Barron, Nancy G. Rev. of The Best for Our Children: Critical Perspectives on Literacy for Latino Students . MarÃa de la Luz Reyes and John J. HalcÃ³n, eds. CCC. 54.3 (2003): 494-498.
Olson, Gary A. Rev. of The Writing Program Administrator As Theorist: Making Knowledge Work . Shirley Rose and Irwin Weiser, eds. CCC. 54.3 (2003): 499-502.
Latterell, Catherine G. Rev. of A Guide to Composition Pedagogies. Gary Tate, Amy Rupiper, and Kurt Schick, eds. CCC. 54.3 (2003): 502-505.
McKee, Heidi. “Interchanges: Changing the Process of Institutional Review Board Compliance.” CCC. 54.3 (2003): 488-493.
Young, Art. “Writing Across and Against the Curriculum.” CCC. 54.3 (2003): 472-485.
After reviewing my career as a teacher of composition and literature and as a writing program administrator of writing across the curriculum, I discuss the potential of poetry across the curriculum as an important tool for writing “against” the curriculum of academic discourse. When they write poetry, students often express meaningful thoughts and emotions not readily available to them in disciplinary languages and contexts.
ccc54.3 Writing Students WAC Poetry Language Curriculum Literature CCCC Experience Composition AcademicWriting
- Britton, James. Language and Learning , 2nd. ed. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/ Cook, 1993.
- Britton, James, Tony Burgess, Nancy Martin, Alex McLeod, and Harold Rosen . The Development of Writing Abilities (11-18) . London: Macmillan Education, 1975.
- Fulwiler, Toby, and Art Young. Language Connections: Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1982. Young, Art. Shelley and Nonviolence. The Hague: Mouton, 1975.
- —. “Technical Communications and Freshman Composition.” The Technical Writing Teacher 1.1 (1973): 10-14.
Rice, Jeff. “The 1963 Hip-Hop Machine: Hip-Hop Pedagogy As Composition.” CCC. 54.3 (2003): 453-471.
This essay proposes an alternative invention strategy for research-based argumentative writing. By investigating the coincidental usage of the term “whatever” in hip-hop, theory, and composition studies, the essay proposes a whatever-pedagogy identified as “hip-hop pedagogy,” a writing practice that models itself after digital sampling’s rhetorical strategy of juxtaposition.
ccc54.3 Composition Writing HipHop Pedagogy Music Power Students Critique RBarthes Image Culture Discourse Students Invention Whatever
- Baker, Houston. “Hybridity, the Rap Race, and Pedagogy for the 1990s.” Black Music Research Journal 11 (2) Fall 1991.
- Baldwin, James. The Fire Next Time . New York: The Modern Library, 1963.
- Baraka, Amiri. Black Music. New York: W. Morrow, 1967.
- —. Blues People: Negro Music in White America . New York: William Morrow and Co., 1963.
- Barthes, Roland. Camera Lucida . New York: Hill and Wang, 1981.
- Beastie Boys. Paul’s Boutique . Capitol Records, 1989.
- Bennett, Leronne, Jr. The Black Mood and Other Essays . New York: Barnes & Noble, 1964 (1963).
- Booker, Simeon. Black Man’s America . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1964.
- Brooks, Gwendolyn. “Negro Hero.” Selected Poems. New York: Harper and Row, 1963.
- Burroughs, William S. The Nova Express . New York: Grove, 1992 (1964).
- Conwill, Kinshasha Holman. “Introduction.” Memory and Metaphor: The Art of Romare Bearden 1940-1987. New York: Oxford UP, 1981.
- Digable Planets. “Agent 7 Creamy Spy Theme: Dial 7 (Axioms of Creamy Spies)” EMD/Pendulum, 1994.
- —. “Cool Like Dat.” Reachin’ (A New Refutation of Time and Space) . EMD/ Pendulum, 1993.
