Conference on College Composition and Communication Logo

College Composition and Communication, Vol. 53, No. 4, June 2002

Click here to view the individual articles in this issue at

Grimm, Nancy Maloney. Shanghai Quartet: The Crossings of Four Women of China byMin-Zhan Lu. CCC. 53.4 (2002): 747-750.

McComiskey, Bruce. Literacy Matters: Writing and Reading the Social Self by Robert P. Yagelski. CCC. 53.4 (2002): 751-753.

Rodby, Judith. Popular Literacy: Studies in Cultural Practices and Poetics . John Trimbur, ed. CCC . 53.4 (2002): 753-756.

Mahiri, Jabari. Minding the Body: What Student Athletes Know about Learning by Julie Cheville. CCC. 53.4 (2002): 757-759.

Bauer, Dale M. Water Drops from Women Writers: A Temperance Reader . Carol Mattingly, ed. CCC. 53.4 (2002): 759-761.

Frick, Jane and Nancy Blattner. “In Brief: Reflections on the Missouri CWA Surveys, 1989-2001: A New Composition Delivery Paradigm.” CCC. 53.4 (2002): 739-746.

White, Linda Feldmeier. “Learning Disability, Pedagogies, and Public Discourse.” CCC. 53.4 (2002): 705-738.


I analyze the public and professional discourse of learning disability, arguing that medical models of literacy misdirect teaching by narrowing its focus to remediation. This insight about teaching is not new; resurgent demands for behaviorist pedagogies make understanding their continuing appeal important to composition studies.


ccc53.4 LearningDisabilities Students Pedagogy Research Spelling Problems Dyslexia Accommodation Public Neurology Reading

