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College Composition and Communication, Vol. 40, No. 1, February 1989

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Raymond, James C. Rev of The Making of Knowledge in Composition: Portrait of an Emerging Field by Stephen M. North. CCC 40.1 (1989): 93-95.

Larson, Richard L. Rev of The Making of Knowledge in Composition: Portrait of an Emerging Field by Stephen M. North. CCC 40.1 (1989): 95-98.

Lloyd-Jones, Richard. Rev of The Making of Knowledge in Composition: Portrait of an Emerging Field by Stephen M. North. CCC 40.1 (1989): 98-100.

Herrington, Anne J. Rev of How Writing Shapes Thinking: A Study of Teaching and Learning by Judith A. Langer and Arthur N. Applebee. CCC 40.1 (1989): 100-102.

Meyer, Paul R. Rev of Response to Student Writing by Sarah W. Freedman. CCC 40.1 (1989): 102-103.

Lipscomb, Delores. Rev of Sharing Writing: Peer Response Groups in English Classes by Karen Spear. CCC 40.1 (1989): 103-104.

Young, Art. Rev of Improving Student Writing: A Guidebook for Faculty in All Disciplines by Andrew Moss and Carol Holder. CCC 40.1 (1989): 104-105.

Leeson, Lee Ann. “Beyond Process Pedagogy: Making Connections between Classroom Practice and Adult Literacy.” CCC 40.1 (1989): 73-79.

Tinberg, Howard B. “Ethnography in the Writing Classroom.” CCC 40.1 (1989): 79-82.

Schreffler, Peter H. “‘Where All the Children Are above Average’: Garrison Keillor as a Model for Personal Narrative Assignments.” CCC 40.1 (1989): 82-85.

Coon, Anne C. “Using Ethical Questions to Develop Autonomy in Student Researchers.” CCC 40.1 (1989): 85-89.

Seabury, Marcia Bundy. “The Abstraction Ladder in Freshman Composition.” CCC 40.1 (1989): 89-92.

CCCC Committee on Professional Standards for Quality Education. “CCCC Initiatives on the Wyoming Conference Resolution: A Draft Report.” CCC 40.1 (1989): 61-72.


No works cited.

Olson, Gary A. and Joseph M. Moxley. “Directing Freshman Composition: The Limits of Authority.” CCC 40.1 (1989): 51-60.


The two authors conducted a study about the power, position, and responsibilities of writing program administrators by interviewing English department chairs. The survey showed that chairs want WPAs to be accessible and organized, to communicate well with faculty, and to train freshman composition instructors, but that chairs do not normally expect WPAs to assist in the creation of curricular policy. The authors believe that WPAs, as experts in composition and rhetoric, should have full control of the writing programs, act as co-chairs to the English department chair, and not be expected to take on an administrative role until they secure tenure.


ccc40.1 Programs Writing Programs WPA Director FYC Authority Chairs Faculty Departments Administration Control Tenure Policy

Works Cited

Bruffee, Kenneth A. “The WPA as (Journal) Writer: What the Record Reveals.” WPA: Writing Program Administration 9.1-2 (Fall-Winter 1985): 5-10.
CCCC Committee on Professional Guidance to Departments and Faculty. “Draft Statement of Professional Guidance to Junior Faculty and Department Chairs.” CCC 38 (December 1987): 493-97.
Connolly, Paul, and Teresa Vilardi. New Methods in College Writing Programs: Theories in Practice. New York: MLA, 1986.
Hairston, Maxine. “Some Speculations about the Future of Writing Programs.” WPA: Writing Program Administration 11. 3 (Spring 1988): 9-16.
Hatzog, Carol P. Composition and the Academy: A Study of Writing Program Administration. New York: MLA, 1986.
—-. “Freshman English 1984: Politics and Administrative Process.” WPA: Writing Program Administration 8.1-2 (Fall-Winter 1984): 7-15.
Polin, Linda G., and Edward M. White. “Speaking Frankly: Writing Program Administrators Look at Instructional Goals and Faculty Retraining.” WPA: Writing Program Administration 9.1-2 (Fall-Winter 1985): 19-30.
Robertson, Linda R., Sharon Crowley, and Frank Lentricchia. “The Wyoming Conference Resolution Opposing Unfair Salaries and Working Conditions for Post-Secondary Teachers of Writing.” College English 49 (March 1987): 274-80.