- Eshun, Kodowo. More Brilliant Than the Sun: Adventures in Sonic Fiction . London: Quartet, 1999.
- Harkin, Patricia. “Rhetorics, Poetics, and Cultures As an Articulation Project.” JAC: A Journal of Composition Theory 17.3 (1997): 494-97.
- Hendricks, Jon. Fluxus Codex . New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1998.
- Grandmaster Flash. “The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on Wheels of Steel.” Grandmaster Flash Greatest Mixes . Bangon, 1998.
- King, Martin Luther, Jr. “Letter from Birmingham Jail.” The Little, Brown Reader. Ed. Marcia Stubbs and Sylvan Barnet. New York: Harper Collins, 1996. 763-78.
- McElfresh, Suzanne. “DJs Vs. Samplers.” The Vibe History of Hip-Hop. Ed. Alan Light. New York: Three Rivers P, 1999.
- Marsh, Graham, Felix Cromey, and Glyn Callingham. Blue Note: The Album Cover Art. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 1991.
- Mingus, Charles. “Freedom.” Mingus, Mingus, Mingus . Impulse! 1963. Neal, Mark Anthony. What the Music Said: Black Popular Music and Black Public Culture . New York: Routledge, 1999.
- Public Enemy. “Can I Get a Witness!” It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back. UNI/DEFJAM, 1988.
- —. “Party for Your Right to Fight.” It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back. UNI/DEFJAM, 1988.
- Redman. “Whateva Man.” Muddy Waters . UNI/Def Jam, 1996.
- Rose, Tricia. Black Noise: Black Music and Black Culture in Contemporary America . Hanover: Wesleyan UP, 1994.
- Sirc, Geoffrey. ” Never Mind the Tagmemics, Where’s the Sex Pistols? ” CCC 48.1 (Feb.) 1997.
- —. “Virtual Urbanism.” Computers and Composition 18(1) 2001: 11-19.
- Toulmin, Stephen. Uses of Argument . Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1958.
- Ulmer, Gregory. “The Object of Post- Criticism.” The Anti-Aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture. Ed. Hal Foster. Seattle, WA: Bay Press, 1983.
- Vitanza, Victor J. “From Heuristic to Aleatory Procedures; Or, Toward ‘Writing the Accident.'” Inventing a Discipline: Rhetoric Scholarship in Honor of Richard E. Young . Ed. Maureen Daly Goggin. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 2000.
- —. “Seeing in Third Sophistic Ways.” Rhetoric and Composition As Intellectual Work. Ed. Gary Olson. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 2002.
- —. “‘The Wasteland Grows’: Or, What is ‘Cultural Studies for Composition’ and Why Must We Always Speak Good of It? ParaResponse to Julie Drew.” JAC: A Journal of Composition Theory 19 (1999): 699-703.
- Williams, Cecil B., and Allan Stevenson. A Research Manual. New York: Harper and Row, 1963.
- Williams, Raymond. Communications . London: Chatto and Windus, 1966 (1962).
Sohn, Katherine Kelleher. “Whistlin’ and Crowin’ Women of Appalachia: Literacy Practices since College.” CCC. 54.3 (2003): 423-452.
This article represents stories of eight former composition students, Appalachian working class women, who move from silence in the academy to voice in their communities to a more self-confident identity without destroying the community from which they came. The author argues that compositionists need to consider the two-edged nature of literacy; how literacy serves first generation, nontraditional learners; the intergenerational effects of literacy; the importance of expressivist writing as a transition into academic literacy; and the importance of region and class in multicultural conversations.
ccc54.3 Women College Literacy Education Appalachia Study School Children Family Home Writing WorkingClass Expressivism FirstGeneration Community
- Aronson, Anne. “Reversals of Fortune: Downward Mobility and the Writing of Nontraditional Students.” Teaching Working-Class . Ed. Sherry Lee Linkon. Amherst: U Massachusetts P, 1999. 39-55.
