Johnson, David. “Review Essay: Defining Dialect.” Rev. of American Voices: How Dialects Differ from Coast to Coast, Walt Wolfram and Ben Ward, eds.; Do You Speak American? By Robert MacNeil and William Cran; and A Teachers’ Introduction to African American English: What a Writing Teacher Should Know by Teresa M. Redd and Karen Schuster. CCC 59.3 (2008): 548-556.
- Baugh, John. Beyond Ebonics: Linguistic Pride and Racial Prejudice . Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000.
- Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman, and Nina Hyams. An Introduction to Language. Boston: Heinle, 2000.
- McWhorter, John. Doing Our Own Thing: The Degradation of Language and Music and Why We Should, Like, Care . New York: Gotham Books, 2003.
- Preston, Denis. “They Speak Bad English Down South and in New York City.” Language Myths. Ed. Laurie Bauer and Peter Trudgill. London: Penguin Books, 1998. 139-49.
Wilson, Nancy Effinger. “Review Essay: The Literacies of Hip-Hop.” Rev. of Roc the Mic Right: The Language of Hip Hop Culture by H. Samy Alim; “Getting’ Our Groove On”: Rhetoric, Language, and Literacy for the Hip Hop Generation by Kermit E. Campbell; Hiphop Literacies by Elaine Richardson; and Word from the Mother: Language and African Americans by Geneva Smitherman. CCC 59.3 (2008): 538-547.
- Rickford, John Russell, and Russell John Rickford. Spoken Soul: The Story of Black English. New York: Wiley, 2000.
- Schneider, Stephen. “Freedom Schooling: Stokely Carmichael and Critical Rhetorical Education.” CCC 58 (2006): 46-69.
Elbow, Peter. “Coming to See Myself as a Vernacular Intellectual: Remarks at the 2007 CCCC General Session on Receiving the Exemplar Award.” CCC 59.3 (2008): 519-524.
- Farred, Grant. What’s My Name? Black Vernacular Intellectuals. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2003.
- Gere, Anne Ruggles. Writing Groups: History, Theory, and Implications . Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1987.
- Harris, Joe. A Teaching Subject: Composition since 1966. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.
- Kynard, Carmen. “‘I Want to Be African’: In Search of a Black Radical Tradition/ African-American-Vernacularized Paradigm for ‘Students’ Right to Their Own Language,’ Critical Literacy, and ‘Class Politics.'” College English 69 (March 2007): 360-90.
White, Ed. “My Five-Paragraph-Theme Theme.” CCC 59.3 (2008): 524-525.
No works cited.
Kennedy, Kristen. “The Fourth Generation.” CCC 59.3 (2008): 525-537.
- American Federation of Teachers. The Growth of Full-Time Nontenure-Track Faculty: Challenges for the Union . N.p.: AFT Higher Education, 2003.
- Green, Daniel. “Abandoning the Ruins.” College English 63 (2001): 273-87.
- Lusin, Natalia. “Question on Hiring Trends.” Email to author. 15 April 2007.
- McLemee, Scott. “The ‘New Theory Wars’ Break Out in an Unlikely Discipline.” Chronicle of Higher Education 49.28 (21 March 2003): A16. <http://chronicle. com/free/v49/i28/28a01601.htm>.
- Micciche, Laura. “More Than a Feeling: Disappointment and WPA Work.” College English 64 (2002): 432-58.
- Miller, Richard E. “Our Future Donors.” College English. 66 (2004): 365-79.
- Modern Language Association. Committee on Professional Employment. “Final Report of the MLA Committee on Professional Employment.” ADE Bulletin 119 (Spring 1998): 27-45. <http:// www.mla.org >. Path: Professional Resources; Reports and Documents; Reports from MLA Committee on Professional Employment; Final Report.
- “Policy Board Minutes.” 13 October 2004. Email to full-time faculty association at unnamed university. 12 November 2004.
- Spellmeyer, Kurt. “Education for Irrelevance? Or, Joining Our Colleagues in Lit Crit on the Sidelines of the Information Age.” Composition Studies in the New Millennium: Rereading the Past, Rewriting the Future . Ed. Lynn Z. Bloom, Donald A. Daiker, and Edward M. White. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2003. 78-87.