Works Cited

Allington, Richard, and Haley Woodside- Jiron. “Thirty Years of Research in Reading: When Is a Research Summary Not a Research Summary?” Goodman 143-57.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1995.
Barkley, Russell A. “The Assessment of Attention in Children.” Lyon 69-102.
Bartlett v. NY State Board of Law Examiners. U.S. Court of Appeals. Docket No. 97-9162. 14 September 1998. Rpt. in U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit Decisions 27 May 2000 <>.
Bartoli, Jill, and Martin Botel. Reading/ Learning Disability: An Ecological Approach. New York: Teachers College P, 1988.
Bender, William N. “Innovative Approaches to Reading.” Bender 83-105. . “Learning Disabilities in the Classroom.” Bender 3-26.
—., ed. Professional Issues in Learning Disabilities: Practical Strategies and Relevant Research Findings . Austin: Pro-Ed, 1999.
Berninger, Virginia W., and Robert D. Abbott. “Redefining Learning Disabilities: Moving beyond Aptitude-Achievement Discrepancies to Failure to Respond to Validated Treatment Protocols.” Lyon 163-83.
B�rub�, Michael. Life As We Know It: A Father, a Family, and an Exceptional Child . New York: Pantheon, 1996. Bialostok, Steve. “Offering the Olive Branch: The Rhetoric of Insincerity.” Language Arts 74 (1997): 618-29.
Bigler, Erin D., Renee Lajiness-O’Neill, and Nancy Louise Howes. “Technology in the Assessment of Learning Disability.” Journal of Learning Disabilities 31 (1998): 67-82.
Blachman, Benita. “Early Intervention and Phonological Awareness: A Cautionary Tale.” Foundations of Reading Acquisition and Dyslexia: Implications for Early Intervention . Ed. Benita Blachman. Mahwah: Erlbaum, 1997. 409-30.
Brueggemann, Brenda Jo, Linda Feldmeier White, Patricia A. Dunn, Barbara A. Heifferon, and Johnson Cheu. “Becoming Visible: Lessons in Disability.” CCC 52 (2001): 368-98.
Coles, Gerald. The Learning Mystique: A Critical Look at “Learning Disabilities .” New York: Pantheon, 1987.
—. Misreading Reading: The Bad Science That Hurts Children . Portsmouth: Heinemann, 2000.
—. Reading Lessons: The Debate over Literacy . New York: Hill and Wang, 1998. Cronin, Eileen M. Helping Your Dyslexic Child: A Step-by-Step Program for Helping Your Child Improve Reading, Writing, Spelling, Comprehension, and Self- Esteem . Rocklin: Prima Publishing, 1994.
Cruickshank, William. Foreword to the First Edition. Learning Disabilities and Brain Function: A Neuropsychological Approach . 3rd ed. By William H. Gaddes and Dorothy Edgell. New York: Springer- Verlag, 1994. xii-xv.
Dudley-Marling, Curt, and Don Dippo. “What Learning Disability Does: Sustaining the Ideology of Schooling.” Journal of Learning Disabilities 28 (1995): 408-14.
Dunn, Patricia. Learning Re-Abled: The Learning Disability Controversy and Composition Studies . Portsmouth: Boynton/Cook, 1995.
—. Talking, Sketching, Moving: Multiple Literacies in the Teaching of Writing . Portsmouth: Boynton/Cook, 2001.
Fink, Rosalie. “Literacy Development in Successful Men and Women with Dyslexia.” Annals of Dyslexia 48 (1998): 311-46.
Fletcher, Jack M., and Barbara Foorman. “Issues in Definition and Measurement of Learning Disabilities: The Need for Early Intervention.” Lyon 185-200.
Franklin, Barry, ed. Learning Disability: Dissenting Essays . Philadelphia: Falmer, 1987.
Freppon, Penny. “Understanding the Nature of Reading and Writing Difficulties: An Alternative View.” Reading & Writing Quarterly 10 (1994): 227-38.
Gaddes, William H., and Dorothy Edgell. Learning Disabilities and Brain Function: A Neuropsychological Approach . 3rd ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1994.
Gerber, Paul J., and Henry B. Reiff. Speaking for Themselves: Ethnographic Interviews with Adults with Learning Disabilities . Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1991.
Goodman, Kenneth, ed. In Defense of Good Teaching: What Teachers Need to Know about the “Reading Wars.” York: Stenhouse, 1998.
—. “Who’s Afraid of Whole Language? Politics, Paradigms, Pedagogy, and the Press.” Goodman 3-37.
Graff, Gerald. Beyond the Culture Wars: How Teaching the Conflicts Can Revitalize American Education. New York: Norton: 1992.
Grundin, Hans, and Keith Stanovich. “Who’s Romanticizing Reality? A Response to Keith Stanovich: Comment/Reply” The Reading Teacher 48 (1994): 8-12.
Guckenberger et al. v. Boston University et al. U.S. District Ct. Massachusetts. 15 August 1997. Rpt. in The Chronicle of Higher Education Documents 10 September 1997 <>.
Healy, Patrick. “CUNY’s 4-Year Colleges Ordered to Phase Out Remedial Education.” Chronicle of Higher Education 5 June 1998: A26.
Hebel, Sara. “New Supreme Court Rulings Could Impede Disability-Bias Suits against Colleges.” Chronicle of Higher Education 2 July 1999: A31.
Horner, Bruce. ” Discoursing Basic Writing .” CCC 47 (1996): 199-222.
Hughes, Margaret, and Dennis Searle. The Violent E and Other Tricky Sounds: Learning to Spell from Kindergarten through Grade 6 . York: Stenhouse, 1997.
Johnson, Sharon E., and William N. Bender. “Language Arts Instructional Approaches.” Bender 107-39.
Kantrowitz, Barbara, and Anne Underwood. “Dyslexia and the New Science of Reading.” Newsweek 22 November 1999: 72-78.
Kavale, Kenneth A., and Steven R. Forness. “Defining Learning Disabilities: Consonance and Dissonance.” Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities . Ed. John Wills Lloyd, Edward J. Kameenui, and David Chard. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1997.
Kelman, Mark, and Gillian Lester. Jumping the Queue: An Inquiry into the Legal Treatment of Students with Learning Disabilities . Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1997.
Kozol, Jonathan. Savage Inequalities: Children in America’s Schools . New York: HarperCollins, 1991.
Krashen, Stephen D. Three Arguments against Whole Language & Why They Are Wrong . Portsmouth: Heinemann, 1999.
Lane, Harlan. “Constructions of Deafness.” The Disability Studies Reader. Ed. Lennard J. Davis. New York: Routledge, 1997. 153-71.
Lee, Christopher, and Rosemary Jackson. What about Me? Strategies for Teaching Misunderstood Learners. Portsmouth: Heinemann, 2001.