- Ashley, Hannah. “Playing the Game: Proficient Working-Class Students Writers’ Second Voices.” Research in the Teaching of English 35.4 (2001): 493-524.
- Bailey, Bennie R. “Appalachia: Our Home.” Speech presented at opening convocation to Pikeville College, Pikeville, Kentucky, Fall 1998.
- Barton, David, and Mary Hamilton. Local Literacies: Reading and Writing in One Community. London: Routledge, 1998. Batteau, Allen W. The Invention of Appalachia. Tuscon: The U of Arizona P, 1990.
- Belenky, Mary Field, et al. Women’s Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice, and Mind. New York: Basic, 1988.
- Bencich, Carole. Personal Interview. July 1999.
- Billings, Dwight B., and Kathleen M. Blee. The Road to Poverty: The Making of Wealth and Hardship in Appalachia. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000.
- Billings, Dwight, Guerney Norman, and Katherine Ledford, eds. Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 1999.
- Bizzell, Patricia. Academic Discourse and Critical Consciousness. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1993.
- Brandau, Deborah. Literacy and Literature in School and Non-School Settings. (Report Series 7.6). Albany, NY: National Research Center on English Learning and Achievement. ERIC, 1996. ED 401 550.
- Brandt, Deborah. “Accumulating Literacy: Writing and Learning to Write in the Twentieth Century.” College English 57.6 (1995): 649-68.
- Cintron, Ralph. Angels’ Town: Chero Ways, Gang Life, and Rhetorics of The Everyday . Boston: Beacon, 1997.
- Cooper, Marilyn, and Michael Holzman. Writing As Social Action. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1989.
- Cushman, Ellen. The Struggle and the Tools: Oral and Literate Strategies in an Inner City Community . Albany: State U of New York P, 1998.
- Daniell, Beth. ” Narratives of Literacy: Connecting Composition to Culture .” College Composition and Communication 50.3 (1999). 393-410.
- DeRosier, Linda Scott. Creeker: A Woman’s Journey. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 1999.
- Dews, Carolyn Leste, and C. L. Barney Law. This Fine Place So Far from Home: Voices of Academics from the Working Class. Philadelphia, PA: Temple UP, 1995.
- Donehower, Kimberley K. Beliefs about Literacy in a Southern Appalachian Community. Diss. University of Minnesota, 1997. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1997. 9738422.
- Dyer, Joyce, ed. Bloodroot: Reflections on Place by Appalachian Women Writers . Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 1998.
- Egan, Marcia. “Appalachian Women: The Path from the ‘Hollows’ to Higher Education.” Affilia 8.3 (1993): 265-76.
- Ferretti, Eileen. “Between Dirty Dishes and Polished Discourse: How Working-Class Moms Construct School Identities.” Teaching Working Class. Ed. Sherry Lee Linkon. Amherst: U Massachusetts P, 1999. 69-84.
- Fiene, Judith. “The Social Reality of a Group of Rural, Low-Status, Appalachian Women: A Grounded Theory Study.” Diss. The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 1988.
- Flynn, Elizabeth A. “Composing As a Woman.” Crosstalk in Comp Theory: A Reader. Ed. Victor Villanueva. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1997. 549-64.
- Giesen, Carol A. B. Coal Miners’ Wives: Portraits of Endurance. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 1995.
- Guerra, Juan. Close to Home: Oral and Literate Practices in a Transnational Mexicano Community . New York: Teachers College/Columbia U, 1998.
- Hamilton, Sharon J. My Name’s Not Susie: A Life Transformed by Literacy. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1995.
- Hammons-Bryner, S. “Interpersonal Relationships and African American Women’s Educational Achievement: An Ethnographic Study.” SAGE 9.1 (1995): 10-17.
- Hanna, Stephen. “Representation and the Reproduction of Appalachian Space: A History of Contested Signs and Meanings.” Historical Geography 28 (2000): 179-207.