- Stygall, Gail. “At the Century’s End: The Job Market in Rhetoric and Composition.” Rhetoric Review 18.2 (2000): 375-89.
- Trimbur, John. Press release for Under Construction: Working at the Intersections of Composition Theory, Research, and Practice . Ed. Christine Farris and Chris M. Anson. 9 June 2005 <http:// www.usu.edu/usupress/individl/under.htm>.
- Welch, Kathleen. “Compositionality, Rhetoricity, and Electricity: A Partial History of Some Composition and Rhetoric Studies.” Enculturation 5.1 (Fall 2003): <http://enculturation.gmu.edu/5_1/welch.html>.
- Yancey, Kathleen Blake. “Made Not Only in Words: Composition in a New Key.” CCC 56 (2004): 297-328.
Abraham, Matthew. “Defining Academic Freedom.” CCC 59.3 (2008): 512-518.
No works cited.
Miles, Libby, et al. “Thinking Vertically.'” CCC 59.3 (2008): 503-511.
- Downs, Douglas, and Elizabeth Wardle. “Teaching about Writing, Righting Misconceptions: (Re) Envisioning ‘First- Year Composition’ as ‘Introduction to Writing Studies.'” CCC 58.4 (2007): 552-84.
- Fulkerson, Richard. “Composition at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century.” CCC 56.4 (2005): 654-87.
- —. “Response.” CCC 57.4 (2006): 757-62.
- Harris, Joseph. A Teaching Subject: Composition since 1966 . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice, 1997.
- L’Eplattenier, Barbara, and Lisa Mastrangelo, eds. Historical Studies of Writing Program Administration: Individuals, Communities, and the Formation of a Discipline . West Lafayette, IN: Parlor P, 2004.
- Mastrangelo, Lisa, and Barbara L’Eplattenier, “‘Is It the Pleasure of This Conference to Have Another?’ Women’s College Meeting and Talking about Writing in the Progressive Era.” L’Eplattenier and Mastrangelo, 117-43.
- Rose, Shirley K. “Representing the Intellectual Work of Writing Program Administration: Professional Narratives of George Wykoff at Purdue, 1933- 1967”. L’Eplattenier and Mastrangelo, 221-39.
- Shamoon, Linda, Rebecca Moore Howard, Sandra Jamieson, and Robert A. Schwegler. Coming of Age: The Advanced Writing Curriculum . Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook-Heinemann, 2000.
Raymond, Richard C. “When Writing Professors Teach Literature: Shaping Questions, Finding Answers, Effecting Change.” CCC 59.3 (2008): 473-502.
The article explores writing-centered pedagogies that deepen student learning in literature survey courses. More broadly, the article also responds to Richard Fulkerson and Maureen Daly Goggin, who challenge professors of English studies to find disciplinary unity within the diverse epistemologies of rhetoric.
- Bazerman, Charles. “A Rhetoric for Literate Society: The Tension between Expanding Practices and Restricted Theories.” Goggin 5-28.
- Bernstein, Charles. “‘A Blow Is Like an Instrument’: The Poetic Imaginary and Curricular Practices.” Downing, Hurlbert, and Mathieu 39-51.
- Bizzell, Patricia. “The Intellectual Work of ‘Mixed’ Forms of Academic Discourses.” Schroeder, Fox, and Bizzell 1-10.
- Booth, Wayne. The Rhetoric of Fiction . Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1961.
- Booth, Wayne, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams. The Craft of Research. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1995.
- Collins, Daniel. “The Great Work: Recomposing Vocationalism and the Community College Curriculum.” Downing, Hurlbert, and Mathieu 194- 203.
- Donoghue, Denis. “The Practice of Reading.” What’s Happened to the Humanities? Ed. Alvin Kernan. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1997. 122-40.
- Downing, David B. “Beyond Disciplinary English: Integrating Reading and Writing by Reforming Academic Labor.” Downing, Hurlbert, and Mathieu 23-38.
- Downing, David B., Claude Mark Hurlbert, and Paula Mathieu, eds. Beyond English Inc.: Curricular Reform in a Global Economy . Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2002.