Linton, Simi. Claiming Disability: Knowledge and Identity . New York: New York UP, 1998.
Lyon, G. Reid, ed. Frames of Reference for the Assessment of Learning Disabilities: New Views on Measurement Issues . Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 1994.
—. “Why Reading Is Not a Natural Process.” Educational Leadership 55 (1998): 14-18.
McQuillan, Jeff. The Literacy Crisis: False Claims, Real Solutions . Portsmouth: Heinemann, 1998.
Merzenich, Michael M., William M. Jenkins, Paul Johnson, Christopher Schreiner, Steven L. Miller, and Paula Tallal. “Temporal Processing Deficits of Language-Learning Impaired Children Ameliorated by Training.” Science 271 (1996): 77-80.
Messer-Davidow, Ellen. “Manufacturing the Attack on Liberalized Higher Education.” Social Text 36 (1993): 40-80. Rpt. in After Political Correctness: The Humanities and Society in the 1990s . Ed. Christopher Newland and Ronald Strickland. Boulder: Westview Press, 1995. 38-78.
Moats, Louisa Cook. “Assessment of Spelling in Learning Disabilities Research.” Lyon 333-49.
Morris, Robin. “A Review of Critical Concepts and Issues in the Measurement of Learning Disabilities.” Lyon 615-26.
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Learning Disabilities. By Sharon Neuwirth. Washington, DC: GPO, 1993.
Oakland, Thomas et al. “An Evaluation of the Dyslexia Training Program: A Multisensory Method for Promoting Reading in Students with Reading Disabilities.” Journal of Learning Disabilities 31 (1998): 140-47.
Poplin, Mary. “Research Practices in Learning Disabilities.” Learning Disability Quarterly 7 (1984): 2-5.
Read, Charles. Children’s Categorization of Speech Sounds in English . Urbana: NCTE, 1975.
Reiff, Henry B., Paul J. Gerber, and Rick Ginsberg. Exceeding Expectations: Successful Adults with Learning Disabilities . Austin: Pro-Ed, 1997.
Resnick, Lauren. “Shared Cognition: Thinking as Social Practice.” Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition . Ed. Lauren B. Resnick, John M. Levine, and Stephanie D. Teasley. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1991. 1-20.
Rose, Mike. “Narrowing the Mind and Page: Remedial Writers and Cognitive Reductionism.” CCC 39 (1988): 267-302.
Selingo, Jeffrey. “Judge Says Boston U. Can Require Learning Disabled to Meet Language Requirement.” Chronicle of Higher Education 12 June 1998: A42.
—. “Judge Says Boston U. Violated Rights of Learning Disabled.” Chronicle of Higher Education 5 September 1997: A65.
Shapiro, Joseph. “The Strange Case of Somnolent Samantha.” U.S. News & World Report 14 April 1997: 31.
Shaywitz, Sally E. “Dyslexia.” Scientific American 275 (1996): 98-104.
Shaywitz, Sally E., Bennett A. Shaywitz, Jack M. Fletcher, and Michael D. Escobar. “Prevalence of Reading Disability in Boys and Girls: Results of the Connecticut Longitudinal Study.” Journal of the American Medical Association 264 (1990): 998-1002.
Sigmon, Scott B. Critical Voices on Special Education: Problems and Progress Concerning the Mildly Handicapped . Albany: SUNY P, 1990.
Simpson, Eileen. Reversals: A Personal Account of Victory over Dyslexia . 1979. Rev. ed. New York: Noonday-Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1991.
Sleeter, Christine. “Literacy, Definitions of Learning Disabilities and Social Control.” Ed. Berry Franklin. Learning Disability: Dissenting Essays . Philadelphia: Falmer, 1987. 67-87.
Sparks, Richard L., and Leonore Ganschow. “The Boston University Lawsuit: Introduction to the Special Series.” Journal of Learning Disabilities 32 (1999): 284-85.
Spear-Swerling, Louise, and Robert J. Sternberg. Off Track: When Poor Readers Become “Learning Disabled.” Boulder: Westview Press, 1996.
Stanovich, Keith E. How to Think Straight about Psychology . 4th ed. New York: HarperCollins, 1996.
—. “Dysrationalia: A New Specific Learning Disability.” Journal of Learning Disabilities 26 (1993): 501-15.
—. “The Sociopsychometrics of Learning Disabilities.” Journal of Learning Disabilities 32 (1999): 350-61.
Stanovich, Paula, and Keith E. Stanovich. “Research into Practice in Special Education.” Journal of Learning Disabilities 30 (1997): 477-81.
Sternglass, Marilyn S. Time to Know Them: A Longitudinal Study of Writing and Learning at the College Level . Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1997.
Strosnider, Kim. “Boston U. Chief Admits He Made Up Story of Disabled Student.” Chronicle of Higher Education 18 April 1997: A38.
Taylor, Denny. Beginning to Read and the Spin Doctors of Science: The Political Campaign to Change America’s Mind about How Children Learn to Read . Urbana: NCTE, 1998.
Torgesen, Joseph. “Learning Disabilities Theory: Issues and Advances.” Vaughan and Bos 3-21.
Traub, James. City on a Hill: Testing the American Dream at City College . Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1995.
Treiman, Rebecca. “Spelling in Normal Children and Dyslexics.” Foundations of Reading Acquisition and Dyslexia: Implications for Early Intervention . Ed. Benita Blachman. Mahwah: Erlbaum, 1997. 191-218.
Vaughan, Sharon, and Candace Bos, eds. Research Issues in Learning Disabilities: Theory, Methodology, Assessment, and Ethics . New York: Springer-Verlag, 1994.
Vaughan, Sharon, and G. Reid Lyon. “Ethical Considerations When Conducting Research with Students with Learning Disabilities.” Vaughan and Bos 315-28.
Vellutino, Frank. Dyslexia: Theory and Research . Cambridge: MIT Press, 1979. Weaver, Constance. “Facts on Research on the Teaching of Phonics.” WLU Fact Sheets 21 December 2001 <>.
Westling, Jon. “Getting Government Out of Higher Education.” The Heritage Foundation Lectures and Seminars 3 May 1995 and 6 July 1998 <>.
Wolinsky, Sid, and Amy Whelan. “Federal Law and the Accommodation of Students with LD: The Lawyers Look at the BU Decision.” Journal of Learning Disabilities 32 (1999): 286-91.
Ysseldyke, James E., and Bob Algozzine. Critical Issues in Special and Remedial Education. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982.
Zemelman, Steve, Harvey Daniels, and Marilyn Bizar. “Sixty Years of Reading Research: But Who’s Listening?” Phi Delta Kappan 80 (1999): 513-17.