- Harrienger, M. “Writing a Life: The Composing of Grace.” Feminine Principles and Women’s Experiences in American Composition and Rhetoric. Ed. Louise W. Phelps and Janet W. Emig. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1995. 137-52.
- Heath, Shirley B. Ways with Words: Language, Life, and Work in Communities and Classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1983.
- Horsman, Jennifer. Something in My Mind Besides the Everyday: Women and Literacy. Toronto: Women’s Press, 1990.
- Isserman, Lawrence. Overview. Socio- Economic Review of Appalachia: Appalachia Then and Now: An Update of “The Realities of Deprivation” Reported to the President in 1964. Ed. Andrew M. Isserman. Washington, DC: Appalachian Regional Commission, 1996. 1-30.
- Jones, Loyal. Appalachian Values. Ashland, KY: Jesse Stuart Foundation, 1994.
- —. Faith and Meaning in the Southern Uplands. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1999. Kahn, Kathy. Hillbilly Women. New York: Avon, 1972.
- Kirsch, Gesa, and Peter Mortensen. Ethics and Representation in Qualitative Studies of Literacy. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1996. Knudson, Candy. Personal communication. 3 July 1999.
- Lauer, Janice. Foreword. My Name’s Not Susie: A Life Transformed by Literacy. By Sharon Jean Hamilton. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1995.
- Law, C. L. Barney. Introduction. Dews and Law 1-10.
- Linkon, Sherry Lee, ed. Teaching Working Class . Amherst: U Massachusetts P, 1999. Lunneborg, Patricia W. OU Women: Undoing Educational Obstacles. London: Cassell, 1994.
- Luttrell, Wendy. Schoolsmart and Motherwise: Working-Class Women’s Identity and Schooling. New York: Routledge, 1997.
- Lyon, Georgia Ella. “Voiceplace.” Bloodroot: Reflections on Place by Appalachian Women Writers. Ed. Joyce Dyer. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 1998. 167-74.
- McNeil, W. K., ed. Appalachian Images in Folk and Popular Culture. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1989.
- Merrifield, Juliet, et al. Life at the Margins: Literacy, Language, and Technology in Everyday Life. New York: Teachers College, 1997.
- Miller, Danny. Wingless Flight: Appalachian Women in Fiction. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State UP, 1996.
- Montgomery, Michael. “Myths: How a Hunger for Roots Shapes Our Notions about Appalachian English.” Now and Then: The Appalachian Magazine 17.2 (2000): 7-13.
- Neilsen, Lorri. Literacy and Living: The Literate Lives of Three Adults. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1989.
- Pari, Caroline. “‘Just American’: Reversing Ethnic and Class Assimilation in the Academy.” Teaching Working Class . Ed. Sherry Linkon. Amherst: U Massachusetts P, 1999. 123-41.
- Pascall, Gillian, and Roger Cox. Women Returning to Higher Education. London: Open UP, 1993.
- Pascarella, Ernest T., and P. T. Terenzini. How College Affects Students: Findings and Insights from Twenty Years of Research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1991.
- Pascarella, Ernest T., Gregory C. Wolniak, Christopher T. Pierson, and Patrick T. Terenzini. “Appalachian Region Alumni Outcomes Survey (Preliminary Findings).” Available: acaweb.org.
- Peckham, Irvin. “Complicity in Class Codes: The Exclusionary Function of Education.” Dews and Law 263-76.
- Piper, Deborah. “Psychology’s Class Blindness: Investment in the Status Quo.” Dews and Law 286-96.
- Preston County Chamber of Commerce. Telephone interview. 1 Sept. 1999.
- Puckett, Anita. “‘Let the Girls Do the Spelling and Dan Will Do the Shooting’: Literacy, the Division of Labor, and Identity in a Rural Appalachian Community.” Anthropological Quarterly 65.3 (1992): 137-47.