- Elbow, Peter. “The Culture of Literature and Composition: What Could Each Learn from the Other?” College English 64 (2002): 533-46.
- Fulkerson, Richard. “Composition at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century.” CCC 56 (2005): 654-87.
- Goggin, Maureen Daly. Inventing a Discipline: Rhetoric Scholarship in Honor of Richard E. Young . Urbana, IL: NCTE, 2000.
- Graves, Richard. “What I Learned from Verle Barnes: The Exploratory Self in Writing.” Rhetoric and Composition: A Sourcebook for Teachers and Writers . Ed. Richard Graves. 3rd ed. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1990. 132-36.
- Greene, Stuart, and Rebecca Schoenike Nowacek. “Can Writing Be Taught? Being ‘Explicit’ in the Teaching and Learning of Writing Across the Curriculum.” Goggin 334-72.
- Harris, Joseph. “Revision as Critical Practice.” College English 65 (2003): 577-92.
- Hemmeter, Tom. “Writing Programs as Phenomenological Communities.” The Writing Program Administrator as Theorist: Making Knowledge Work . Ed. Shirley K. Rose and Irwin Weiser. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2002. 29-41.
- Inkster, Robert. “Rhetoric and the Ecology of the Noosphere.” Goggin 109-22.
- Kremer, Belinda. “So It Was This Beautiful Night: Infecting the Hybrid.” Schroeder, Fox, and Bizzell 97-111.
- kynard, carmen. “‘New Life in This Dormant Creature’: Notes on Social Consciousness, Language, and Learning in a College Classroom.” Schroeder, Fox, and Bizzell 31-44.
- Lan, Haixia. “Contrastive Rhetoric: A Must in Cross-Cultural Inquiries.” Schroeder, Fox, and Bizzell 68-79.
- Lauter, Paul, et al., eds. The Heath Anthology of American Literature . 3rd ed. Vol. 2. Boston: Houghton, 1998.
- Major, Claire H. “Problem-Based Learning in General Education at Samford University: A Case Study of Changing Faculty Culture through Targeted Improvement Efforts.” Journal of General Education 51.4 (2002): 235-56.
- Matsuda, Paul Kei. “Alternative Discourses: A Synthesis.” Schroeder, Fox, and Bizzell 191-96.
- Mauk, Johnathon. “Location, Location, Location: The ‘Real’ (E)states of Being, Writing, and Thinking in Composition.” College English 65 (2003): 368-88.
- Minter, Deborah, and Amy M. Goodburn. Composition, Pedagogy, and the Scholarship of Teaching. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 2002.
- Mirtz, Ruth M. “Teaching Statements and Teaching Selves.” Minter and Goodburn 43-53.
- Ohmann, Richard. “Accountability and the Conditions for Curricular Change.” Downing, Hurlbert, and Mathieu 62-73.
- Owens, Derek. “Curriculum for Seven Generations.” Downing, Hurlbert, and Mathieu 118-38.
- Petraglia, Joseph. “Shaping Sophisticates: Implications of the Rhetorical Turn for Rhetoric Education.” Goggin 80-104.
- Pirsig, Robert M. Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry into Values . New York: Morrow, 1974.
- Raymond, Richard C. “Rhetoricizing English Studies: Students’ Ways of Reading Oleanna.” Pedagogy 3.1 (2003): 53-71.
- —. “Shaping Consensus from Difference: Administering Writing Programs in Departments of Writing and English.” Writing Program Administration 25.2 (Winter 2001): 45-58.
- —. Teaching American Literature at an East European University: Explicating the Rhetoric of Liberty. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press, 2006.
- Royster, Jacqueline Jones. “Academic Discourses or Small Boats on a Big Sea.” Schroeder, Fox, and Bizzell 23-30.
- Savery, Pancho. ” ‘No Chains around My Feet, But I’m Not Free’: Race and the Western Classics in a Liberal Arts College.” Downing, Hurlbert, and Mathieu 93-106.
- Schroeder, Christopher, Helen Fox, and Patricia Bizzell, eds. ALT DIS: Alternative Discourses and the Academy . Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook- Heinemann, 2002.