Richardson, Elaine. “‘To Protect and Serve’: African American Female Literacies.” CCC. 53.4 (2002): 675-704.


This chapter seeks to add to our understanding of literacy as it relates to African Americans, with a focus on African American female literacies. Primarily, I argue that mother tongue literacy is central to literacy education.


ccc53.4 Women AfricanAmerican Literacy Language Mother Life School Students Practice Culture

Works Cited

Alim, H. Samy. “We Are the Streets: Street Conscious Copula Variation.” Paper Presented at The Linguistic Society of America Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, January 4-7, 2001.
Arnold, Karen, and P. Murphy. “Campus and Classroom: The Experiences of Minority Students in Predominantly White Universities.” Beyond the Dream: Meaningful Program Evaluation and Assessment to Achieve Equal Opportunity at Predominantly White Universities . Ed. Robert E. Stake, Stafford Hood, Henry T. Frierson. Greenwich: Jai Press, 1994. 17-46.
Aveisa, Jeanne. Airport Drug Seizures Up but Customs Reports Fewer Passengers Were Searched < news/customs001020.html> Washington, 20 Oct. 2000.
Baugh, John. Black Street Speech: Its History, Structure, and Survival. Austin: U of Texas P, 1983.
Boykin, A. Wade. “Reading Achievement and the Social-Cultural Frame of Reference of Afro-American Children.” Journal of Negro Education 53.4 (1984): 464-73.
Campbell, Kermit. “The Rhetoric of Black English Vernacular: A Study of the Oral and Written Discourse Practices of African American Male College Students.” Diss. Ohio State U, Columbus, Ohio, 1993.
Chude-Sokei, Louis. “Dread Discourse and Jamaican Sound Systems.” Language, Rhythm, and Sound: Black Popular Cultures into the Twenty-First Century . Ed. Joseph K. Adjaye and Adrianne R. Andrews. Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 1997, 185-202.
Collins, Patricia Hill. Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment . New York: Routledge, 1991.
Collins-Eaglin, Jan, and Stuart A. Karabenick. “Devaluing the Academic Success of African American Students: On ‘Acting White’ and ‘Selling Out.'” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Atlanta, GA, April 12-16, 1993. (ERIC Database No. ED 362587).
Cooper, Anna Julia. A Voice from the South. 1892. Introd. Mary Helen Washington. The Schomburg Library of Nineteenth- Century Black Women Writers. New York: Oxford UP, 1988.
Davis, Angela Y. The Angela Y. Davis Reader . Ed. Joy James. Cambridge: Blackwell, 1998.
Delpit, Lisa. “The Silenced Dialogue: Power and Pedagogy in Educating Other People’s Children.” Harvard Educational Review 58 (1988): 280-98.
Dubois, William Edwardburghardt. The Souls of Black Folk. Ed. David Blight and Robert Gooding-Williams. Boston: Bedford Books, 1997.
Equiano, Olaudah. The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African. In The Classic Slave Narratives. Ed. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. New York: New American Library, 1987.
Fine, Michelle. “Silencing and Literacy.” Literacy among African American Youth: Issues in Learning, Teaching, and Schooling. Ed. Vivian Gadsden and Daniel A. Wagner. Creskill: Hampton Press, 1995. 201-22.
Ford, Donna. Reversing Underachievement among Gifted Black Students: Promising Practices and Programs. New York: Teachers College P, 1996.
Fordham, Signithia. “‘Those Loud Black Girls’: (Black) Women, Silence, and Gender ‘Passing’ in the Academy.” Beyond Silenced Voices: Class, Race, and Gender in United States Schools. Ed. Lois Weis and Michelle Fine. Albany: State U of New York P, 1993. 81-111.
—. Blacked Out: Dilemmas of Race, Identity, and Success at Capital High. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1996.
Foster, Michele. “Sociolinguistics and the African-American Community: Implications for Literacy.” Theory into Practice 31.4 (1992): 303-11.
Gaines, Ernest. Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman . New York: Bantam Books published by arrangement with The Dial Press Edition, 1971.
Gee, James Paul. Social Linguistics and Literacies: Ideology in Discourses . London: Taylor & Francis, 1996.
Gibbs, Jewell Taylor et al. Young, Black, and Male in America: An Endangered Species. Dover: Auburn House, 1988.
Gilmore, Perry. “‘Gimme Room’: School Resistance, Attitude, and Access to Literacy.” Rewriting Literacy: Culture and the Discourse of the Other. Ed. C. Mitchell and K. Weiler. New York: Bergin and Garvey, 1991. 57-73.
—. “Spelling ‘Mississippi’: Recontextualizing a Literacy-Related Speech Event,” Anthropology & Education Quarterly 14 (1983): 235-55.
Grant, Linda. “Black Females’ ‘Place’ in Desegregated Classrooms,” Sociology of Education 57.2 (1984): 98-111.
Holtzclaw, William Henry. The Black Man’s Burden. New York: Negro Universities P, 1970.
hooks, bell. Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. New York: Routledge, 1994.
Houston Stanback, Marsha. “Language and Black Woman’s Place: Evidence from the Black Middle Class.” For Alma Mater: Theory and Practice in Feminist Scholarship. Ed. Paula A. Treichler, Cheris Kramarae, and Beth Stafford. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1985. 177-93.
Hubbard, Lea. A Gendered Look at the Academic Achievement of Low-Income African American High School Students: Strategies of Success. ED 414 287. Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, March 1997.
Hudley, Cynthia A. “Using Role Models to Improve the Reading Attitudes of Ethnic Minority High School Girls.” Journal of Reading 36.3 (1992): 182-88.
Hurston, Zora Neale. Mules and Men. In The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. Ed. Henry L. Gates, Jr., and Nellie McKay. New York: Norton, 1996. 1032-41.
Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl . In The Classic Slave Narratives. Ed. Henry L. Gates, Jr. New York: New American Library, 1987. 333-515.
Kelley, Robin. “Kickin’ Reality, Kickin’ Ballistics: Gangsta Rap and Postindustrial Los Angeles.” Droppin’ Science: Critical Essays on Rap Music and Hip Hop Culture. Ed. William Eric Perkins. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1996. 117-58.
Labov, William. Language in the Inner City: Studies in the Black English Vernacular. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1972.
Ladson-Billings, Gloria. The Dream Keepers: Successful Teachers of African American Children. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1994.
Lee, Carol. Signifying as a Scaffold for Literary Interpretation: The Pedagogical Implications of an African American Discourse Genre . Urbana: NCTE, 1993.
Logan, Shirley Wilson. “We Are Coming”: The Persuasive Discourse of Nineteenth- Century Black Women. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1999.
MacIntosh, Peggy. White Privilege and Male Privilege: A Personal Account of Coming to See Correspondences through Work in Women’s Studies. Wellesley College, Center for Research on Women, no. 189. Wellesley: Wellesley College, Center for Research on Women, 1988.
Mahiri, Jabari. Shooting for Excellence: African American and Youth Culture in New Century Schools. Urbana and New York: NCTE and Teacher’s College P, 1998.
Majors, Richard, and Janet Mancini Billson. Cool Pose: The Dilemmas of Black Manhood in America. New York: Maxwell Macmillan International, 1992.
Marshall, Paule. “The Making of a Writer: From Poets in the Kitchen.” The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. Ed. Henry L. Gates, Jr., and Nellie McKay. New York: Norton, 1996. 2072-79.
Martin-Jones, Marilyn, and Kathryn Jones. Multilingual Literacies: Reading and Writing Different Worlds. Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2000.
Moody, Joycelyn. Enslaved Women as Autobiographical Narrators: The Case of Louisa Picquet. Paper Presented at the Ethnic Rhetorics Conference, Pennsylvania State U, July 2001.
Morgan, Joan. When Chickenheads Come Home to Roost: My Life as a Hip-Hop Feminist. New York: Simon, 1999.
Morrison, Toni. Beloved: A Novel . New York: Knopf/Random House, 1987.
“Officers to Be Fired in Tyisha Miller Shooting Case.” <> Posted 12 June 1999.
Oxford English Dictionary. “Metronymic.” London: Oxford UP, 1987.
Robertson, Claire. “Africa into the Americas? Slavery and Women, the Family, and the Gender Division of Labor.” More Than Chattel: Black Women and Slavery in the Americas. Ed. David Barry Gaspar and Darlene Clark Hine. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1996. 3-40.
Royster, Jacqueline Jones. Traces of a Stream: Literacy and Social Change among African American Women . Pittsburgh: U of Pittsburgh P, 2000. Smitherman, Geneva. Talkin’ and Testifyin: The Language of Black America. Detroit: Wayne State U, 1977.
—. “Black Language and the Education of Black Children: One Mo Once.” Black Scholar 27.1 (1997): 28-35.
—. Talkin That Talk : Language, Culture, and Education in African America. New York: Routledge, 2000.
Souljah, Sister. No Disrespect . New York: Times Books, 1994.
Stevenson, Brenda E. “Gender Convention, Ideals, and Identity among Antebellum Virginia Slave Women.” More Than Chattel: Black Women and Slavery in the Americas. Ed. David Barry Gaspar and Darlene Clark Hine. Bloomington: Indiana UP. 169-90.
Street, Brian. “Literacy Events and Literacy Practices: Theory and Practice in the New Literacy Studies.” Multilingual Literacies: Reading and Writing Different Worlds. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2000. 17-29.
—. ed. Cross-Cultural Approaches to Literacy. New York: Cambridge UP, 1993. Troutman, Denise. “The Tongue or the Sword: Which Is Master?” African American Women Speak Out on Anita Hill-Clarence Thomas . Ed. Geneva Smitherman. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1995.
Truth, Sojourner. “New York City Anti- Slavery Meeting,” Sojourner Truth as Orator: Wit, Story, and Song. Ed. Suzanne Pullon Fitch and Roseann M. Mandziuk. Westport: Greenwood, 1997. 57.
Walker, Alice. “In Search of Our Mother’s Gardens.” Call and Response: The Riverside Anthology of the African American Literary Tradition . Ed. Patricia Liggins Hill et al. Boston: Houghton, 1998. 1802-07.
Watson, Clifford, and Geneva Smitherman. Educating Black Males: Detroit’s Malcolm X Academy Solution. Chicago: Third World Press, 1996.
Williamson Nelson, Linda. “Code-Switching in the Oral Life Narratives of African- American Women: Challenges to Linguistic Hegemony.” Journal of Education 172.3: 142-55.
Wolfram, Walt. Dialects and American English. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall Regents, 1991.
Woodley, Charles. “The Pseudomasculine Identity and the African American Male.” The Crisis of the Young African American Male in the Inner Cities: Vol. 1. A Consultation of the United States Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC, 1999. 152-60.
Yasin, Jon A. “Rap in the African-American Music Tradition: Cultural Assertion and Continuity.” Race and Ideology: Language, Symbolism, and Popular Culture. Ed. Arthur Spears. Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1999. 197-223.