- —. “Recent Trends in Poverty in the Appalachian Region: The Implications of the U.S. Census Bureau Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates on the ARC Distressed Counties Designation.” Report prepared by The Applied Population Laboratory. Madison, WI: 2000.
- —. Seldom Ask, Never Tell: Labor and Discourse in Appalachia. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000.
- Rodriguez, Richard. A Hunger for Memory: The Education of Richard Rodriguez: An Autobiography. Boston: D. R. Godine, 1982.
- Rodriguez, Sandra. “Detour from Nowhere: The Remarkable Journey of a Re-Entry College Woman.” Initiatives 58.1 (1996): 1-10.
- Rose, Mike. Lives on the Boundary: A Moving Account of the Struggles and Achievements of America’s Educational Underclass. New York: Penguin, 1989.
- Seitz, Virginia. Women, Development, and Communities for Empowerment in Appalachia. Albany: State U of New York P, 1995.
- Shapiro, Henry D. Appalachia on Our Mind: The Southern Mountaineers in the American Consciousness, 1870-1920. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1978.
- Shelby, Anne. “The ‘R’ Word: What’s So Funny (and Not So Funny) about Redneck Jokes.” Confronting Appalachian Stereotypes. Ed. Dwight Billings, Guerney Norman, and Katherine Ledford. Lexingtons: UP of Kentucky, 1999. 153-60.
- Shiber, John. “Nontraditional Students: The Importance of Getting There.” Innovation Abstract 32.11 (1999): 1-2.
- Shor, Ira. When Students Have Power: Negotiating Authority in Critical Pedagogy. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1996. Soliday, Mary. “Class Dismissed.” College English 61.6 (1999): 731-41.
- Trimbur, John. “Literacy and the Discourse of Crisis.” The Politics of Writing Instruction: Postsecondary. Ed. R. Bullock, J. Trimbur, and C. Schuster. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1991. 277-96.
- Villanueva, Victor. Bootstraps: An Academic of Color. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1993.
- Wax, Murray L. “Knowledge, Power, and Ethics in Qualitative Social Research.” The American Sociologist 26.2 (1995): 22-35.
- Whisnant, David E. All That Is Native and Fine: The Politics of Culture in an American Region. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1983.
- Wood, Lawrence, and Gregory A. Bischak. Progress and Challenges in Reducing Economic Distress in Appalachia: An Analysis of National and Regional Trends since 1960. Washington, DC: Appalachian Regional Commission, 2000.
Powell, Katrina M. and Pamela Takayoshi. “Accepting Roles Created for Us: The Ethics of Reciprocity.” CCC. 54.3 (2003): 394-422.
Grounded in theories of feminist research practices and in two empirical studies we conducted separately, our argument is that seeing reciprocity as a context-based process of definition and re-definition of the relationship between participants and researcher helps us understand how research projects can benefit participants in ways that they desire.
ccc54.3 Research Participants Researchers Reciprocity Ethics Roles Study Feminism Empirical Methodology ResearchQuestions Data
- Addison, Joanne. “Data Analysis and Subject Representation in Empowering Composition Research.” Written Communication 14 (1997): 106-28.
- Anderson, Paul. ” Simple Gifts: Ethical Issue in the Conduct of Person-Based Composition Research .” College Composition and Communication 49.1 (1998): 63-89.
- Barton, Ellen. ” More Methodological Matters: Against Negative Argumentation .” College Composition and Communication 51 (2000): 399-416.
- Brereton, John C., ed. The Origins of Composition Studies in the American College, 1875-1920; A Documentary History. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1995.
- Brueggemann, Brenda Jo. “Still-Life: Representations and Silences in the Participant-Observer Role.” Mortensen and Kirsch 17-39.
- Carter, Michael. ” Stasis and Kairos: Principles of Social Construction in Classical Rhetoric.” Rhetoric Review 7 (1988): 97-112.
- Cushman, Ellen. ” The Rhetorician As an Agent of Social Change .” College Composition and Communication 47 (1996): 7-28.