Bartholomae, David. “Freshman English, Composition, and CCCC.” CCC 40.1 (1989): 38-50.


In this article, the 1988 CCCC Chair’s Address, the author uses compares the two opening talks of the first CCCC convention to show how the convention struggled to redefine English and the first-year composition course. He reflects on the terms communication, composition, and conference to get a sense of where the field is now and what it could become in the future, stating that he is wary of calls for the creation of disciplinary boundaries in the field that could limit one of the field’s strengths, its diversity of interests and willingness to accept new ideas.


ccc40.1 ChairsAddress Composition CCCC FYC English Organization Literature Students Communication Language History Field Conferences Courses NCTE RWeaver JMcCrimmon

No works cited.

Dean, Terry. “Multicultural Classrooms, Monocultural Teachers.” CCC 40.1 (1989): 23-37.


This article challenges teachers of writing to acquire a wider knowledge of the cultures and histories of their individual students, citing that instructors who are sensitive to their students’ cultural diversity are better able to equip them with the knowledge they need to succeed at the university. The author describes theoretical models for multicultural classrooms and offers several teaching exercises and strategies to use for the purpose of raising issues of cultural diversity in the college composition classroom.


ccc40.1 Culture Students Home Schools Groups Mainstream University HomeCulture Multiculturalism Classrooms Identity Campus Family Teachers RRodriguez Minority Diversity

Works Cited

Bartholomae, David. “Inventing the University.” When a Writer Can’t Write. Ed. Mike Rose. New York: Guilford, 1985. 134-65.
Bizzell, Patricia. “What Happens When Basic Writers Come to College?” CCC 37 (October 1986): 294-301.
Bourdieu, Pierre, and Jean-Claude Passeron. The Inheritors: French Students and Their Relation to Culture. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1979.
Cummins, James. “Empowering Minority Students: A Framework for Intervention.” Harvard Educational Review 56 (February 1986): 18-36.
Fleming, Jacqueline. Blacks in College: A Comparative Study of Students’ Success in Black and in White Institutions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1985.
Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum, 1982.
—. The Politics of Education: Culture, Power, and Liberation. South Hadley, MA: Bergin & Garvey, 1985.
Geertz, Clifford. Local Knowledge. New York: Basic Books, 1983.
Groden, Suzy, Eleanor Kutz, and Vivian Zamel. “Students as Ethnographers: Investigating Language Use as a Way to Learn Language.” The Writing Instructor 6 (Spring-Summer 1987): 132-40.
Heath, Shirley Brice. Ways with Words: Language, Life, and Work in Communities and Classrooms. New York: Cambridge UP, 1983.
Holzman, Michael. “The Social Context of Literacy Education.” College English 48 (January 1986): 27-33.
Mitchell, Jacquelyn. “Reflections of a Black Social Scientist: Some Struggles, Some Doubts, Some Hopes.” Harvard Educational Review 52 (February 1982): 27-44.
Ogbu, John. The Next Generation: An Ethnography of Education in an Urban Neighborhood. New York: Academic Press, 1974.
Olson, Carol Booth, ed. Practical Ideas for Teaching Writing as a Process. Sacramento: California State Department of Education, 1986.
Petrie, Loretta. “Pulling Together the Multicultural Composition Class.” CCCC Convention. New Orleans, March 1986.
Philips, Susan Urmston. The Invisible Culture: Communication in the Classroom and Community on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation. New York: Longman, 1983.
The Puente Project: Building Bridges. Berkeley: Bay Area Writing Project, 1985.
Rodriguez, Richard. Hunger of Memory. Boston: Bantam Books, 1982.
Steinberg, Stephen. The Ethnic Myth: Race, Ethnicity, and Class in America. New York: Atheneum, 1981.
Wauters, Joan. “Non-Confrontational Critiquing Pairs: An Alternative to Verbal Peer Response Groups.” The Writing Instructor 7 (Spring/Summer 1988): 156-66.