Bruch, Patrick and Richard Marback. “Race, Literacy, and the Value of Rights Rhetoric in Composition Studies.” CCC. 53.4 (2002): 651-674.


The fiftieth anniversary issue of CCC included a call from Geneva Smitherman for compositionists to renew the fight for language rights. In this article, we take up Smitherman’s call by situating the theory of language rights in composition studies in a brief history of rights rhetoric in the United States.


ccc53.4 Rights Rhetoric Language Students Struggle AmericanRhetoric AfricanAmerican Composition Literacy Equality Resolution Race

Works Cited

Ball, Arnetha, and Ted Lardner. ” Dispositions toward Language: Teacher Constructs of Knowledge and the Ann Arbor Black English Case .” College Composition and Communication 48 (1997): 469-85.
Berthoff, Ann E. “Response to ‘Students’ Right to Their Own Language’.” College Composition and Communication 26 (1975): 216-17.
City of Richmond v. J. A. Croson Co. 488 U.S. 469. U.S. Supreme Ct. 1989.
“Civil Rights: The March’s Meaning.” Time Magazine 6 Sept. 1963: 13-15.
Faigley, Lester. ” Literacy after the Revolution .” College Composition and Communication 48 (1997): 30-43.
Gray-Rosendale, Laura. “Inessential Writings: Shaughnessy’s Legacy in a Socially Constructed Landscape.” Journal of Basic Writing 17.2 (1998): 43-75.
Johnson, Lyndon. Commencement Address. Rpt. in Lee Rainwater and William L. Yancey. The Moynihan Report and the Politics of Controversy . Cambridge: MIT P, 1967. 125-32.
King, Martin Luther, Jr. The Trumpet of Conscience . New York: Harper, 1968. . “Civil Right No. 1: The Right to Vote.” New York Times Magazine 14 Mar. 1965: 26-27.
Prendergast, Catherine. ” Race: The Absent Presence in Composition Studies .” College Composition and Communication 50 (1998): 36-53.
“The Responsive Communitarian Platform: Rights and Responsibilities.” Rights and the Common Good: The Communitarian Perspective . Ed. Amitai Etzioni. New York: St, Martin’s, 1995.
Smith, Allen N. “No One Has a Right to His Own Language.” College Composition and Communication 27 (1976): 155-58.
Smitherman, Geneva. ” CCCC’s Role in the Struggle for Language Rights .” College Composition and Communication 50 (1999): 349-76.
Steinberg, Stephen. “The Liberal Retreat from Race during the Post-Civil Rights Era.” The House That Race Built: Black Americans, U.S. Terrain . Ed. Wahneema Lubiano. New York: Pantheon Books, 1997. 13-47.
Students’ Right to Their Own Language . Spec. issue of College Composition and Communication 25 (1974): 1-32.
Thompson, Becky W., and Sangeeta Tyagi. Introduction. “A Wider Landscape . . . without the Mandate for Conquest.” Beyond a Dream Deferred: Multicultural Education and the Politics of Excellence . Ed. Thompson and Tyagi. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1993. xiii-xxxiii.
To Secure These Rights: The Report of the President’s Commission on Civil Rights . Rpt. in The Civil Rights Reader: Basic Documents of the Civil Rights Movement . Ed. Leon Friedman. New York: Walker, 1968.
Walker, Samuel. The Rights Revolution: Rights and Community in Modern America . New York: Oxford UP, 1998.
Williams, Patricia J. The Alchemy of Race and Rights . Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1991.

Trainor, Jennifer Seibel. “Critical Pedagogy’s ‘Other’: Constructions of Whiteness in Education for Social Change.” CCC. 53.4 (2002): 631-650.


