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College Composition and Communication, Vol. 38, No. 2, May 1987

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Witte, Stephen P., and Richard L. Larson. Rev. of Research on Written Composition: New Directions for Teaching by George Hillocks, Jr. CCC 38.2 (1987): 202-211.

White, Edward M. Rev. of Measures for Research and Evaluation in the English Language Arts by William T. Fagan, Julie M. Jensen, and Charles Cooper. CCC 38.2 (1987): 212-213.

Purves, Alan C. Rev. of Writing Assessment: Issues and Strategies by Karen L. Greenberg, Harvey S. Wiener, and Richard A. Donovan. CCC 38.2 (1987): 213-214.

Murray, Donald M. Rev. of Notebooks of the Mind: Explorations of Thinking by Vera John-Steiner. CCC 38.2 (1987): 215-216.

Miller, Susan. Rev. of Communication and Knowledge: An Investigation in Rhetorical Epistemology by Richard A. Cherwitz and James Hikins. CCC 38.2 (1987): 216-218.

Moore, Dennis. Rev. of The Best American Essays 1986 by Elizabeth Hardwick and Robert Atwan. CCC 38.2 (1987): 218-219.

Davis, Ken. Rev. of Training the New Teacher of College Composition by Charles W. Bridges CCC 38.2 (1987): 219-220.

Lunsford, Andrea A. Rev. of The Teaching of Writing: Eighty-Fifth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education by Anthony R. Petrosky and David Bartholomae. CCC 38.2 (1987): 220-222.

Comprone, Joseph J. Rev. of Composition/Rhetoric: A Synthesis by W. Ross Winterowd. CCC 38.2 (1987): 222-224.

Withers, Kenney. Rev. of Getting into Print: The Decision-Making Process in Scholarly Publishing by Walter W. Powell. CCC 38.2 (1987): 224-225.

Beauvais, Paul J. Rev. of A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language by Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik. CCC 38.2 (1987): 225-226.

Rodrigues, Dawn. Rev. of Writing On-Line: Using Computers in the Teaching of Writing by James L. Collins and Elizabeth A. Sommers. CCC 38.2 (1987): 26-227.

Lutz, Jean A. Rev. of Teaching Writing with a Word Processor, Grades 7-13 by Dawn Rodrigues and Raymond J. Rodrigues. CCC 38.2 (1987): 227-228.

Maimon, Elaine P. Rev. of Writing across the Disciplines: Research into Practice by Art Young and Toby Fulwiler. CCC 38.2 (1987): 228-229.

Young, Art. Rev. of Form and Surprise in Composition: Writing and Thinking across the Curriculum by John C. Bean and John D. Ramage; Making Connections across the Curriculum: Readings for Analysis by Patricia Chittenden and Malcolm Kiniry; The Course of Ideas: College Writing and Reading by Jeanne Gunner and Ed Frankel. CCC 38.2 (1987): 230-234.

Brereton, John. Rev. of The Versatile Writer by Donald C. Stewart. CCC 38.2 (1987): 234-235.

Bryant, Paul T. Rev. of The Writer in Performance by Jack Dodds. CCC 38.2 (1987): 235-236.

Gillam-Scott, Alice. Rev. of Making Your Point: A Guide to College Writing by Laraine Flemming. CCC 38.2 (1987): 236-238.

Sherwood, Phyllis A. Rev. of Strategies for Successful Writing by James A. Reinking and Andrew W. Hart. CCC 38.2 (1987): 238-239.

Raimes, Ann. Rev. of Active Writing by Timothy H. Robinson and Laurie Modrey. CCC 38.2 (1987): 239-240.

Rank, Hugh. Rev. of A Guide to Writing Sociology Papers by UCLA Sociology Writing Group. CCC 38.2 (1987): 240-241.

Slevin, James F. Rev. of The Nuclear Predicament: A Sourcebook by Donna Gregory. CCC 38.2 (1987): 241-242.

Moxley, Joseph M. Rev. of The Process Reader by Richard E. Ray, Gary A. Olson, and James De-George. CCC 38.2 (1987): 243.

Lamb, Catherine. Rev. of The Writer’s World: An Essay Anthology by Linda Woodson. CCC 38.2 (1987): 244.

Tobin, Laurence. “Faculty Training in Computers and Composition: Warnings and Recommendations.” CCC 38.2 (1987): 195-198.

Skubikowski, Kathleen, and John Elder. “Word Processing in a Community of Writers.” CCC 38.2 (1987): 198-201.

Russell, David R. “Writing across the Curriculum and the Communications Movement: Some Lessons from the Past.” CCC 38.2 (1987): 184-194.


Russell uses two historical examples, the Functional Writing Program at Colgate (1949-1961) and the Prose Improvement Committee at UC Berkeley (1950-1965), to show the underlying issues that surround the institutional resistance to WAC programs. He argues that these programs failed to take hold at their universities because they were not able to successfully integrate writing instruction in the organizational structure of the university, which favored the German research model and the elective system and was suspicious of interdisciplinary endeavors. In order for WAC programs to succeed, they must be part of an institutional-wide plan, be adequately funded, and be given adequate time to transform from a trend to a tradition.


ccc38.2 Writing Programs Faculty WAC University Students CrossCurricular Berkeley Colgate Departments Process Curriculum Assignments