- —. The Struggle and the Tools: Oral and Literate Strategies in an Inner City Community. Albany, NY: SUNY P, 1998.
- Fine, Michelle. Disruptive Voices: The Possibilities of Feminist Research . Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1992.
- Fonow, Mary Margaret, and Judith Cook. “Back to the Future: A Look at the Second Wave of Feminist Epistemology and Methodology.” Beyond Methodology: Feminist Scholarship As Lived Research. Ed. Mary Margaret Fonow and Judith Cook. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1991. 1-15.
- Harding, Sandra, ed. Feminism and Methodology: Social Science Issues . Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1987.
- Herndl, Carl G. “Writing Ethnography: Representation, Rhetoric, and Institutional Practices.” College English 53 (1991): 320-32.
- Jarratt, Susan. Rereading the Sophists: Classical Rhetoric Refigured. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1991.
- Johanek, Cindy. Composing Research: A Contextualist Paradigm for Rhetoric and Composition . Logan: Utah State UP, 2000.
- Kinneavy, James. “Kairos: A Neglected Concept in Classical Rhetoric.” Rhetoric and Praxis: The Contribution of Classical Rhetoric to Practical Reasoning. Ed. Jean Dietz Moss. Washington, DC: Catholic UP, 1986. 79-105.
- Kirsch, Gesa. Ethical Dilemmas in Feminist Research: The Politics of Location, Interpretation, and Publication . Albany: State U of New York P, 1999.
- Kirsch, Gesa, and Joy Ritchie. ” Beyond the Personal: Theorizing a Politics of Location on Composition Research .” College Composition and Communication 46 (1995): 7-29.
- Kirsch, Gesa, and Patricia Sullivan, eds. Methods and Methodology in Composition Research. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1992.
- Lather, Patti. Getting Smart: Feminist Research and Pedagogy with/in the Postmodern. NY: Routledge, 1991.
- Mortensen, Peter, and Gesa Kirsch. “Introduction: Reflections on Methodology in Literacy Studies.” Ethics and Representation in Qualitative Studies of Literacy. Ed. Mortensen and Kirsch. Urbana, IL: NCTE Press, 1996. xix-xxxiv.
- Newkirk, Thomas. “Seduction and Betrayal in Qualitative Research.” Mortensen and Kirsch 3-16.
- Perl, Sondra. “Early Work on Composing: Lessons and Illuminations.” History, Reflection, and Narrative: The Professionalization of Composition, 1963- 1983. Ed. Mary Rosner, Beth Boehm, and Debra Journet. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Press, 1999. 83-98.
- Powell, Katrina M. “Discourse Negotiation: Self-Representation across Multiple Genres.” Diss. U of Louisville, 2000.
- Ritchie, Joy, and Kathleen Boardman. “Feminism in Composition: Inclusion, Metonymy, and Disruption.” College Composition and Communication 50 (1999): 585-606.
- Rose, Shirley, and Janice Lauer. “Feminist Methodology: Dilemmas for Graduate Researchers.” Under Construction: Working at the Intersections of Composition Theory, Research, and Practice . Ed. Christine Farris and Chris M. Anson. Logan: Utah State UP, 1998. 136-49.
- Snyder, Ilana. “‘It’s Not As Simple As You Think!’ Collaboration between a Researcher and a Teacher.” English Education 24 (1992): 195-211.
- Sullivan, Patricia A. “Ethnography and the Problem of the ‘Other.'” Mortensen and Kirsch 97-114.
- —. “Feminism and Methodology.” Methods and Methodology in Composition Research. Ed. Gesa Kirsch and Patricia Sullivan. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1992. 37-61.
- Van Maanen, John. Tales of the Field: On Writing Ethnography. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1988.
- Wolf, Diane L., ed. Feminist Dilemmas in Fieldwork . Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.