This article examines the contradictory representations of whiteness in the literature on critical pedagogy and argues that a deeper engagement with these contradictions can help critical educators in their work with white students. The essay explores a number of sites: the rhetoric of critical pedagogy, the literature on whiteness that has surfaced in the past five years: and concludes by analyzing portraits of white students as they read texts that challenge them to think about race and racial identity in new ways.


ccc53.4 Students Whiteness Identity Texts Pedagogy Rhetoric Values Class CriticalPedagogy Discourses Race Multicultural

Works Cited

Anderson, Virginia. “Property Rights: Exclusion as Moral Action in ‘The Battle of Texas.'” College English 62 (2000): 445-72.
Barthes, Roland. Mythologies . New York: Noonday Press, 1957.
Behar, Ruth. The Vulnerable Observer: Anthropology That Breaks Your Heart . Boston: Beacon Press, 1996.
Berlin, James. Rhetorics, Poetics, and Cultures : Reconfiguring College English Studies. Urbana: NCTE, 1996.
Cushman, Ellen. The Struggle and the Tools: Oral and Literate Strategies in an Inner- City Community. Albany: SUNY Press, 1998.
Durst, Russell. Collision Course: Conflict, Negotiation, and Learning in College Composition . Urbana: NCTE, 1999.
Ezekial, Richard. “Talking about Race with America’s Klansmen.” Critical White Studies: Looking behind the Mirror . Ed. R. Delgado and J. Stefancic. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1997.
Frankenberg, Ruth. White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness . Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1993.
Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed . Trans. Myrna Bergman Ramos. New York: Continuum, 1970.
Gallagher, Charles. “White Reconstruction in the University.” Socialist Review 24 (1995): 165-87.
Giroux, Henry. “Rewriting the Discourse of Racial Identity: Towards a Pedagogy and Politics of Whiteness.” Harvard Educational Review 67 (1997): 285-319.
Harris, Joseph. A Teaching Subject: Composition Since 1966 . Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1997.
Henwood, Doug. “Trash-o-nomics.” White Trash: Race and Class in America. Ed. Annalee Newitz and Matt Wray. New York: Routledge, 1997. 177-91.
hooks, bell. “Representing Whiteness in the Black Imagination.” Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism. Durham: Duke UP, 1997.
Hwang, David Henry. M. Butterfly . New York: Penguin Books, 1994.
Ignatiev, Noel, and John Garvey. “Abolish the White Race by Any Means Necessary” in Race Traitor. Ed. Ignatiev and Garvey. New York: Routledge, 1996.
Jordan, June. “Nobody Mean More to Me Than You and the Future Life of Willie Jordan.” The Writer’s Presence: A Pool of Essays. Ed. Donald McQuade and Robert Atwan. Boston: Bedford, 1994. 491-504.
Kintz, Linda. Between Jesus and the Market: The Emotions That Matter in Right-Wing America . Durham: Duke UP, 1997.
Klein, Deborah. “Deborah Klein Responds.” College English 62.6 (July 2000): 769-72.
Knoblauch, C. H. “Critical Teaching and Dominant Culture.” Composition and Resistance. Ed. Mark Hurlbert and Michael Blitz. Portsmouth: Heinemann- Boynton/Cook, 1991.
Lazere, Donald. “Spellmeyer’s Naive Populism.” College Composition and Communication 48 (1997): 288-92.
Loewen, James. Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong . New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995.
Lu, Min-Zhan. ” Redefining the Literate Self: The Politics of Critical Affirmation .” College Composition and Communication 51 (1999): 172-94.
Martinez, Elizabeth. 500 Anos Del Pueblo Chicano/500 Years of Chicano History: In Pictures . Albuquerque: Southwest Community Press, 1990.
McIntyre, Alice. Making Meaning of Whiteness: Exploring Racial Identity with White Teachers. Albany: SUNY Press, 1997.
Newitz, Annalee, and Matt Wray, ed. White Trash: Race and Class in America. New York: Routledge, 1997.
Rakow, Lana. “Gender and Race in the Classroom: Teaching Way Out of Line.” Feminist Teacher 6 (1992): 10-13.
Sandoval, Chela. “Theorizing White Consciousness for a Post-Empire World: Barthes, Fanon, and the Rhetoric of Love.” Displacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultural Criticism. Durham: Duke UP, 1997.
Silko, Leslie Marmon. Almanac of the Dead. New York: Penguin Books, 1992.
Skorczewski, Dawn. ” ‘Everybody Has Their Own Ideas’: Responding to Clich� in Student Writing .” College Composition and Communication 52 (2000): 220-39.
Sleeter, Christine. “How White Teachers Construct Race.” Race, Identity, and Representation in Education. Ed. Cameron McCarthy and Warren Crichlow. New York: Routledge, 1993.
Smith, Jeff. “Students’ Goals, Gatekeeping, and Some Questions of Ethics.” College English 59 (1997): 299-320.
Wiegman, Robyn. “Whiteness Studies and the Paradox of Particularity.” Boundary 2.26 (1999): 115-50.

Horner, Bruce and John Trimbur. “English Only and U.S. College Composition.” CCC. 53.4 (2002): 594-630.


In this article, we identify in the formation of U.S. college composition courses a tacit policy of English monolingualism based on a chain of reifications of languages and social identity. We show this policy continuing in assumptions underlying arguments for and against English Only legislation and basic writers. And we call for an internationalist perspective on written English in relation to other languages and the dynamics of globalization.


ccc53.4 Language English Students Writing ModernLanguages Curriculum Composition Work EnglishOnly Monolingualism Globalization Immigrants Identity LanguagePolicy Policy

