC 41.3 (1990): 339-342.

Edwards, Bruce L. Rev. of Critical Perspectives on Computers and Composition Instruction by Gail E. Hawisher and Cynthia L. Selfe. CCC 41.3 (1990): 342-344.

Crowley, Sharon. Rev. of Reclaiming Pedagogy: The Rhetoric of the Classroom by Patricia Donahue and Ellen Quandahl. CCC 41.3 (1990): 344-345.

Gillam, Alice M. Rev. of Audience Expectations and Teacher Demands by Robert Brooke and John Hendricks. CCC 41.3 (1990): 345-347.

Brooke, Robert. Rev. of The Psychology of Writing: The Affective Experience by Alice Glarden Brand. CCC 41.3 (1990): 347-348.

Ranieri, Paul W. Rev. of Coping with Failure: The Therapeutic Uses of Rhetoric by David Payne. CCC 41.3 (1990): 348-349.

Calderonello, Alice Heim. Rev. of Critical Thinking: A Semiotic Perspective by Marjorie Siegel and Robert Carey. CCC 41.3 (1990): 350.

Selzer, Jack. Rev. of Effective Documentation: What We Have Learned from Research by Stephen Doheny-Farina. CCC 41.3 (1990): 350-352.

Burton, Robert S. “Response to Andrea A. Lunsford, ‘Composing Ourselves: Politics, Commitment, and the Teaching of Writing.'” CCC 41.3 (1990): 336-337.

Lunsford, Andrea. “Reply by Andrea Lunsford.” CCC 41.3 (1990): 337-338.

Wyche-Smith, Susan and Shirley K Rose. “One Hundred Ways to Make the Wyoming Resolution a Reality: A Guide to Personal and Political Action.” CCC 41.3 (1990): 318-324.

Sudol, Ronald A. “Principles of Generic Word Processing for Students with Independent Access to Computers.” CCC 41.3 (1990): 325-331.

Slattery, Patrick. “Encouraging Critical Thinking: A Strategy for Commenting on College Papers.” CCC 41.3 (1990): 332-335.

Knox-Quinn, Carolyn. “Collaboration in the Writing Classroom: An Interview with Ken Kesey.” CCC 41.3 (1990): 309-317.


This interview with Ken Kesey, a professor who collaborated with his graduate students on a novel, discusses how found writing collaboration to be an innovative and dynamic way to teach students how to write. Kesey thoroughly describes the structure of his collaborative novel-writing class, explaining his belief that in order to teach writing, the teacher needs to be writing along with the students.


ccc41.3 KKesey People Class Writing Novel Computers Characters Students Collaboration

No works cited.

Sloan, Gary. “Frequency of Errors in Essays by College Freshmen and by Professional Writers.” CCC 41.3 (1990): 299-308.


This article systematically compares the errors in the writing of college freshman and of writing professionals using twenty essays written by first-year composition students and twenty short essays written by professional writers published in the course reader used by the students. The author’s analysis shows that professional writers commit stylistic errors (as defined by handbooks) almost as often as students. This article claims that the superiority of professional writing, compared to typically dry student prose, derives from a richer vocabulary, more intimate knowledge of subject matter, and passion for the topic. The author suggests that student writing can be improved by giving students more stylistic freedom and authentic assignments in which they choose topics, conduct research, and write to a specific audience.


ccc41.3 Error Students ProfessionalWriters Essays Words Authors Frequency Handbooks Verbiage