- Seitz, James E. “Changing the Program(s): English Department Curricula in the Contemporary Research University.” Downing, Hurlbert, and Mathieu 151- 63.
- Spooner, Michael. “An Essay We’re Learning to Read: Responding to Alt.Style.” Schroeder, Fox, and Bizzell 155-77.
- Villanueva, Victor. Bootstraps: From an American Academic of Color . Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1993.
- Watson, Sam. “WAC, WHACK: You’re an Expert: NOT!” Goggin 319-33.
Kroll, Barry M. “Arguing with Adversaries: Aikido, Rhetoric, and the Art of Peace.” CCC 59.3 (2008): 451-472.
The Japanese martial art of aikido affords a framework for understanding argument as harmonization rather than confrontation. Two movements, circling away (tenkan) and entering in (irimi), suggest tactics for arguing with adversaries. The ethical imperative of aikido involves protecting one’s adversary from harm, using the least force necessary, and, when possible, transforming aggression into cooperation.
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- Dao de jing: “Making This Life Significant .” Trans. with commentary by Roger T. Ames and David L. Hall. New York: Ballantine, 2003.
- Dobson, Terry, and Victor Miller. Aikido in Everyday Life: Giving In to Get Your Way. 2nd ed. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic, 1993.
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- Fontaine, Sheryl. “Teaching with the Beginner’s Mind: Notes from My Karate Journal.” CCC 54 (2002): 208-21.
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- Gleason, William. The Spiritual Foundations of Aikido . Rochester, VT: Destiny, 1995.
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- —. “Broadening the Repertoire: Alternatives to the Argumentative Edge.” Composition Studies 28 (2000): 11-27.
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Danielewicz, Jane. “Personal Genres, Public Voices.” CCC 59.3 (2008): 420-450.
Writing in personal genres, like autobiography, leads writers to public voices. Public voice is a discursive quality of a text that conveys the writer’s authority and position relative to others. To show how voice and authority depend on genre, I analyze the autobiographies of two writers who take opposing positions on the same topic. By producing texts in genres with recognizable social functions, student writers gain agency.
- Bawarshi, Anis. Genre and the Invention of the Writer: Reconsidering the Place of Invention in Composition. Logan, UT: Utah State UP, 2003.
- Bazerman, Charles. “The Life of Genre, the Life in the Classroom.” Genre and Writing: Issues, Arguments, Alternatives . Ed. Wendy Bishop and Hans Ostrom. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook- Heinemann, 1997. 19-26.
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- Bowden, Darsie. The Mythology of Voice . Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1999.
- Brandt, Deborah, et al. “The Politics of the Personal: Storying Our Lives against the Grain.” College English 64 (2001): 41-62.
- Brodkey, Linda. Writing Permitted in Designated Areas Only . Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1996.
- College English 64.1 (2001). “Special Focus: Personal Writing.”
- Couture, Barbara, and Thomas Kent, eds. The Private, the Public, and the Published: Reconciling Private Lives and Public Rhetoric . Logan: Utah State UP, 2004.
- Devitt, Amy J. Writing Genres . Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2004.
- Dubrow, Heather. Genre. London: Methuen, 1982.
- Eakin, Paul John. How Our Lives Become Stories: Making Selves . Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1999.
- Elbow, Peter. “Can Personal Expressive Writing Do the Work of Academic Writing?” Everyone Can Write: Essays toward a Hopeful Theory of Writing and Teaching Writing . NY: Oxford UP, 2000. 315-18.
- Elbow, Peter, ed. Landmark Essays on Voice and Writing . Mahwah, NJ: Hermagoras P, 1994.
- Elbow, Peter. “On the Concept of Voice.” Everyone Can Write: Essays toward a Hopeful Theory of Writing and Teaching Writing . New York: Oxford UP, 2000. 222-23.
- Elbow, Peter. “What Do We Mean When We Talk about Voice in Texts?” Voices on Voice: Perspectives, Definitions, Inquiry . Ed. Kathleen Blake Yancey. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1994. 1-35.
- Ellis, Carolyn, and Arthur P. Bochner. “Autoethnography, Personal Narrative, Reflexivity: Researcher as Subject.” Handbook of Qualitative Research. Ed. Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2000. 733-68.