Works Cited

American Civil Liberties Union. “The Rights of Immigrants.” ACLU Briefing Paper, 1998. <>
American Immigration Control Foundation. “Reciting the Pledge.” Political advertisement. Des Moines Register 4 January 2000: 5A.
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism . Rev. ed. London: Verso, 1991.
Babbitt, E. H. “How to Use Modern Languages as a Means of Mental Discipline.” PMLA 11 (1896): 52-63.
Bartholomae, David. “Writing on the Margins: The Concept of Literacy in Higher Education.A Sourcebook for Basic Writing Teachers . Ed. Theresa Enos. New York: Random, 1987. 66-83.
Boomer, Garth, Nancy Lester, Cynthia Onore, and Jonathan Cook, eds. Negotiating the Curriculum: Educating for the 21st Century . London: Falmer, 1992.
Bourdieu, Pierre. Language and Symbolic Power . Ed. John B. Thompson. Trans. Gino Raymond and Matthew Adamson. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1991.
Brannon, Lil. “Confronting the Logic of Instrumentalism: Using Rhetoric for Social Change.” Conference on College Composition and Communication. Phoenix, AZ, 13 March 1997.
Brereton, John C. The Origins of Composition Studies in the American College, 1875-1925: A Documentary History . U of Pittsburgh P, 1995.
Canagarajah, A. Suresh. Resisting Linguistic Imperialism in English Teaching . Oxford: Oxford UP, 1999.
Carter, Franklin. “Study of Modern Languages in Our Higher Institutions.” PMLA 2 (1887): 3-21.
Chiang, Yuet-Sim D., and Mary Schmida. “Language Identity and Language Ownership: Linguistic Conflicts of First- Year University Writing Students.” Harklau et al. 81-96.
Conference on College Composition and Communication. National Language Policy Statement, 1988. <>
Crawford, James. Hold Your Tongue: Bilingualism and the Politics of “English Only .” Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1992.
—. “Canard: ‘Multilingual Government.'” <> 1997.
—. “What’s Behind Official English?” Language Loyalties 171-77.
Douglas, Wallace. “Accidental Institutions: On the Origins of Modern Language Study.” Criticism in the University . Ed. Gerald Graff and Reginald Gibbons. Evanston: Northwestern UP, 1985. 35-61.
Draper, Jamie B., and Martha Jim�nez. “A Chronology of the Official English Movement.” Excerpted from “Language Debates in the United States: A Decade in Review.” EPIC Events 2.5 (1990): 1, 4, 7. Rpt. Language Loyalties 89-94.
“English Language Bill OK’d.” Des Moines Register 18 March 1999: 1A.
Federation for American Immigration Reform. “Ten Virgin Acres. A Freshwater Stream. Dozens of Old-Growth Trees. What a Great Place to Build a Parking Lot for the New High-Rise.” Political Advertisement. Des Moines Register 12 January 2000: 5M.
Fishman, Joshua A. “The Displaced Anxieties of Anglo-Americans.” Excerpted from “‘English Only’: Its Ghosts, Myths, and Dangers.” International Journal of the Sociology of Language 74 (1988): 125-40. Rpt. Language Loyalties 165-70.
Fox, Tom. Defending Access: A Critique of Standards in Higher Education. Portsmouth: Boynton/Cook Heinemann, 1999.
Frodesen, Jan, and Norinne Starna. “Distinguishing Incipient and Functional Bilingual Writers: Assessment and Instructional Insights Gained through Second-Language Writer Profiles.” Harklau et al. 61-79.
Graff, Gerald. Professing Literature: An Institutional History . Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1987.
Greene, Jamie Candelaria. “Misperspectives on Literacy: A Critique of an Anglocentric Bias in Histories of American Literacy.” Written Communication 11.2 (1994): 251-69.
Halloran, S. Michael. “From Rhetoric to Composition: The Teaching of Writing in America to 1900.” A Short History of Writing Instruction: From Ancient Greece to Twentieth-Century America . Ed. James L. Murphy. Davis: Hermagoras, 1990. 151-82.
Harklau, Linda, Kay M. Losey, and Meryl Siegal, eds. Generation 1.5 Meets College Composition: Issues in the Teaching of Writing to U.S.-Educated Learners of ESL . Mahwah: Erlbaum, 1999.
—. “Linguistically Diverse Students and College Writing: What Is Equitable and Appropriate?” Harklau et al. 1-14.
Harste, Jerome C., Virginia A. Woodward, and Carolyn L. Burke. Language Stories & Literacy Lessons. Portsmouth: Heinemann, 1984.
Hart, James Morgan. “English as a Living Language.” PMLA 1 (1884-85): xi-xviii.
Hewett, W. T. “The Aims and Methods of Collegiate Instruction in Modern Languages.” PMLA 1 (1884-85): 25-36.
Hofstadter, Richard. Social Darwinism in American Thought, 1860-1915 . Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1944.
Horner, Bruce. “The ‘Birth’ of ‘Basic Writing.'” Horner and Lu 3-29.
—. “Mapping Errors and Expectations for Basic Writing: From the ‘Frontier Field’ to ‘Border Country.'” Horner and Lu 117-36.
—. “‘Students’ Right,’ English Only, and Re-imagining the Politics of Language.” College English 63 (2001): 741-58.
—. ” Traditions and Professionalization: Reconceiving Work in Composition .” College Composition and Communication 51 (2000): 366-98.
Horner, Bruce, and Min-Zhan Lu. Representing the “Other”: Basic Writers and the Teaching of Basic Writing. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English, 1999.
Horowitz, Donald L. Ethnic Groups in Conflict . Berkeley: U of California P, 1985. Hunt, Theodore W. “The Place of English in the College Curriculum.” PMLA 1 (1884- 85): 118-132.
“Immigrants’ English, Welcome Centers Eyed.” Des Moines Register 24 February 1999: 4M.
Inglehart, Ronald F., and Margaret Woodward. “Language Conflicts and Political Community.” Excerpted from Comparative Studies in Society and History 10 (1967): 27-45. Rpt. Language Loyalties 410-23.
Joynes, Edward J. “Reading in Modern Language Study.” PMLA 5.2 (1890): 33-46.
Kachru, Braj B. The Alchemy of English: The Spread, Functions, and Models of Non- Native Englishes . Oxford: Pergamon, 1986.
—. “Monolingual Bias in SLA Research.” TESOL Quarterly 28 (1994): 795-800.
Kelly, Louis G. 25 Centuries of Language Teaching: An Inquiry into the Science, Art, and Development of Language Teaching Methodology, 500 B.C.-1969 . Rowley: Newbury House, 1969.