Works Cited

Beach, Richard. “Self-Evaluation Strategies of Extensive Revisers and Non-Revisers.” CCC 27 (May 1976): 160-64.
Connors, Robert J., and Andrea A. Lunsford. “Frequency of Formal Errors in Current College Writing, or Ma and Pa Kettle Do Research.” CCC39 (Dec. 1988): 395-409.
Elbow, Peter. Writing Without Teachers. London: Oxford, 1973.
Flower, Linda, et al. “Detection, Diagnosis, and the Strategies of Revision.” CCC37 (Feb. 1986): 16-55.
Freedman, Sarah W. “The Registers of Student and Professional Expository Writing: Influences on Teachers’ Responses.” New Directions in Composition Research. Ed. Richard Beach and Lillian S. Bridwell. New York: Guilford, 1984. 334-47.
Hartwell, Patrick. “Grammar, Grammars, and the Teaching of Grammar.” College English 47 (Feb. 1985): 105-27.
Haswell, Richard H. “Error and Change in College Student Writing.” Written Communication 5 (Oct. 1988): 479-99.
Hodges, John C. Harbrace Handbook of English. New York: Harcourt, 1941.
Hunt, Kellogg W. Syntactic Maturity in Schoolchildren and Adults. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1970.
Kline, Charles R., Jr., and W. Dean Memering. “Formal Fragments: The English Minor Sentence.” Research in the Teaching of English 11 (Fall 1977): 97-110.
Meyer, Charles F. A Linguistic Study of American Punctuation. New York: Peter Lang, 1987.
Penfield, Elizabeth. Short Takes: Model Essays for Composition. 2nd ed. Glenview: Scott, 1987.
Rose, Mike. “The Language of Exclusion: Writing Instruction at the University.” College English 45 (Apt. 1985): 341-59.
Sloan, Gary. “The Subversive Effects of an Oral Culture on Student Writing.” CCC 30 (May 1979): 156-60.
Sommers, Nancy. “Revision Strategies of Student Writers and Experienced Adult Writers.” CCC 31 (Dec. 1980): 378-88.
Trimmer, Joseph F., and James M. McCrimmon. Writing With A Purpose. 9th ed. Boston: Houghton, 1988.
Williams, Joseph M. “The Phenomenology of Error.” CCC 32 (May 1981): 152-68.
Witty, Paul A., and Roberta La Brant Green. “Composition Errors of College Students.” English Journal 19 (May 1930): 388-93.

Hull, Glynda and Mike Rose. “‘This Wooden Shack Place’: The Logic of an Unconventional Reading.” CCC 41.3 (1990): 287-298.


This article analyzes a student’s interpretation of a contemporary poem and argues that the student’s unconventional reading is influenced by the student’s history. The student’s explanation of his interpretation of the poem leads the authors to suggest a pedagogy grounded in knowledge-making, especially for underprepared students who might not understand the standard conventions and assumptions of the academic community. This pedagogy emphasizes the importance of face-to-face, student-teacher discussions, even though this more transactive model of classroom discourse requires the teacher to defer to the student and give up some classroom control.


ccc41.3 BraddockAward Reading Students WoodenShacks SearsCatalogue Interpretation Parents Teachers Remedial Reasoning Classrooms

Works Cited

Bartholomae, David, and Anthony Petrosky, eds. Facts, Counterfacts and Artifacts: Theory and Method for a Reading and Writing Course. Upper Montclair: Boynton, 1986.
Hongo, Garrett Kaoru. “And Your Soul Shall Dance.” Yellow Light. Middletown: Wesleyan UP, 1982. 69.
Hull, Glynda, and Mike Rose. “Rethinking Remediation: Toward a Social-Cognitive Understanding of Problematic Reading and Writing.” Written Communication 6 (Apr. 1989): 139-54.
Hull, Glynda, Mike Rose, Kay Losey Fraser, and Marisa Garrett. “The Social Construction of Remediation.” The Tenth Annual Ethnography in Education Forum. University of Pennsylvania, Feb. 1989.
Mehan, Hugh. Learning Lessons. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1979.
Rose, Mike. Lives on the Boundary: The Struggles and Achievements of America’s Underprepared. New York: Free Press, 1989.
—. Writer’s Block: The Cognitive Dimension. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1984.
Salvatori, Mariolina. “Pedagogy: From the Periphery to the Center.” Reclaiming Pedagogy: The Rhetoric of the Classroom. Ed. Patricia Donahue and Ellen Quandahl. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1989. 17-34.
—. “Reading and Writing a Text: Correlations between Reading and Writing Patterns.” College English 45 (Nov. 1983): 657-66.
Shor, Ira. Empowerment: Education for Self and Social Change. (forthcoming).
Tharp, Roland G., and Ronald Gallimore. Rousing Minds to Life. New York: Oxford UP, 1989.