Works Cited

Applebee, Arthur N. Tradition and Reform in the Teaching of English: A History. Urbana: NCTE, 1974.
—. Contexts for Learning to Write: Studies of Secondary School Instruction. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1984.
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Bizzell, Patricia. “Thomas Kuhn, Scientism, and English Studies.” College English 40 (1979): 764-71.
Connors, Robert J., Lisa S. Ede, and Andrea A. Lunsford. “The Revival of Classical Rhetoric in America.” Essays on Classical Rhetoric and Modern Discourse. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1984.
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Fulwiler, Toby. “How Well Does Writing Across the Curriculum Work?” College English 46 (1984): 114-20.
Functional Writing Program Documents. Archives of Colgate University, Hamilton, NY.
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Kistler, Jonathan. Letter to the author. 30 Apr. 1986.
Knoblauch, C. W., and Lil Brannon, “Writing as Learning through the Curriculum.” CollegeEnglish 45 (1983): 465-74.
Lanham, Richard. “Urgency and Opportunity: Implementing Writing Across the Curriculum.” Address. University of Georgia faculty. Athens, GA, 25 Apr. 1985. Reported in Writing Across the Curriculum 3 (1985): 5-6.
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Lehman, Benjamin H., Chair. “Report to the Committee on Educational Policy, 1952-53.” Papers of the Prose Improvement Committee. U of California, Berkeley.
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Rideout, Christopher. “Applying the Writing Across the Curriculum Model to Professional Writing.” Current Issues in Higher Education 3 (1983-84): 27-33.
Rose, Mike. “The Language of Exclusion: Writing Instruction at the University.” College English 47 (1985): 341-59.
Rudolph, Frederick. Curriculum: A History of the American Undergraduate Course of Study Since 1636. San Francisco: Jossey, 1978.
Swanson-Owens, Deborah. “Identifying Natural Sources of Resistance: A Case Study of Implementing Writing Across the Curriculum.” Research in the Teaching of English 20 (1986): 69-97.
Terrell, Huntington. Personal interview. 31 Mar. 1986.

Connors, Robert J. “Personal Writing Assignments.” CCC 38.2 (1987): 166-183.


Connors investigates at the history of the writing subjects teachers assign students from ancient times until today by looking at how textbook assignments evolved over time. He discovers a shift in the mid to late 1800s from impersonal assignments that asked students to comment on an issue in the public sphere to assignments that narrowly focus on personal feelings, ideas, and experiences. Personal writing never completely took over writing instruction, he argues, and he points to the rise of the research paper, the use of literature in composition classrooms, and the emphasis on argumentative and expository writing as proof. Connors claims that instructors must find a middle ground between personal and impersonal writing assignments, tasks that allow students to start from what they know but to branch into an larger public conversation.


ccc38.2 Writing Subjects Students Composition Invention Rhetoric Topics Teachers Assignments Personal PersonalWriting Literature Abstract Subjects Modes Knowledge Textbooks

Works Consulted and Cited

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Freed, Richard C., and Glenn J. Broadhead. “Discourse Communities, Sacred Texts, and Institutional Norms.” CCC 38.2 (1987): 154-165.


The authors argue that analyzing the written materials and terminology of discourse communities is a powerful way to understand the values and the systems of those communities. It is vital that students understand how to analyze the discourse communities they are writing to and in so that they can most effectively and persuasively construct their messages. The authors advocate teaching students ethnographic methods for learning about different discourse communities and cultures. Also, instructors should employ an ethnographic perspective on their own teaching and courses to discover what assumptions exist in their pedagogy.


ccc38.2 Client DiscourseCommunities Consultants Study Proposals Writing Norms Culture Institutions Writers ProfessionalWriting

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Bizzell, Patricia. “Cognition, Convention, and Certainty: What We Need to Know about Writing.” Pre/Text 3 (1982): 213-43.
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Broadhead, Glenn J, and Richard C. Freed. The Variables of Composition: Process and Product in a Business Setting. NCTE Studies in Writing and Rhetoric. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1986.
Bruffee, Kenneth A. “Collaborative Learning and the ‘Conversation of Mankind.'” College English 46 (1984): 635-52.
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Cooper, Marilyn M. “The Ecology of Writing.” College English 48 (1986): 364-75.
Emig, Janet. The Composing Processes of Twelfth Graders. Urbana: NCTE, 1971.
Fish, Stanley. Is There a Text in This Class? The Authority of interpretive Communities. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1980.
Fishman, Joshua A. The Sociology of Language: An interdisciplinary Social Science Approach to Language in Society. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 1972.
Frake, Charles O. Language and Cultural Description: Essays by Charles O. Frake. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1980.
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Gumperz, John J. Language in Social Groups: Essays by John J. Gumperz. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1971.
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Brooke, Robert. “Underlife and Writing Instruction.” CCC 38.2 (1987): 141-153.


Brooke uses the sociological concept of underlife (behaviors that undercut expected roles) to explain how both teachers and students redefine their traditional roles in the writing classroom. From his semester-long study of a freshman writing class, Brooke observes how students push against teacher expectations and teachers deliberately structure their class differently than others at the university. Brooke argues that writing instruction acts to disrupt the existing educational system and institution, offering a different model of classrooms in its place, one that favors autonomy and action.


ccc38.2 BraddockAward Students Classrooms Writing Underlife Roles Teachers Identity Activities EGoffman Behaviors Interaction Individuals Instruction

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Emig, Janet. “Non-Magical Thinking: Presenting Writing Developmentally in Schools.” Writing: The Nature, Development, and Teaching of Written Communication, Vol. 2: Writing: Process, Development and Communication. Ed. Carl Frederiksen and Joseph Dominic. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1981. 21-30.
—. The Web of Meaning. Upper Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook, 1983.
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Rose, Mike. “The Language of Exclusion.” College English 47 (1985): 341-59.
Young, Richard, Alton Becker, and Kenneth Pike. Rhetoric: Discovery and Change. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970.

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