Language Loyalties: A Source Book on the Official English Controversy . Ed. James Crawford. U of Chicago P, 1992.
Leki, Ilona. “Cross-Talk: ESL Issues and Contrastive Rhetoric.” Severino et al. 234-44.
Leung, Constant, Roxy Harris, and Ben Rampton. “The Idealised Native Speaker, Reified Ethnicities, and Classroom Realities.” TESOL Quarterly 31.3 (1997): 543-75.
Lowell, James Russell. “Address.” PMLA 5.1 (1890): 5-22.
Lu, Min-Zhan. “Conflict and Struggle: The Enemies or Preconditions of Basic Writing?” Horner and Lu 30-55.
Manogaran, Chelvadurai . Ethnic Conflict and Reconciliation in Sri Lanka . Honolulu: U of Hawaii P, 1987.
Matsuda, Paul Kei. “Composition Studies and ESL Writing: A Disciplinary Division of Labor.” College Composition and Communication 50.4 (1999): 699-721.
Matsuda, Paul Kei, and Tony Silva. “Cross- Cultural Composition: Mediated Integration of U.S. and International Students.” Composition Studies 27.1 (1999): 15-30.
McArthur, Tom. The English Languages . Cambridge UP, 1998.
Montaner, Carlos Alberto. “Talk English: You Are in the United States” [“Why Fear Spanish?”]. Miami Herald 25 April 1988: 14A. Rpt. Language Loyalties 163-65.
Muchiri, Mary N., Nshindi G. Mulamba, Greg Myers, and Deoscorous B. Ndoloi. ” Importing Composition: Teaching and Researching Academic Writing beyond North America .” College Composition and Communication 46.2 (1995): 175-98.
National Council of Teachers of English. Resolution on Developing and Maintaining Fluency in More Than One Language. <>
National Council of Teachers of English. Resolution on English as a Second Language and Bilingual Education. <>
Nayar, P. Bhaskaran. “ESL/EFL Dichotomy Today: Language Politics or Pragmatics?” TESOL Quarterly 31.1 (1997): 9-37.
Negative Population Growth. “How Do You Feel about Paving over the Amber Waves of Grain, the Purple Mountains Majesties and the Fruited Plain?” Political advertisement. Des Moines Register 4 January 2000: 6A.
Nelson, Gayle L., Ruth Spack, and Joan G. Carson. “Comments on Ruth Spack’s ‘The Rhetorical Construction of Multilingual Students.'” TESOL Quarterly 32 (1998): 727-46.
Nicolau, Siobhan, and Rafael Valdivieso. “Spanish Language Shift: Educational Implications.” Language Loyalties 317-22.
Pillet, Roger A. Foreign Language Study: Perspective and Prospect . Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1974.
Population-Environment Balance. “Mass Immigration Costs Taxpayers over $69 Billion a Year. Chicken Feed Compared to the Environmental Costs.” Political advertisement. Des Moines Register 3 January 2000: 6M.
Rodby, Judith. Appropriating Literacy: Writing and Reading in English as a Second Language . Portsmouth: Boynton/ Cook, 1992.
Russell, David. Writing in the Academic Disciplines, 1870-1990 . Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1991.
Schiffman, Harold. Linguistic Culture and Language Policy . London: Routledge, 1996.
Severino, Carol, Juan C. Guerra, and Johnnella E. Butler, eds. Writing in Multicultural Settings. New York: Modern Language Association, 1997.
Shaughnessy, Mina P. Errors and Expectations: A Guide for the Teacher of Basic Writing . New York: Oxford UP, 1977.
Silva, Tony, Ilona Leki, and Joan Carson. “Broadening the Perspective of Mainstream Composition Studies: Some Thoughts from the Disciplinary Margins.” Written Communication 14 (1997): 398-428.
Soliday, Mary. “Class Dismissed.” College English 61 (1999): 731-41.
—. “The Politics of Difference: Toward a Pedagogy of Reciprocity.” Severino et al. 261-72.
Spack, Ruth. “The Rhetorical Construction of Multilingual Students.” TESOL Quarterly 31 (1997): 765-74.
Sridhar, S. N. “A Reality Check for SLA Theories.” TESOL Quarterly 28 (1994): 800-05.
Stern, H. H. Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching . Oxford: Oxford UP, 1983. Tambiah, S. J. Sri Lanka: Ethnic Fratricide and the Dismantling of Democracy . U of Chicago P, 1986.
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Resolution on Language Rights [1987]. Rpt. Language Loyalties 148-49.
Thompson, Karen. “The Ultimate Working Condition: Knowing Whether You Have a Job or Not .” College Composition and Communication Forum Winter 1998: A19-24.
Titone, Renzone. “History: The Nineteenth Century.” Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning. Ed. Michael Byram. London: Routledge, 2000. 264-270.
Trimbur, John. “The Problem of Freshman English (Only): Toward Programs of Study in Writing.” WPA 22.3 (1999): 9-30. U.S. English. “In Defense of Our Common Language.” Rpt . Language Loyalties 143-47.
Vald�s, Guadalupe. “Bilingual Minorities and Language Issues in Writing.” Written Communication 9.1 (1992): 85-136.
Van Essen, Arthur. “History from the Reform Movement to 1945.” Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning . Ed. Michael Byram. London: Routledge, 2000. 270-75.
Veltman, Calvin . The Future of the Spanish Language in the United States . New York and Washington, DC: Hispanic Policy Development Project, 1988.
—. Language Shift in the United States . The Hague: Mouton, 1983.
Veysey, Laurence R. The Emergence of the American University . Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1965.
Zamel, Vivian. “Complicating Perspectives on the Acquisition of Language and Literacy.” Conference on College Composition and Communication. Minneapolis, MN, 13 April 2000.
—. “Toward a Model of Transculturation.” TESOL Quarterly 31 (1997): 341-52.

Renew Your Membership

Join CCCC today!
Learn more about the SWR book series.
Connect with CCCC
CCCC on Facebook
CCCC on LinkedIn
CCCC on Twitter
CCCC on Tumblr
OWI Principles Statement
Join the OWI discussion


Copyright © 1998 - 2023 National Council of Teachers of English. All rights reserved in all media.

1111 W. Kenyon Road, Urbana, Illinois 61801-1096 Phone: 217-328-3870 or 877-369-6283

Looking for information? Browse our FAQs, tour our sitemap and store sitemap, or contact NCTE

Read our Privacy Policy Statement and Links Policy. Use of this site signifies your agreement to the Terms of Use