Mann, Nancy. “Point Counterpoint: Teaching Punctuation As Information Management.” CCC. 54.3 (2003): 359-393.
Punctuation is often learned without teaching and more often not learned despite much teaching. Jointly, these facts suggest that real punctuation decision rules are very different from and probably much simpler than the rules we teach. This article argues that the punctuation system does have features that generally make systems learnable, such as binary contrasts, limitation of parallel categories to seven or fewer options, and repeated application of the same criterion to different kinds of entities. The simplicity that allows some readers to learn this system unconsciously also makes it possible to figure out consciously the system’s underlying information-management rationales, which in turn motivate both conscious learning and use.
ccc54.3 Punctuation Statements Pedagogy System Rules Order Students Algorithm Comma Information Language Sentence
- Berry, Dianne. “How Implicit Is Implicit Learning?” Implicit Cognition. Ed. Geoffrey Underwood. Oxford, UK: Oxford UP, 1996. 203-25.
- Connors, Robert J. ” The Erasure of the Sentence .” CCC 52 (2000): 96-128.
- Connors, Robert J., and Andrea A. Lunsford. “Frequency of Formal Errors in Current College Writing, or Ma and Pa Kettle Do Research.” CCC 39 (1988): 395-409.
- Dawkins, John. ” Teaching Punctuation As a Rhetorical Tool .” CCC 46 (1995): 533-48.
- Edlund, John R. “The Rainbow and the Stream.” The Place of Grammar in Writing Instruction. Ed. Susan Hunter and Ray Wallace. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1995. 89-102.
- Gombert, Jean Ã‰mile. Metalinguistic Development. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1992.
- Haiman, John, and Sandra A. Thompson, eds. Clause Combining in Grammar and Discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1988.
- Hassett, Michael. “Toward a Broader Understanding of the Rhetoric of Punctuation.” CCC 47 (1996): 419-21.
- Hillocks, George, Jr. Research on Written Composition: New Directions for Teaching. Urbana, IL: National Conference on Research in English, 1986.
- Jackendoff, Ray S. The Architecture of the Language Faculty . Cambridge, MA: MIT P, 1997.
- —. “Possible Stages in the Evolution of the Language Capacity.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 3 (1998): 272-79. 1 July 1999. ScienceDirect. University of Colorado Lib., Boulder, CO. 12 June 2002 <http://www.sciencedirect.com/>.
- Kirkhart, Matthew. “The Nature of Declarative and Nondeclarative Knowledge for Implicit and Explicit Learning.” Journal of General Psychology 128 (Oct. 2001): 447-61. OCLC FirstSearch. University of Colorado Lib., Boulder, CO. 12 June 2002 <http://newfirstsearch.oclc.org>.
- Laiacona, M., and A. Lunghi. “A Case of Concomitant Impairment of Operational Signs and Punctuation Marks.” Neuropsychologia 35, no. 3 (1997): 325- 32.
- Meyer, Charles F. A Linguistic Study of American Punctuation. New York: Peter Lang, 1987.
- Michael, Ian. English Grammatical Categories and the Tradition to 1800. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 1970.
- Mithun, Marianne. “The Grammaticization of Coordination.” Clause Combining in Grammar and Discourse. Ed. John Haiman and Sandra A. Thompson. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1988. 331-60.
- Nunberg, Geoffrey. The Linguistics of Punctuation. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Linguistic Information, 1990.
- Parkes, M. B. Pause and Effect: A History of Punctuation in the West. Berkeley: U of California P, 1993.
- Quirk, Randolph. “Speaking into the Air.” Style and Communication in the English Language. London: Edward Arnold, 1982.
- Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman, 1985.
- Tufte, Virginia. Grammar As Style. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1971.
- Underwood, Geoffrey, and James E. H. Bright, “Cognition with and without Awareness.” Implicit Cognition. Ed. Geoffrey Underwood. Oxford, UK: Oxford UP, 1996. 1-40.