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- Freisinger, Randall R. “Voicing the Self: Toward a Pedagogy of Resistance in a Postmodern Age.” Voices on Voice . Ed. Kathleen Blake Yancey. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1994. 242-74.
- Fulkerson, Richard. “Summary and Critique: Composition at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century.” CCC 56 (2005): 654-87.
- Harris, Joseph. A Teaching Subject: Composition since 1966 . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.
- Holdstein, Deborah H., and David Bleich, eds. Personal Effects: The Social Character of Scholarly Writing . Logan: Utah State UP, 2001.
- Kamler, Barbara. Relocating the Personal: A Critical Writing Pedagogy . Albany: State U of New York P, 2001.
- Lee, Amy. Composing Critical Pedagogies: Teaching Writing as Revision . Urbana, IL: NCTE, 2000.
- Lionnet, Franï¿½oise. “Autoethnography: The An-Archic Style of Dust Tracks on a Road.” Reading Black, Reading Feminist . Ed. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. New York: Meridian, 1990. 382-413.
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- Paley, Karen Surman. I-Writing: The Politics and Practice of Teaching First-Person Writing . Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2001.
- Pratt, Mary Louise. “Arts of the Contact Zone.” Profession 91 (1991): 33-40.
- Richardson, Laurel. “Writing: A Method of Inquiry.” Handbook of Qualitative Research. Ed. Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna S. Lincoln. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2000. 923-48.
- Roorbach, Bill. Writing Life Stories . Cincinnati, OH: Story P, 1998.
- Smith, Sidonie. “Autobiographical Manifestos.” Women, Autobiography, Theory: A Reader. Ed. Sidonie Smith and Julia Watson. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1998. 433-40.
- Weisser, Christian R. Moving beyond Academic Discourse: Composition Studies and the Public Sphere . Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2002.
- Weisser, Christian R. “Public Writing and Rhetoric.” The Private, the Public, and the Published. Ed. Barbara Couture and Thomas Kent. Logan: Utah State UP, 2004. 230-248.
- Yancey, Kathleen Blake, ed. Voices on Voice: Perspectives, Definitions, Inquiry . Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1994.
- Young, Iris Marion. Justice and the Politics of Difference . Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1990.
Ortmeier-Hooper, Christina. “English May Be My Second Language, but I’m Not ‘ESL'”. CCC 59.3 (2008): 389-419.
In this essay, I present three case studies of immigrant, first-year students, as they negotiate their identities as second language writers in mainstream composition classrooms. I argue that such terms as “ESL” and “Generation 1.5” are often problematic for students and mask a wide range of student experiences and expectations.
- Bartholomae, David. “The Tidy House: Basic Writing in the American Curriculum.” Journal of Basic Writing 12.1(1993): 4-21.
- Belcher, Diane, and Alan Hirvela, eds. Voice in L2 Writing. Spec. issue of Journal of Second Language Writing 10 (2001): 3- 33.
- Blanton, Linda Lonon. “Classroom Instruction and Language Minority Students: On Teaching to ‘Smarter’ Readers and Writers.” Harklau, Losey, and Siegal 119-42.
- Bosher, Susan, and Jenise Rowecamp. “Language Proficiency and Academic Success: The Refugee/Immigrant in Higher Education.” Paper presented at the University of Minnesota. Minneapolis. 1 April 1992.
- Brooke, Robert E. Writing and Sense of Self: Identity Negotiation in Writing Workshops. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1991.
- Chiang, Yuet-Sim D., and Mary Schmida. “Language Identity and Language Ownership: Linguistic Conflicts of First- Year University Writing Students.” Harklau, Losey, and Siegal 81-96.
- Conference on College Composition and Communication. “CCCC Statement on Second Language Writers and Writing.” CCC 52 (2001): 669-74.
- Harklau, Linda. “From High School to College: English Language Learners and Shifting Literacy Demands.” Keynote address presented at the 10th Biennial Composition Studies Conference. University of New Hampshire, Durham. October 2004.
- Harklau, Linda, Kay M. Losey, and Meryl Siegal, eds. Generation 1.5 Meets College Composition: Issues in the Teaching of Writing to U.S.-Educated Learners of ESL . Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1999.