Carter, Michael. “The Idea of Expertise: An Exploration of Cognitive and Social Dimensions of Writing.” CCC 41.3 (1990): 265-286.


In this article, the author lays a foundation for a new, pluralistic theory of writing expertise by collapsing the binary that exists between the two existing and competing theories of writing expertise and instruction: cognitive rhetoric, which emphasizes general, universal knowledge, and social rhetoric, which stresses local knowledge in a particular discourse community. The pluralistic theory of expertise sees expertise as a continuum; it is not only sophisticated local knowledge that marks an expert, but also broad general knowledge that allows the expert to travel through different communities to accumulate additional local knowledge. The author gives suggestions for how to apply his pluralistic theory of expertise to the college writing classroom, including “cognitive apprenticeship,” putting students in authentic, local rhetorical situations, and through scaffolding writing assignments to show students how general good writing principles can be applied in many rhetorical situations.


ccc41.3 Knowledge Writing Strategies Expertise LocalKnowledge Domain Theory Performance Cognitive Social Students Composition Writers Experience Community Experts Research DomainSpecific

Works Cited

Anderson, John R. “Skill Acquisition: Compilation of Weak-Method Problem Solutions.” Psychological Review 94 (April 1987): 192-210.
Bartholomae, David. “Inventing the University.” When a Writer Can’t Write: Studies in Writer’s Block and Other Composing Process Problems. Ed. Mike Rose. New York: Guilford, 1985. 134-65.
Berlin, James. “Rhetoric and Ideology in the Writing Class.” College English 50 (Sept. 1988): 477-94.
Bizzell, Patricia. “Cognition, Convention, and Certainty: What We Need to Know about Writing.” Pre/Text 3 (Fall 1982): 213-43.
Bloom, Benjamin S., and Lois J. Broder. Problem-Solving Processes of College Students. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1950.
Bransford, John, Robert Sherwood, Nancy Vye, and John Rieser. “Teaching Thinking and Problem Solving: Research Foundations.” American Psychologist 41 (Oct. 1986): 1078-89.
Brooks, Larry W., and Donald F. Dansereau. “Transfer of Information: An Instructional Perspective.” Transfer of Learning: Contemporary Research and Applications. Ed. Stephen M. Cormier and Joseph D. Hagman. San Diego: Academic, 1987. 121-51.
Brown, John Seely, Allan Collins, and Paul Duguid. “Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning.” Educational Researcher 18 (Jan./Feb. 1989): 32-42.
Bruffee, Kenneth A. “Social Construction, Language, and the Authority of Knowledge: A Bibliographical Essay.” College English 48 (Dee. 1986): 773-90.
Chase, William G., and Herbert A. Simon. “The Mind’s Eye in Chess.” Visual Information Processing. Ed. William G. Chase. New York: Academic, 1973. 215-81.
Chi, Michelene T.H., Robert Glaser, and Ernest Rees. “Expertise in Problem Solving.” Advances in the Psychology of Human Intelligence. Vol. 1. Ed. Robert J. Sternberg. Hillsdale: Erlbaum, 1982. 7-75.
Cooper, Marilyn, and Michael Holzman. “Talking About Protocols.” CCC 34 (Oct. 1983): 284-94.
deGroot, Adrianus. Thought and Choice in Chess. The Hague: Mouton, 1965.
Dobrin, David N. “Protocols Once More.” College English 48 (Nov. 1986): 713-26.
Dreyfus, Hubert L., and Stuart E. Dreyfus. Mind Over Machine: The Power of Human Intuition and Expertise in the Era of the Computer. New York: Free Press, 1986.