Harris, Joseph. “The Idea of Community in the Study of Writing.” CCC 40.1 (1989): 11-22.


This article argues against the idea of a coherent, unified academic discourse community and suggests that creating a binary between the language of the university and the language of students makes it difficult for scholars to talk about how or why people would move between these two communities. The author proposes that teachers of writing show students that adopting an additional discourse community does not cancel out their previous discourse community; rather, it only adds another layer of complexity to their use of language, and students should be taught to be conscious of and value the competing discourses that make up their own unique voice. The author also urges others in the field of composition to be aware of the conflicting discourses within the university community and suggests using community to refer to specific and local groups instead of broader ones.


ccc40.1 BraddockAward Community Discourse Writing Students University Language DBartholomae DiscourseCommunities Beliefs AcademicDiscourse RWilliams PublicLanguage

Works Cited

Barthes, Roland. S/Z. Trans. Richard Miller. New York: Hill, 1974.
Bartholomae, David. “Inventing the University.” When a Writer Can’t Write. Ed. Mike Rose. New York, Guilford, 1985. 134-65.
Bartholomae, David, and Anthony Petrosky. Facts, Artifacts, and Counterfacts: Theory and Method for a Reading and Writing Course . Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook, 1986.
Bazerman, Charles. “Some Difficulties in Characterizing Social Phenomena in Writing.” Conference on College Composition and Communication. Atlanta, March 1987.
Bizzell, Patricia. “Foundationalism and Anti-Foundationalism in Composition Studies.” Pre/Text 7 (Spring/Summer 1986): 37-57.
—. “What is a Discourse Community?” Penn State Conference on Rhetoric and Composition. University Park, July 1987.
Brodkey, Linda. Academic Writing as Social Practice. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1987.
Bruffee, Kenneth A. “Collaborative Learning and the ‘Conversation of Mankind.'” College English 46 (November 1984): 635-52.
Coles, Nicholas. “Raymond Williams: Writing Across Borders.” Conference on College Composition and Communication. St. Louis, March 1988.
Fish, Stanley. Is There a Text in This Class? Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1980.
—. “Change.” South Atlantic Quarterly 86 (Fall 1987): 423-44.
Herzberg, Bruce. “The Politics of Discourse Communities.” Conference on College Composition and Communication. New Orleans, March 1986.
Hirsch, E. D., Jr. Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know. Boston: Houghton, 1987.
Hymes, Dell. Foundations in Sociolinguistics: An Ethnographic Approach. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1974.
Lu, Min-zhan. “Teaching the Conventions of Academic Discourse: Structures of Feeling.” Conference on College Composition and Communication. St. Louis, March 1988.
Myers, Greg. “The Social Construction of Two Biologists’ Proposals.” Written Communication 2 (July 1985): 219-45.
Porter, James. “Intertextuality and the Discourse Community.” Rhetoric Review 5 (Fall 1986): 34-47.
Pratt, Mary Louise. “Interpretive Strategies/Strategic Interpretations: On Anglo-American Reader Response Criticism.” Boundary 2 11.1-2 (Fall/Winter 1982-83): 201-31.
Robbins, Bruce. “Professionalism and Politics: Toward Productively Divided Loyalties.” Profession 85: 1-9.
Rodriguez, Richard. Hunger of Memory. Boston: Godine, 1981.
Schilb, John. “When Bricolage Becomes Theory: The Hazards of Ignoring Ideology.” Midwest Modern Language Association. Chicago, November 1986.
Swales, John. “Approaching the Concept of Discourse Community.” Conference on College Composition and Communication. Atlanta, March 1987.
Williams, Raymond. Second Generation. New York: Horizon, 1964.
—. The Country and the City. New York: Oxford UP, 1973.
—. Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. New York: Oxford UP, 1976.
—. Marxism and Literature. New York: Oxford UP, 1977.

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