- Harklau, Linda, Meryl Siegal, and Kay M. Losey. “Linguistically Diverse Students and College Writing: What Is Equitable and Appropriate?” Harklau, Losey, and Siegal 81-96.
- Hinkel, Eli. “Re: ESL, ELL, or NNS.” 11 June 2004. Online posting. Second Language Writing at CCCC. 11 June 2004. <SLW.CCCC@lists.unh.edu>.
- Horner, Bruce. “Introduction: Cross- Language Relations in Composition.” Cross-Language Relations in Composition. Spec. issue of College English 68 (2006): 569-73.
- Ivanic, Roz. Writing and Identity: The Discoursal Construction of Identity in Academic Writing. Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1998.
- Ivanic, Roz, and David Camps. “I Am How I Sound: Voice as Self-representation in L2 Writing.” Journal of Second Language Writing 10 (2001): 3-33.
- Leki, Ilona. “‘Pretty Much I Screwed Up’: Ill- Served Needs of a Permanent Resident.” Harklau, Losey, and Siegal 17-43.
- Matsuda, Paul Kei. “The Myth of Linguistic Homogeneity in U.S. College Composition.” Cross-Language Relations in Composition. Spec. issue of College English 68 (2006): 637-51.
- Newkirk, Thomas. The Performance of Self in Student Writing . Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1997.
- Reid, Joy. “‘Eye’ Learners and ‘Ear’ Learners: Identifying the Language Needs of International Students and U.S. Resident Writers.” Grammar in the Composition Classroom: Essays on Teaching ESL for College-Bound Students. Ed. Patricia Byrd and Joy M. Reid. New York: Heinle and Heinle, 1998: 3-17.
- Rumbaut, Ruben G., and Kenji Ima. “The Adaptation of Southeast Asian Refugee Youth: A Comparative Study. Final Report to the Office of Resettlement.” San Diego, CA: San Diego State University, 1988.
- Schwartz, Gwen Gray. “Coming to Terms: Generation 1.5 Students in Mainstream Composition.” Reading Matrix 4.3 (November 2004): 40-57. 24 Jul. 2005 <http://www.readingmatrix.com/ articles/schwartz/article.pdf>.
- Starfield, Sue. “‘I’m a Second-Language English Speaker’: Negotiating Writer Identity and Authority in Sociology One.” Journal of Language, Identity, and Education 1 (2002): 121-40.
- United States Department of Education, Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students (OELA). English Language Learners and the U.S. Census, 1990-2000 . Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 2002. 24 Oct. 2007 <http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/ policy/states/ellcensus90s.pdf>.
Eubanks, Philip and John D. Schaeffer. “A Kind Word for Bullshit: The Problem of Academic Writing.” CCC 59.3 (2008): 372-388.
The phrase “academic bullshit” presents compositionists with a special dilemma. Because compositionists study, teach, and produce academic writing, they are open to the accusation that they both tolerate and perpetuate academic bullshit. We argue that confronting this problem must begin with a careful definition of “bullshit” and “academic bullshit.” In contrast to Harry Frankfurt’s checklist method of definition, we examine “bullshit” as a graded category. We suggest that some varieties of academic bullshit may be both unavoidable and beneficial.
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- Fairclough, Norman. Discourse and Social Change . Cambridge, UK: Polity, 1992.
- Frankfurt, Harry G. On Bullshit . Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2005.
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- Lanham, Richard A. Revising Prose . 5th ed. New York: Pearson Longman, 2007.
- Lave, Jean, and Etienne Wenger. Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1991.
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- Neel, Jasper. Plato, Derrida, and Writing . Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1988.
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- Penny, Laura. Your Call Is Important to Us: The Truth about Bullshit . New York: Crown, 2005.
- Perry, William. “Examsmanship and the Liberal Arts.” The Dolphin Reader. Ed. Douglas Hunt. 6th ed. Boston: Houghton, 2003. 60-71.
- Secor, Marie, and Lynda Walsh. “A Rhetorical Perspective on the Sokal Hoax: Genre, Style, and Context.” Written Communication 21.1 (2004): 69-91.
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