Ernst, George W., and Allen Newell. GPS: A Case Study in Generality and Problem Solving. New York: Academic, 1969.
Faigley, Lester. “Competing Theories of Process: A Critique and a Proposal.” College English 48 (Oct. 1986): 527-42.
Faigley, Lester, and Kristine Hansen. “Learning to Write in the Social Sciences.” College Composition and Communication 36 (May 1985): 140-49.
Flower, Linda. ” Cognition, Context, and Theory Building .” College Composition and Communication 40 (Oct. 1989): 282-311.
—. “The Construction of Purpose in Writing and Reading.” College English 50 (Sept. 1988): 528-50.
Flower, Linda, and John R. Hayes. “The Cognition of Discovery: Defining a Rhetorical Problem.” CCC 31 (Feb. 1980): 21-32.
Geertz, Clifford. Local Knowledge. New York: Basic, 1983.
Glaser, Robert. “All’s Well that Begins and Ends with Both Knowledge and Process: A Reply to Sternberg.” American Psychologist 40 (May 1985): 573-74.
—. “Education and Thinking: The Role of Knowledge.” American Psychologist 39 (Jan. 1984): 93-104.
Hairston, Maxine. “The Winds of Change: Thomas Kuhn and the Revolution in the Teaching of Writing.” College Composition and Communication 33 (Feb. 1982): 76-88.
Hayes, John R. The Complete Problem Solver. Philadelphia: Franklin Institute, 1979.
—. “Three Problems in Teaching General Skills.” Thinking and Learning Skills: Research and Open Questions. Vol. 2. Ed. S.S. Chipman, J.W. Segal, and R. Glaser. Hillsdale: Erlbaum, 1985. 391-406.
Hymes, Dell. Foundations in Sociolinguistics: An Ethnographic Approach. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1974.
Maimon, Elaine P. “Maps and Genres: Exploring Connections in the Arts and Sciences.” Composition and Literature: Bridging the Gap. Ed. Winifred Bryan Horner. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1983. 110-25.
Mayer, Richard E. Thinking, Problem Solving, Cognition. New York: Freeman, 1983.
Moore, Leslie E., and Linda H. Peterson. “Convention as Connection: Linking the Composition Course to the English and College Curriculum.” CCC 37 (Dec. 1986): 466-77.
Newell, Allen, and Herbert A. Simon. Human Problem Solving. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice, 1972.
Nystrand, Martin. “Rhetoric’s ‘Audience’ and Linguistics’ ‘Speech Community’: Implications for Understanding Writing, Reading, and Text.” What Writers Know: The Language, Process, and Structure of Written Discourse. Ed. Martin Nystrand. New York: Academic, 1982. 1-28.
Perkins, D.N., and Gavriel Salomon. “Are Cognitive Skills Context-Bound?” Educational Researcher 18 (Jan./Feb. 1989): 16-25.
Petrosky, Anthony. Rev. of Problem-Solving Strategies for Writing by Linda Flower. CCC 34 (May 1983): 233-35.
Polya, Gyorgy. How to Solve It: A New Aspect of Mathematical Method. 1945. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1948.
Raymond, James c. Writing (Is an Unnatural Act). New York: Harper, 1986.
Reither, James A. “Writing and Knowing: Toward Redefining the Writing Process.” College English 47 (Oct. 1985): 620-28.
Rubinstein, Moshe F. Patterns of Problem Solving. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice, 1975.
Waldrop, M. Mitchell. “Toward a Unified Theory of Cognition.” Science 241 (July 1988): 27-29.
Young, Richard E. “Arts, Crafts, Gifts, and Knacks: Some Disharmonies in the New Rhetoric.” Visible Language 14 (Special Issue 1980): 341-50.
—. “Paradigms and Problems: Needed Research in Rhetorical Invention.” Research in Composing: Points of Departure. Ed. Charles Cooper and Lee Odell. Urbana: NCTE, 1978. 29-47.

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